2 Chronicles 1-3
The Lord Gives Solomon Wisdom
2 Solomon addressed all Israel, including those who commanded units of a thousand and a hundred, the judges, and all the leaders of all Israel who were heads of families. 3 Solomon and the entire assembly went to the worship center[c] in Gibeon, for the tent where they met God[d] was located there, which Moses the Lord’s servant had made in the wilderness. 4 (Now David had brought up the ark of God from Kiriath Jearim to the place he had prepared for it, for he had pitched a tent for it in Jerusalem. 5 But the bronze altar made by Bezalel son of Uri, son of Hur, was in front of the Lord’s tabernacle.[e] Solomon and the entire assembly prayed to him[f] there.) 6 Solomon went up to the bronze altar before the Lord which was at the meeting tent, and he offered up 1,000 burnt sacrifices.
7 That night God appeared[g] to Solomon and said to him, “Tell me[h] what I should give you.” 8 Solomon replied to God, “You demonstrated[i] great loyalty to my father David and have made me king in his place. 9 Now, Lord God, may your promise[j] to my father David be realized,[k] for you have made me king over a great nation as numerous as the dust of the earth. 10 Now give me wisdom and discernment so[l] I can effectively lead this nation.[m] Otherwise[n] no one is able[o] to make judicial decisions for[p] this great nation of yours.”[q]
11 God said to Solomon, “Because you desire this,[r] and did not ask for riches, wealth, and honor, or for vengeance on your enemies,[s] and because you did not ask for long life,[t] but requested wisdom and discernment so you can make judicial decisions for my people over whom I have made you king, 12 you are granted wisdom and discernment.[u] Furthermore I am giving you riches, wealth, and honor surpassing that of any king before or after you.”[v]
13 Solomon left the meeting tent at the worship center in Gibeon and went to Jerusalem, where he reigned over Israel.[w]
14 Solomon accumulated[x] chariots and horses. He had 1,400 chariots and 12,000 horses . He kept them in assigned cities and in Jerusalem.[y] 15 The king made silver and gold as plentiful[z] in Jerusalem as stones; cedar was[aa] as plentiful as sycamore fig trees are in the foothills.[ab] 16 Solomon acquired his horses from Egypt[ac] and from Que; the king’s traders purchased them from Que. 17 They paid 600 silver pieces for each chariot from Egypt, and 150 silver pieces for each horse. They also sold chariots and horses to all the kings of the Hittites and to the kings of Syria.[ad]
Solomon Gathers Building Materials for the Temple
2 (1:18)[ae] Solomon ordered a temple to be built to honor the Lord, as well as a royal palace for himself.[af] 2 (2:1) Solomon had[ag] 70,000 common laborers[ah] and 80,000 stonecutters[ai] in the hills, in addition to 3,600 supervisors.[aj]
3 Solomon sent a message to King Huram[ak] of Tyre: “Help me[al] as you did my father David, when you sent him cedar logs[am] for the construction of his palace.[an] 4 Look, I am ready to build a temple to honor[ao] the Lord my God and to dedicate it to him in order to burn fragrant incense before him, to set out the bread that is regularly displayed,[ap] and to offer burnt sacrifices each morning and evening, and on Sabbaths, new moon festivals, and at other times appointed by the Lord our God. This is something Israel must do on a permanent basis.[aq] 5 I will build a great temple, for our God is greater than all gods. 6 Of course, who can really build a temple for him, since the sky[ar] and the highest heavens cannot contain him? Who am I that I should build him a temple! It will really be only a place to offer sacrifices before him.[as]
7 “Now send me a man who is skilled in working with gold, silver, bronze, and iron, as well as purple-, crimson-, and blue-colored fabrics, and who knows how to engrave. He will work with my skilled craftsmen here in Jerusalem and Judah, whom my father David provided. 8 Send me cedars, evergreens, and algum[at] trees from Lebanon, for I know your servants are adept[au] at cutting down trees in Lebanon. My servants will work with your servants 9 to supply me with large quantities of timber, for I am building a great, magnificent temple. 10 Look, I will pay your servants who cut the timber 20,000 cors[av] of ground wheat, 20,000 cors of barley, 120,000 gallons[aw] of wine, and 120,000 gallons of olive oil.”
11 King Huram[ax] of Tyre sent this letter to Solomon: “Because the Lord loves his people, he has made you their king.” 12 Huram also said, “Worthy of praise is the Lord God of Israel, who made the sky and the earth! He has given King David a wise son who has discernment and insight and will build a temple for the Lord, as well as a royal palace for himself.[ay] 13 Now I am sending you Huram Abi,[az] a skilled and capable man, 14 whose mother is a Danite and whose father is a Tyrian.[ba] He knows how to work with gold, silver, bronze, iron, stones, and wood, as well as purple, blue, white, and crimson fabrics. He knows how to do all kinds of engraving and understands any design given to him. He will work with your skilled craftsmen and the skilled craftsmen of my lord David your father. 15 Now let my lord send to his servants the wheat, barley, olive oil, and wine he has promised; 16 we will get all the timber you need from Lebanon[bb] and bring it[bc] in raft-like bundles[bd] by sea to Joppa. You can then haul it on up to Jerusalem.”
