2 Chronicles 29
Hezekiah Consecrates the Temple
29 Hezekiah was twenty-five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. His mother[a] was Abijah,[b] the daughter of Zechariah. 2 He did what the Lord approved, just as his ancestor David had done.[c]
3 In the first month of the first year of his reign, he opened the doors of the Lord’s temple and repaired them. 4 He brought in the priests and Levites and assembled them in the square on the east side. 5 He said to them: “Listen to me, you Levites! Now consecrate yourselves, so you can consecrate the temple of the Lord God of your ancestors.[d] Remove from the sanctuary what is ceremonially unclean. 6 For our fathers were unfaithful; they did what is evil in the sight of[e] the Lord our God and abandoned him. They turned away[f] from the Lord’s dwelling place and rejected him.[g] 7 They closed the doors of the temple porch and put out the lamps; they did not offer incense or burnt sacrifices in the sanctuary of the God of Israel. 8 The Lord was angry at Judah and Jerusalem and made them an appalling object of horror at which people hiss out their scorn,[h] as you can see with your own eyes. 9 Look, our fathers died violently[i] and our sons, daughters, and wives were carried off[j] because of this. 10 Now I intend[k] to make a covenant with the Lord God of Israel, so that he may relent from his raging anger.[l] 11 My sons, do not be negligent now, for the Lord has chosen you to stand in his presence, to minister to him,[m] to be his ministers,[n] and offer sacrifices.”[o]
12 The following Levites prepared to carry out the king’s orders:[p]
From the Kohathites: Mahath son of Amasai and Joel son of Azariah;
from the Merarites: Kish son of Abdi and Azariah son of Jehallelel;
from the Gershonites: Joah son of Zimmah and Eden son of Joah;
13 from the descendants of Elizaphan: Shimri and Jeiel;
from the descendants of Asaph: Zechariah and Mattaniah;
14 from the descendants of Heman: Jehiel and Shimei;
from the descendants of Jeduthun: Shemaiah and Uzziel.
15 They assembled their brothers and consecrated themselves. Then they went in to purify the Lord’s temple, just as the king had ordered, in accordance with the word[q] of the Lord. 16 The priests then entered the Lord’s temple to purify it; they brought out to the courtyard of the Lord’s temple every ceremonially unclean thing they discovered inside.[r] The Levites took them out to the Kidron Valley. 17 On the first day of the first month they began consecrating; by the eighth day of the month they reached the porch of the Lord’s temple.[s] For eight more days they consecrated the Lord’s temple. On the sixteenth day of the first month they were finished. 18 They went to King Hezekiah and said: “We have purified the entire temple of the Lord, including the altar of burnt sacrifice and all its equipment, and the table for the Bread of the Presence and all its equipment. 19 We have prepared and consecrated all the items that King Ahaz removed during his reign when he acted unfaithfully. They are in front of the altar of the Lord.”
20 Early the next morning King Hezekiah assembled the city officials and went up to the Lord’s temple. 21 They brought seven bulls, seven rams, seven lambs, and seven goats as a sin offering for the kingdom, the sanctuary, and Judah.[t] The king[u] told the priests, the descendants of Aaron, to offer burnt sacrifices on the altar of the Lord. 22 They slaughtered the bulls, and the priests took the blood and splashed it on the altar. Then they slaughtered the rams and splashed the blood on the altar; next they slaughtered the lambs and splashed the blood on the altar. 23 Finally they brought the goats for the sin offering before the king and the assembly, and they placed their hands on them. 24 Then the priests slaughtered them. They offered their blood as a sin offering on the altar to make atonement for all Israel, because the king had decreed[v] that the burnt sacrifice and sin offering were for all Israel.
25 Hezekiah[w] stationed the Levites in the Lord’s temple with cymbals and stringed instruments just as David, Gad the king’s prophet,[x] and Nathan the prophet had ordered. (The Lord had actually given these orders through his prophets.) 26 The Levites had[y] David’s musical instruments and the priests had trumpets. 27 Hezekiah ordered the burnt sacrifice to be offered on the altar. As they began to offer the sacrifice, they also began to sing to the Lord, accompanied by the trumpets and the musical instruments of King David of Israel. 28 The entire assembly worshiped, as the singers sang and the trumpeters played. They continued until the burnt sacrifice was completed.
29 When the sacrifices were completed, the king and all who were with him bowed down and worshiped. 30 King Hezekiah and the officials told the Levites to praise the Lord, using the psalms[z] of David and Asaph the prophet.[aa] So they joyfully offered praise and bowed down and worshiped. 31 Hezekiah said, “Now you have consecrated yourselves[ab] to the Lord. Come and bring sacrifices and thank offerings[ac] to the Lord’s temple.” So the assembly brought sacrifices and thank offerings, and whoever desired to do so[ad] brought burnt sacrifices.