17 Solomon took a census of[be] all the male resident foreigners[bf] in the land of Israel, after the census his father David had taken. There were 153,600 in all. 18 He designated[bg] 70,000 as common laborers,[bh] 80,000 as stonecutters[bi] in the hills, and 3,600 as supervisors to make sure the people completed the work.[bj]
The Building of the Temple
3 Solomon began building the Lord’s temple in Jerusalem on Mount Moriah, where the Lord[bk] had appeared to his father David. This was the place that David prepared at the threshing floor of Ornan[bl] the Jebusite. 2 He began building on the second day of the second month of the fourth year of his reign.[bm]
3 Solomon laid the foundation for God’s temple;[bn] its length (determined according to the old standard of measure) was 90 feet, and its width 30 feet.[bo] 4 The porch in front of the main hall was 30 feet long, corresponding to the width of the temple,[bp] and its height was 30 feet.[bq] He plated the inside with pure gold. 5 He paneled[br] the main hall[bs] with boards made from evergreen trees[bt] and plated it with fine gold, decorated with palm trees and chains.[bu] 6 He decorated the temple with precious stones; the gold he used came from Parvaim.[bv] 7 He overlaid the temple’s rafters, thresholds, walls and doors with gold; he carved decorative cherubim on the walls.
8 He made the Most Holy Place;[bw] its length was 30 feet,[bx] corresponding to the width of the temple, and its width 30 feet.[by] He plated it with 600 talents[bz] of fine gold. 9 The gold nails weighed 50 shekels; he also plated the upper areas with gold. 10 In the Most Holy Place he made two images of cherubim and plated them with gold. 11 The combined wing span of the cherubim was 30 feet.[ca] One of the first cherub’s wings was 7½ long and touched one wall of the temple; its other wing was also 7½ long and touched one of the second cherub’s wings.[cb] 12 Likewise one of the second cherub’s wings was 7½ long and touched the other wall of the temple; its other wing was also 7½ long and touched one of the first cherub’s wings.[cc] 13 The combined wingspan of these cherubim was 30 feet.[cd] They stood upright, facing inward.[ce] 14 He made the curtain out of blue, purple, crimson, and white fabrics, and embroidered on it decorative cherubim.
15 In front of the temple he made two pillars which had a combined length[cf] of 52½ feet,[cg] with each having a plated capital 7½ high.[ch] 16 He made ornamental chains[ci] and put them on top of the pillars. He also made 100 pomegranate-shaped ornaments and arranged them within the chains. 17 He set up the pillars in front of the temple, one on the right side and the other on the left.[cj] He named the one on the right Yakin,[ck] and the one on the left Boaz.[cl]
- 2 Chronicles 1:1 tn Heb “and Solomon son of David strengthened himself over his kingdom.”
- 2 Chronicles 1:1 tn The disjunctive clause (note the vav [ו] + subject pattern) probably has a causal nuance here.
- 2 Chronicles 1:3 tn Or “high place.”
- 2 Chronicles 1:3 tn Heb “the tent of meeting of God.”
- 2 Chronicles 1:5 sn The tabernacle was located in Gibeon; see 1 Chr 21:29.
- 2 Chronicles 1:5 tn Heb “sought [or “inquired of”] him.”
- 2 Chronicles 1:7 tn Or “revealed himself.”
- 2 Chronicles 1:7 tn Heb “ask.”
- 2 Chronicles 1:8 tn Heb “did.”
- 2 Chronicles 1:9 tn Heb “your word.”
- 2 Chronicles 1:9 tn Or “be firm, established.”
- 2 Chronicles 1:10 tn The cohortative with prefixed vav (ו) following the imperative here indicates purpose/result.
- 2 Chronicles 1:10 tn Heb “so I may go out before this nation and come in.” The expression “go out…and come in” here means “to lead” (see HALOT 425 s.v. יצא qal.4).
- 2 Chronicles 1:10 tn Heb “for.” The word “otherwise” is used to reflect the logical sense of the statement.
- 2 Chronicles 1:10 tn Heb “who is able?” The rhetorical question anticipates the answer, “no one.”
- 2 Chronicles 1:10 tn Heb “to judge.”
- 2 Chronicles 1:10 tn Heb “these numerous people of yours.”
- 2 Chronicles 1:11 tn Heb “because this was in your heart.”
- 2 Chronicles 1:11 tn Heb “the life of those who hate you.”
- 2 Chronicles 1:11 tn Heb “many days.”
- 2 Chronicles 1:12 tn Heb “wisdom and discernment are given to you.”
- 2 Chronicles 1:12 tn Heb “which was not so for the kings who were before you, and after you there will not be so.”
- 2 Chronicles 1:13 tn Heb “and Solomon came from the high place which was in Gibeon [to] Jerusalem, from before the tent of meeting, and he reigned over Israel.”
- 2 Chronicles 1:14 tn Or “gathered.”
- 2 Chronicles 1:14 tn Heb “he placed them in the chariot cities and with the king in Jerusalem.”
- 2 Chronicles 1:15 tn The words “as plentiful” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
- 2 Chronicles 1:15 tn Heb “he made.”
- 2 Chronicles 1:15 sn The foothills (שְׁפֵלָה, shephelah) are the region between the Judean hill country and the Mediterranean coastal plain.
- 2 Chronicles 1:16 sn Because Que is also mentioned, some prefer to see v. 16-17 as a reference to Mutsur. Que and Mutsur were located in Cilicia or Cappadocia (in modern southern Turkey). See HALOT 625 s.v. מִצְרַיִם.
- 2 Chronicles 1:17 tn Heb “and they brought up and brought out from Egypt a chariot for 600 silver (pieces), and a horse for 150, and in the same way to all the kings of the Hittites and to the kings of Aram by their hand they brought out.”
- 2 Chronicles 2:1 sn Beginning with 2:1, the verse numbers through 2:18 in the English Bible differ from the verse numbers in the Hebrew text (BHS), with 2:1 ET = 1:18 HT, 2:2 ET = 2:1 HT, 2:3 ET = 2:2 HT, etc., through 2:18 ET = 2:17 HT. Beginning with 3:1 the verse numbers in the ET and HT are again the same.
- 2 Chronicles 2:1 tn Heb “and Solomon said to build a house for the name of the Lord and house for his kingship.”
- 2 Chronicles 2:2 tn Heb “counted,” perhaps “conscripted” (so NAB, NIV, NRSV).
- 2 Chronicles 2:2 tn Heb “men, carriers of loads.”
- 2 Chronicles 2:2 tn Or “quarry workers”; Heb “cutters” (probably referring to stonecutters).
- 2 Chronicles 2:2 tc The parallel text of MT in 1 Kgs 5:16 has “thirty-three hundred,” but some Greek mss there read “thirty-six hundred” in agreement with 2 Chr 2:2, 18.tn Heb “and 3,600 supervisors over them.”
- 2 Chronicles 2:3 tn Heb “Huram.” Some medieval Hebrew mss, along with the LXX, Syriac, and Vulgate spell the name “Hiram,” agreeing with 1 Chr 14:1. “Huram” is a variant spelling referring to the same individual.
- 2 Chronicles 2:3 tn The words “help me” are supplied in the translation for clarification and stylistic reasons.
- 2 Chronicles 2:3 tn Heb “cedars.” The word “logs” has been supplied in the translation for clarity.
- 2 Chronicles 2:3 tn Heb “to build for him a house to live in it.”
- 2 Chronicles 2:4 tn Heb “for the name of.”
- 2 Chronicles 2:4 tn Heb “and the regular display.”
- 2 Chronicles 2:4 tn Heb “permanently [is] this upon Israel.”
- 2 Chronicles 2:6 tn Or “heavens” (also in v. 12). The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heaven(s)” or “sky” depending on the context.
- 2 Chronicles 2:6 tn Heb “Who retains strength to build for him a house, for the heavens and the heavens of heavens do not contain him? And who am I that I should build for him a house, except to sacrifice before him?”
- 2 Chronicles 2:8 tn This is probably a variant name for almug trees; see 9:10-11 and the parallel passage in 1 Kgs 10:11-12; cf. NLT. One or the other probably arose through metathesis of letters.
- 2 Chronicles 2:8 tn Heb “know.”
- 2 Chronicles 2:10 sn As a unit of dry measure a cor was roughly equivalent to six bushels (about 220 liters).
- 2 Chronicles 2:10 tn Heb “20,000 baths” (also a second time later in this verse). A bath was a liquid measure roughly equivalent to six gallons (about 22 liters), so this was a quantity of about 120,000 gallons (440,000 liters).
- 2 Chronicles 2:11 tn Heb “Huram” (also in v. 12). Some medieval Hebrew mss, along with the LXX, Syriac, and Vulgate spell the name “Hiram,” agreeing with 1 Chr 14:1. “Huram” is a variant spelling referring to the same individual.
- 2 Chronicles 2:12 tn Heb “who has given to King David a wise son knowing discernment and insight, who will build a house for the Lord and house for his kingship.”
- 2 Chronicles 2:13 sn The name Huram Abi means “Huram [is] my father.”
- 2 Chronicles 2:14 tn Heb “a son of a woman from the daughters of Dan, and his father a man of Tyre.”
- 2 Chronicles 2:16 tn Heb “and we will cut down trees from Lebanon according to all your need.”
- 2 Chronicles 2:16 tn Heb “to you,” but this phrase has not been translated for stylistic reasons—it is somewhat redundant.