32 The assembly brought a total of 70 bulls, 100 rams, and 200 lambs as burnt sacrifices to the Lord,[ae] 33 and 600 bulls and 3,000 sheep[af] were consecrated. 34 But there were not enough priests to skin all the animals,[ag] so their brothers, the Levites, helped them until the work was finished and the priests could consecrate themselves. (The Levites had been more conscientious about consecrating themselves than the priests.)[ah] 35 There was a large number of burnt sacrifices, as well as fat from the peace offerings and drink offerings that accompanied the burnt sacrifices. So the service of the Lord’s temple was reinstituted.[ai] 36 Hezekiah and all the people were happy about what God had done[aj] for them,[ak] for it had been done quickly.[al]
- 2 Chronicles 29:1 tn Heb “the name of his mother.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:1 tn The parallel passage in 2 Kgs 18:2 has “Abi.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:2 tn Heb “he did what was proper in the eyes of the Lord, according to all which David his father had done.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:5 tn Heb “fathers.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:6 tn Heb “in the eyes of.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:6 tn Heb “turned their faces.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:6 tn Heb “and turned the back.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:8 tn Heb “and he made them [an object] of dread and devastation and hissing.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:9 tn Heb “fell by the sword.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:9 tn Heb “are in captivity.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:10 tn Heb “now it is with my heart.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:10 tn Heb “so that the rage of his anger might turn from us.” The jussive with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding statement of intention.
- 2 Chronicles 29:11 tn That is, to conduct the religious rituals directed to the Lord.
- 2 Chronicles 29:11 tn That is, to be his ministers for the nation.
- 2 Chronicles 29:11 tn Heb “ones who cause [sacrifices] to go up in smoke.” The Hiphil form of קָטַר (qatar) can refer specifically to offering incense (e.g. 2 Chr 26:19; 32:12), but it may also be a general word for making sacrifices (e.g. 1 Chr 6:49). If it refers to burning incense, then the altar of incense in the Holy place of the tabernacle may be in view. Otherwise it is more general (they sacrifice animals later in this chapter, 2 Chr 29:21-24) and includes making sacrifices as well as offering incense.
- 2 Chronicles 29:12 tn Heb “and the Levites arose.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:15 tn Heb “words” (plural).
- 2 Chronicles 29:16 tn Heb “in the temple of the Lord.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:17 tn Heb “porch of the Lord.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:21 sn Perhaps these terms refer metonymically to the royal court, the priests and Levites, and the people, respectively.
- 2 Chronicles 29:21 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the king) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- 2 Chronicles 29:24 tn Heb “said.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:25 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Hezekiah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- 2 Chronicles 29:25 tn Or “seer.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:26 tn Heb “stood with” (i.e., stood holding).
- 2 Chronicles 29:30 tn Heb “with the words.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:30 tn Or “seer.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:31 tn Heb “filled your hand.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:31 tn Or “tokens of thanks.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:31 tn Heb “and all who were willing of heart.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:32 tn Heb “and the number of burnt sacrifices which the assembly brought was seventy bulls, one hundred rams, two hundred lambs; for a burnt sacrifice to the Lord were all these.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:33 tn The Hebrew term צֹאן (tsoʾn) denotes smaller livestock in general; depending on context it can refer to sheep only or goats only, but there is nothing in the immediate context here to specify one or the other.
- 2 Chronicles 29:34 tn Heb “the burnt sacrifices.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:34 tn Heb “for the Levites were more pure of heart to consecrate themselves than the priests.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:35 tn Or “established.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:36 tn Heb “prepared.”
- 2 Chronicles 29:36 tn Heb “the people.” The pronoun “them” has been used here for stylistic reasons, to avoid redundancy.
- 2 Chronicles 29:36 tn Heb “for quickly was the matter.”
Exhortation to Mutual Forbearance
14 Now receive the one who is weak in the faith, and do not have disputes over differing opinions.[a] 2 One person believes in eating everything, but the weak person eats only vegetables. 3 The one who eats everything must not despise the one who does not, and the one who abstains must not judge the one who eats everything, for God has accepted him. 4 Who are you to pass judgment on another’s servant? Before his own master he stands or falls. And he will stand, for the Lord[b] is able to make him stand.
5 One person regards one day holier than other days, and another regards them all alike.[c] Each must be fully convinced in his own mind. 6 The one who observes the day does it for the Lord. The[d] one who eats, eats for the Lord because he gives thanks to God, and the one who abstains from eating abstains for the Lord, and he gives thanks to God. 7 For none of us lives for himself and none dies for himself. 8 If we live, we live for the Lord; if we die, we die for the Lord. Therefore, whether we live or die, we are the Lord’s. 9 For this reason Christ died and returned to life, so that he may be the Lord of both the dead and the living.