- 2 Chronicles 2:16 tn Or “on rafts.” See the note at 1 Kgs 5:9.
- 2 Chronicles 2:17 tn Heb “Solomon counted.”
- 2 Chronicles 2:17 sn The term גֵּר (ger) refers to a foreign resident, but with different social implications in different settings. In Mosaic Law the resident foreigner was essentially a naturalized citizen and convert to worshiping the God of Israel (see Exod 12:19, 48; Deut 29:10-13).
- 2 Chronicles 2:18 tn Heb “appointed from them.”
- 2 Chronicles 2:18 tn Heb “carriers of loads.”
- 2 Chronicles 2:18 tn Or “quarry workers”; Heb “cutters” (probably referring to stonecutters).
- 2 Chronicles 2:18 tn Heb “and thirty-six hundred [as] supervisors to compel the people to work.”
- 2 Chronicles 3:1 tn Heb “where he.” “Lord” has been supplied in the translation for clarity.
- 2 Chronicles 3:1 tn In 2 Sam 24:16 this individual is called אֲרַוְנָא (ʾaravna; traditionally “Araunah”). The form of the name found here also occurs in 1 Chr 21:15; 18-28.
- 2 Chronicles 3:2 sn This would be April-May, 966 b.c. by modern reckoning.
- 2 Chronicles 3:3 tn Heb “and these are the founding of Solomon to build the house of God.”
- 2 Chronicles 3:3 tn Heb “the length [in] cubits by the former measure was 60 cubits, and a width of 20 cubits.” Assuming a length of 18 inches (45 cm) for the standard cubit, the length of the foundation would be 90 feet (27 m) and its width 30 feet (9 m).
- 2 Chronicles 3:4 tc Heb “and the porch which was in front of the length corresponding to the width of the house, 20 cubits.” The phrase הֵיכַל הַבַּיִת (hekhal habbayit, “the main hall of the temple,” which appears in the parallel account in 1 Kgs 6:3) has been accidentally omitted by homoioarcton after עַל־פְּנֵי (’al pene, “in front of”). Note that the following form, הָאֹרֶךְ (haʿorekh, “the length”), also begins with the Hebrew letter he (ה). A scribe’s eye probably jumped from the initial he on הֵיכַל to the initial he on הָאֹרֶךְ, leaving out the intervening letters in the process.
- 2 Chronicles 3:4 tc The Hebrew text has “one hundred and 20 cubits,” i.e., (assuming a cubit of 18 inches) 180 feet (54 m). An ancient Greek witness and the Syriac version read “20 cubits,” i.e., 30 feet (9 m). It is likely that מֵאָה (meʾah, “a hundred”) should be emended to אַמּוֹת (ʾammot, “cubits”).
- 2 Chronicles 3:5 tn Heb “covered.”
- 2 Chronicles 3:5 tn Heb “the large house.”
- 2 Chronicles 3:5 tn Heb “wood of evergreens.”
- 2 Chronicles 3:5 tn Heb “and he put up on it palm trees and chains.”
- 2 Chronicles 3:6 tn Heb “and he plated the house [with] precious stone for beauty, and the gold was the gold of Parvaim.”sn The location of Parvaim, the source of the gold for Solomon’s temple, is uncertain. Some have identified it with modern Farwa in Yemen; others relate it to the Sanskrit parvam and understand it to be a general term for the regions east of Israel.
- 2 Chronicles 3:8 tn Heb “the house of the holy place of holy places.”
- 2 Chronicles 3:8 tn Heb “20 cubits.” Assuming a cubit of 18 inches (45 cm), this would give a length of 30 feet (9 m).
- 2 Chronicles 3:8 tc Heb “20 cubits.” Some suggest adding, “and its height 20 cubits” (see 1 Kgs 6:20). The phrase could have been omitted by homoioteleuton.
- 2 Chronicles 3:8 tn The Hebrew word כִּכַּר (kikkar, “circle”) refers generally to something that is round. When used of metals it can refer to a disk-shaped weight made of the metal or, by extension, to a standard unit of weight. According to the older (Babylonian) standard the “talent” weighed 130 lbs. (58.9 kg), but later this was lowered to 108.3 lbs. (49.1 kg). More recent research suggests the “light” standard talent was 67.3 lbs. (30.6 kg). Using this as the standard for calculation, the weight of the gold plating was 40,380 lbs. (18,360 kg).
- 2 Chronicles 3:11 tn Heb “and the wings of the cherubim, their length was 20 cubits.” Assuming a cubit of 18 inches (45 cm), the wingspan of the cherubim would have been 30 feet (9 m).
- 2 Chronicles 3:11 tn Heb “the wing of the one was 5 cubits from the touching of the wall of the house, and the other wing was 5 cubits from the touching of the wing of the other cherub.” Assuming a cubit of 18 inches (45 cm), each wing would have been 7.5 feet (2.25 m) long.
- 2 Chronicles 3:12 tn Heb “and the wing of the one (הָאֶחָד, haʾekhad, “the one”; this should probably be emended to הָאַחֵר, haʾakher, “the other”) cherub was 5 cubits, touching the wall of the house, and the other wing was 5 cubits, clinging to the wing of the other cherub.”
- 2 Chronicles 3:13 tn Heb “the wings of these cherubim were spreading 20 cubits.”
- 2 Chronicles 3:13 tn Heb “and they were standing on their feet, with their faces to the house.” An alternative translation of the last clause would be, “with their faces to the main hall.”
- 2 Chronicles 3:15 sn The figure given here appears to refer to the combined length of both pillars (perhaps when laid end-to-end on the ground prior to being set up; cf. v. 17); the figure given for the height of the pillars in 1 Kgs 7:15, 2 Kgs 25:17, and Jer 52:21 is half this (i.e., 18 cubits).
- 2 Chronicles 3:15 tc The Syriac reads “18 cubits” (27 feet). This apparently reflects an attempt at harmonization with 1 Kgs 7:15, 2 Kgs 25:17, and Jer 52:21.
- 2 Chronicles 3:15 tn Heb “and he made before the house two pillars, 35 cubits [in] length, and the plated capital which was on its top [was] 5 cubits.” The significance of the measure “35 cubits” (52.5 feet or 15.75 m, assuming a cubit of 18 inches) for the “length” of the pillars is uncertain. According to 1 Kgs 7:15, each pillar was 18 cubits (27 feet or 8.1 m) high. Perhaps the measurement given here was taken with the pillars lying end-to-end on the ground before they were set up.
- 2 Chronicles 3:16 tn The Hebrew text adds here, “in the inner sanctuary,” but the description at this point is of the pillars, not the inner sanctuary.
- 2 Chronicles 3:17 tn Or “one on the south and the other on the north.”
- 2 Chronicles 3:17 tn The name “Yakin” appears to be a verbal form and probably means, “he establishes.”
- 2 Chronicles 3:17 tn The meaning of the name “Boaz” is uncertain. For various proposals, see BDB 126-27 s.v. בֹּעַז. One attractive option is to revocalize the name as בְּעֹז (beʿoz, “in strength”) and to understand it as completing the verbal form on the first pillar. Taking the words together and reading from right to left, one can translate the sentence, “he establishes [it] in strength.”
The Believer’s Freedom from Sin’s Domination
6 What shall we say then? Are we to remain in sin so that grace may increase? 2 Absolutely not! How can we who died to sin still live in it? 3 Or do you not know that as many as were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? 4 Therefore we have been buried with him through baptism into death, in order that just as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we too may live a new life.[a]
5 For if we have become united with him in the likeness of his death, we will certainly also be united in the likeness of his resurrection.[b] 6 We know that[c] our old man was crucified with him so that the body of sin would no longer dominate us,[d] so that we would no longer be enslaved to sin. 7 (For someone who has died has been freed from sin.)[e]
8 Now if we died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him. 9 We know[f] that since Christ has been raised from the dead, he is never going to die[g] again; death no longer has mastery over him. 10 For the death he died, he died to sin once for all, but the life he lives, he lives to God. 11 So you too consider yourselves[h] dead to sin, but[i] alive to God in Christ Jesus.
12 Therefore do not let sin reign in your mortal body so that you obey its desires, 13 and do not present your members to sin as instruments[j] to be used for unrighteousness,[k] but present yourselves to God as those who are alive from the dead and your members to God as instruments[l] to be used for righteousness. 14 For sin will have no mastery over you, because you are not under law but under grace.
The Believer’s Enslavement to God’s Righteousness
15 What then? Shall we sin because we are not under law but under grace? Absolutely not! 16 Do you not know that if you present yourselves[m] as obedient slaves,[n] you are slaves of the one you obey, either of sin resulting in death, or obedience resulting in righteousness?[o] 17 But thanks be to God that though you were slaves to sin, you obeyed[p] from the heart that pattern[q] of teaching you were entrusted to, 18 and having been freed from sin, you became enslaved to righteousness. 19 (I am speaking in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh.)[r] For just as you once presented your members as slaves to impurity and lawlessness leading to more lawlessness, so now present your members as slaves to righteousness leading to sanctification. 20 For when you were slaves of sin, you were free with regard to righteousness.
21 So what benefit[s] did you then reap[t] from those things that you are now ashamed of? For the end of those things is death. 22 But now, freed[u] from sin and enslaved to God, you have your benefit[v] leading to sanctification, and the end is eternal life. 23 For the payoff[w] of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.
- Romans 6:4 tn Grk “may walk in newness of life,” in which ζωῆς (zōēs) functions as an attributed genitive (see ExSyn 89-90, where this verse is given as a prime example).
- Romans 6:5 tn Grk “we will certainly also of his resurrection.”
- Romans 6:6 tn Grk “knowing this, that.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
- Romans 6:6 tn Grk “may be rendered ineffective, inoperative,” or possibly “may be destroyed.” The term καταργέω (katargeō) has various nuances. In Rom 7:2 the wife whose husband has died is freed from the law (i.e., the law of marriage no longer has any power over her, in spite of what she may feel). A similar point seems to be made here (note v. 7).
- Romans 6:7 sn Verse 7 forms something of a parenthetical comment in Paul’s argument.
- Romans 6:9 tn Grk “knowing.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
- Romans 6:9 tn The present tense here has been translated as a futuristic present (see ExSyn 536, where this verse is listed as an example).
- Romans 6:11 tc ‡ Some Alexandrian and Byzantine mss (P94vid א* B C 81 365 1506 1739 1881) have the infinitive “to be” (εἶναι, einai) following “yourselves”. The infinitive is lacking from some mss of the Alexandrian and Western textual clusters (P46vid A D*,c F G 33). The infinitive is found elsewhere in the majority of Byzantine mss, suggesting a scribal tendency toward clarification. The lack of infinitive best explains the rise of the other readings. The meaning of the passage is not significantly altered by inclusion or omission, but on internal grounds omission is more likely. NA28 includes the infinitive in brackets, indicating doubt as to its authenticity.
- Romans 6:11 tn Greek emphasizes the contrast between these two clauses more than can be easily expressed in English.
- Romans 6:13 tn Or “weapons, tools.”
- Romans 6:13 tn Or “wickedness, injustice.”
- Romans 6:13 tn Or “weapons, tools.”
- Romans 6:16 tn Grk “to whom you present yourselves.”
- Romans 6:16 tn Grk “as slaves for obedience.” See the note on the word “slave” in 1:1.
- Romans 6:16 tn Grk “either of sin unto death, or obedience unto righteousness.”
- Romans 6:17 tn Grk “you were slaves of sin but you obeyed.”
- Romans 6:17 tn Or “type, form.”
- Romans 6:19 tn Or “because of your natural limitations” (NRSV). sn Verse 19 forms something of a parenthetical comment in Paul’s argument.
- Romans 6:21 tn Grk “fruit.”
- Romans 6:21 tn Grk “have,” in a tense emphasizing their customary condition in the past.
- Romans 6:22 tn The two aorist participles translated “freed” and “enslaved” are causal in force; their full force is something like “But now, since you have become freed from sin and since you have become enslaved to God….”
- Romans 6:22 tn Grk “fruit.”
- Romans 6:23 tn A figurative extension of ὀψώνιον (opsōnion), which refers to a soldier’s pay or wages. Here it refers to the end result of an activity, seen as something one receives back in return. In this case the activity is sin, and the translation “payoff” captures this thought. See also L&N 89.42.
A prayer[b] of David.
16 Protect me, O God, for I have taken shelter in you.[c]
2 I say to the Lord, “You are the Lord,
my only source of well-being.”[d]
3 As for God’s chosen people who are in the land,
and the leading officials I admired so much[e]—
4 their troubles multiply;
they desire other gods.[f]
I will not pour out drink offerings of blood to their gods,[g]
nor will I make vows in the name of their gods.[h]
5 Lord, you give me stability and prosperity;[i]
you make my future secure.[j]
6 It is as if I have been given fertile fields
or received a beautiful tract of land.[k]
7 I will praise[l] the Lord who[m] guides[n] me;
yes, during the night I reflect and learn.[o]
8 I constantly trust in the Lord;[p]
because he is at my right hand, I will not be shaken.
9 So my heart rejoices
and I am happy;[q]
my life is safe.[r]
10 You will not abandon me[s] to Sheol;[t]
you will not allow your faithful follower[u] to see[v] the Pit.[w]
11 You lead me in[x] the path of life.[y]
I experience absolute joy in your presence;[z]
you always give me sheer delight.[aa]
- Psalm 16:1 sn Psalm 16. The psalmist seeks divine protection because he has remained loyal to God. He praises God for his rich blessings, and is confident God will vindicate him and deliver him from death.
- Psalm 16:1 tn The precise meaning of the Hebrew term מִכְתָּם (mikhtam) is uncertain. HALOT 582-83 s.v. defines it as “inscription.”
- Psalm 16:1 tn The Hebrew perfect verbal form probably refers here to a completed action with continuing results (see 7:1; 11:1).sn Taken shelter. “Taking shelter” in the Lord is an idiom for seeking his protection. Seeking his protection presupposes and even demonstrates the subject’s loyalty to the Lord. In the psalms those who “take shelter” in the Lord are contrasted with the wicked and equated with those who love, fear and serve the Lord (Pss 5:11-12; 31:17-20; 34:21-22).
- Psalm 16:2 tn Heb “my good [is] not beyond you.” For the use of the preposition עַל (ʿal) in the sense of “beyond,” see BDB 755 s.v. 2.
- Psalm 16:3 tn Heb “regarding the holy ones who [are] in the land, they; and the mighty [ones] in [whom is/was] all my desire.” The difficult syntax makes the meaning of the verse uncertain. The phrase “holy ones” sometimes refers to God’s angelic assembly (see Ps 89:5, 7), but the qualifying clause “who are in the land” suggests that here it refers to God’s people (Ps 34:9) or to their priestly leaders (2 Chr 35:3).
- Psalm 16:4 tn Heb “their troubles multiply, another, they pay a dowry.” The meaning of the text is unclear. The Hebrew term עַצְּבוֹתָם (ʿatsevotam, “troubles”) appears to be a plural form of עַצֶּבֶת (ʿatsevet, “pain, wound”; see Job 9:28; Ps 147:3). Because idolatry appears to be in view (see v. 4b), some prefer to emend the noun to עַצְּבִים (ʿatsevim, “idols”). “Troubles” may be a wordplay on “idols” or a later alteration designed to emphasize that idolatry leads to trouble. The singular form אחר (“another”) is syntactically problematic here. Perhaps the form should be emended to a plural אֲחֵרִים (ʾakherim, “others”). (The final mem [ם] could have been lost by haplography; note the mem [מ] at the beginning of the next word.) In this case it might be taken as an abbreviated form of the well-attested phrase אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים (ʾelohim ʾakherim, “other gods”). (In Isa 42:8 the singular form אַחַר (ʾakher, “another”) is used of another god.) The verb מָהַר (mahar) appears in the Qal stem; the only other use of a Qal verbal form of a root מָהַר is in Exod 22:15, where the denominative verb מָהֹר (mahor, “purchase [a wife]”) appears; cf. the related noun מֹהַר (mohar, “bride money, purchase price for a wife”). If that verb is understood here, then the idolaters are pictured as eager bridegrooms paying the price to acquire the object of their desire. Another option is to emend the verb to a Piel and translate, “hurry (after).”
- Psalm 16:4 tn Heb “I will not pour out their drink offerings of blood.” The third masculine plural suffix would appear to refer back to the people/leaders mentioned in v. 3. However, if we emend אֲחֵר (ʾakher, “another”) to the plural אֲחֵרִים (ʾakherim, “other [gods]”) in v. 4, the suffix can be understood as referring to these gods—“the drink offerings [made to] them.” The next line favors this interpretation. Perhaps this refers to some type of pagan cultic ritual. Elsewhere wine is the prescribed content of drink offerings.
- Psalm 16:4 tn Heb “and I will not lift up their names upon my lips.” The expression “lift up the name” probably refers here to swearing an oath in the name of deity (see Exod 20:7; Deut 5:11). If so, the third masculine plural suffix on “names” likely refers to the pagan gods, not the people/leaders. See the preceding note.
- Psalm 16:5 tn Heb “O Lord, the portion of my possession and my cup”; or “the Lord [is] the portion of my possession and my cup.” The psalmist compares the Lord to landed property, which was foundational to economic stability in ancient Israel, and to a cup of wine, which may symbolize a reward (in Ps 11:6 it symbolizes the judgment one deserves) or divine blessing (see Ps 23:5). The metaphor highlights the fact that God is the psalmist’s source of security and prosperity.
- Psalm 16:5 tc Heb “you take hold of my lot.” The form תּוֹמִיךְ (tomikh) should be emended to a participle, תוֹמֵךְ (tomekh). The psalmist pictures the Lord as casting his lot (a method used to allot landed property) for him, thus assuring that he will receive a fertile piece of land (see v. 6). As in the previous line, land represents security and economic stability, thus “you make my future secure.”
- Psalm 16:6 tn Heb “measuring lines have fallen for me in pleasant [places]; yes, property [or “an inheritance”] is beautiful for me.” On the dative use of עַל (ʿal), see BDB 758 s.v. II.8. Extending the metaphor used in v. 5, the psalmist compares the divine blessings he has received to a rich, beautiful tract of land that one might receive by allotment or inheritance.
- Psalm 16:7 tn Heb “bless,” that is, “proclaim as worthy of praise.”
- Psalm 16:7 tn Or “because.”
- Psalm 16:7 tn Or “counsels, advises.”
- Psalm 16:7 tn Heb “yes, [during] nights my kidneys instruct [or “correct”] me.” The “kidneys” are viewed here as the seat of the psalmist’s moral character (see Ps 26:2). In the quiet darkness the Lord speaks to his inner being, as it were, and enables him to grow in moral understanding.
- Psalm 16:8 tn Heb “I set the Lord before me continually.” This may mean that the psalmist is aware of the Lord’s presence and sensitive to his moral guidance (see v. 7), or that he trusts in the Lord’s protection (see the following line).
- Psalm 16:9 tn Heb “my glory is happy.” Some view the Hebrew term כְּבוֹדִי (kevodi, “my glory”) as a metonymy for man’s inner being (see BDB 459 s.v. II כָּבוֹד 5), but it is preferable to emend the form to כְּבֵדִי (kevedi, “my liver”). Like the heart, the liver is viewed as the seat of one’s emotions. See also Pss 30:12; 57:9; 108:1, as well as H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 64, and M. Dahood, Psalms (AB), 1:90. For an Ugaritic example of the heart/liver as the source of joy, see G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 47-48: “her [Anat’s] liver swelled with laughter, her heart was filled with joy, the liver of Anat with triumph.”
- Psalm 16:9 tn Heb “yes, my flesh dwells securely.” The psalmist’s “flesh” stands by metonymy for his body and, by extension, his physical life.
- Psalm 16:10 tn Or “my life.” The suffixed form of נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being”) is often equivalent to a pronoun in poetic texts.
- Psalm 16:10 sn In ancient Israelite cosmology Sheol is the realm of the dead, viewed as being under the earth’s surface. See L. I. J. Stadelmann, The Hebrew Conception of the World, 165-76.
- Psalm 16:10 tn A “faithful follower” (חָסִיד [khasid], traditionally rendered “holy one”) is one who does what is right in God’s eyes and remains faithful to God (see Pss 4:3; 12:1; 18:25; 31:23; 37:28; 86:2; 97:10). The psalmist here refers to himself, as the parallel line (“You will not abandon me to Sheol”) indicates.
- Psalm 16:10 tn That is, “experience.” The psalmist is confident that the Lord will protect him in his present crisis (see v. 1) and prevent him from dying.sn According to Peter, the words of Ps 16:8-11 are applicable to Jesus (Acts 2:25-29). Peter goes on to argue that David, being a prophet, foresaw future events and spoke of Jesus’ resurrection from the dead (Acts 2:30-33). Paul seems to concur with Peter in this understanding (see Acts 13:35-37). For a discussion of the NT application of these verses to Jesus’ resurrection, see R. B. Chisholm, Jr., “A Theology of the Psalms,” A Biblical Theology of the Old Testament, 292-95.
- Psalm 16:10 tn The Hebrew word שָׁחַת (shakhat, “pit”) is often used as a title for Sheol (see Pss 30:9; 49:9; 55:24 HT [55:23 ET]; 103:4). Note the parallelism with the previous line.
- Psalm 16:11 tn Heb “cause me to know”; or “cause me to experience.”
- Psalm 16:11 tn This is a metaphorical way of saying, “you preserve my life.” The phrase “path of life” stands in contrast to death/Sheol in Prov 2:18-19; 5:5-6; 15:24.
- Psalm 16:11 tn Heb “abundance of joy [is] with your face.” The plural form of the noun שִׂמְחָה (simkhah, “joy”) occurs only here and in Ps 45:15. It may emphasize the degree of joy experienced.
- Psalm 16:11 tn Heb “delight [is] in your right hand forever.” The plural form of the adjective נָעִים (naʿim, “pleasant, delightful”) may here emphasize the degree of delight experienced (see Job 36:11).
20 Listen to advice[a] and receive discipline,
that[b] you may become wise[c] by the end of your life.[d]
21 There are many plans[e] in a person’s mind,[f]
but it[g] is the counsel[h] of the Lord that will stand.
- Proverbs 19:20 sn The advice refers in all probability to the teachings of the sages that will make one wise.
- Proverbs 19:20 tn The proverb is one continuous thought, but the second half of the verse provides the purpose for the imperatives of the first half.
- Proverbs 19:20 tn The imperfect tense has the nuance of a final imperfect in a purpose clause, and so is translated “that you may become wise” (cf. NAB, NRSV).
- Proverbs 19:20 tn Heb “become wise in your latter end” (cf. KJV, ASV) which could obviously be misunderstood.
- Proverbs 19:21 sn The plans (from the Hebrew verb חָשַׁב [khashav], “to think; to reckon; to devise”) in the human heart are many. But only those which God approves will succeed.
- Proverbs 19:21 tn Heb “in the heart of a man” (cf. NAB, NIV). Here “heart” is used for the seat of thoughts, plans, and reasoning, so the translation uses “mind.” In contemporary English “heart” is more often associated with the seat of emotion than with the seat of planning and reasoning.
- Proverbs 19:21 tn Heb “but the counsel of the Lord, it will stand.” The construction draws attention to the “counsel of the Lord”; it is an independent nominative absolute, and the resumptive independent pronoun is the formal subject of the verb.
- Proverbs 19:21 tn The antithetical parallelism pairs “counsel” with “plans.” “Counsel of the Lord” (עֲצַת יְהוָה, ʿatsat yehvah) is literally “advice” or “counsel” with the connotation of “plan” in this context (cf. NIV, NRSV, NLT “purpose”; NCV “plan”; TEV “the Lord’s will”).sn The point of the proverb is that the human being with many plans is uncertain, but the Lord with a sure plan gives correct counsel.