10 But you who eat vegetables only—why do you judge your brother or sister?[e] And you who eat everything—why do you despise your brother or sister?[f] For we will all stand before the judgment seat[g] of God. 11 For it is written, “As I live, says the Lord, every knee will bow to me, and every tongue will give praise to God.”[h] 12 Therefore, each of us will give an account of himself to God.[i]
Exhortation for the Strong not to Destroy the Weak
13 Therefore we must not pass judgment on one another, but rather determine never to place an obstacle or a trap before a brother or sister.[j] 14 I know and am convinced in the Lord Jesus that there is nothing unclean in itself; still, it is unclean to the one who considers it unclean. 15 For if your brother or sister[k] is distressed because of what you eat,[l] you are no longer walking in love.[m] Do not destroy by your food someone for whom Christ died. 16 Therefore do not let what you consider good[n] be spoken of as evil. 17 For the kingdom of God does not consist of food and drink, but righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit. 18 For the one who serves Christ in this way is pleasing to God and approved by people.[o]
19 So then, let us pursue what makes for peace and for building up one another. 20 Do not destroy the work of God for the sake of food. For although all things are clean,[p] it is wrong to cause anyone to stumble by what you eat. 21 It is good not to eat meat or drink wine or to do anything that causes your brother to stumble.[q] 22 The faith[r] you have, keep to yourself before God. Blessed is the one who does not judge himself by what he approves. 23 But the man who doubts is condemned if he eats, because he does not do so from faith, and whatever is not from faith is sin.[s]
- Romans 14:1 tn Grk “over opinions.” The qualifier “differing” has been supplied to clarify the meaning.
- Romans 14:4 tc Most mss, especially Western and Byzantine (D F G L 048 33 1739 1175 1241 1505 1881 M latt), read θεός (theos, “God”) in place of κύριος (kurios, “Lord”) here. However, κύριος is found in many of the most significant mss (P46 א A B C P Ψ co), and θεός looks to be an assimilation to θεός in v. 3.
- Romans 14:5 tn Grk “For one judges day from day, and one judges all days.”
- Romans 14:6 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Romans 14:10 tn Grk “But why do you judge your brother?” The introductory phrase has been supplied in the translation to clarify whom Paul is addressing, i.e., the “weak” Christian who eats only vegetables (see vv. 2-3). The author uses the singular pronoun here to rhetorically address one person, but the plural has been used in the translation for stylistic reasons.
- Romans 14:10 tn Grk “Or again, why do you despise your brother?” The introductory phrase has been supplied in the translation to clarify whom Paul is addressing, i.e., the “strong” Christian who eats everything (see vv. 2-3). The author uses the singular pronoun here to rhetorically address one person, but the plural has been used in the translation for stylistic reasons.
- Romans 14:10 sn The judgment seat (βῆμα, bēma) was a raised platform mounted by steps and sometimes furnished with a seat, used by officials in addressing an assembly or making pronouncements, often on judicial matters. The judgment seat was a familiar item in Greco-Roman culture, often located in the agora, the public square or marketplace in the center of a city.
- Romans 14:11 sn A quotation from Isa 45:23.
- Romans 14:12 tc ‡ The words “to God” are absent from some mss (B F G 6 630 1739 1881) but are found in א A C D Ψ 0209 33 1175 1241 1505 M lat sy co. External evidence somewhat favors their inclusion since Alexandrian, Western, and Byzantine mss are well represented. From an internal standpoint, however, it is easy to see the words as a scribal gloss intended to clarify the referent, especially as a reinforcement to the quotation of Isa 45:23 in v. 11. Not only that, but the abrupt ending of the verse without “to God” is harsh, both in Greek and in English. In this instance, the internal considerations seem overwhelming on the side of the omission. At the same time, English stylistic needs require the words and they have been put into the translation, even though they are most likely not original. NA28 places the words in brackets, indicating doubt as to their authenticity.tn Or “each of us is accountable to God.”
- Romans 14:13 tn Grk “brother.”
- Romans 14:15 tn Grk “brother.”
- Romans 14:15 tn Grk “on account of food.”
- Romans 14:15 tn Grk “according to love.”
- Romans 14:16 tn Grk “do not let your good.”
- Romans 14:18 tn Grk “by men,” but ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos) is generic here (“people”) since the contrast in context is between God and humanity.
- Romans 14:20 sn Here clean refers to food being ceremonially clean.
- Romans 14:21 tc A large number of mss, some of them quite significant (P46vid א2 B D F G Ψ 0209 33 1881 M lat sa), read “or to be offended or to be made weak” after “to stumble.” The shorter reading “to stumble” is found only in Alexandrian mss (א* A C 048 81 945 1506 1739 bo). Although external evidence favors inclusion, internal evidence points to a scribal expansion, perhaps reminiscent of 1 Cor 8:11-13. The shorter reading is therefore preferred.
- Romans 14:22 tc ‡ Several significant Alexandrian witnesses (א A B C 048) have the relative pronoun ἥν (hēn, “the faith that you have”) at this juncture, but D F G Ψ 1175 1241 1505 1739 1881 M lat co lack it. Without the pronoun, the clause is more ambiguous (either “Keep the faith [that] you have between yourself and God” or “Do you have faith? Keep it between yourself and God”). The pronoun thus looks to be a motivated reading, created to clarify the meaning of the text. Even though it is found in the better witnesses, in this instance internal evidence should be given preference. NA28 places the word in brackets, indicating some doubt as to its authenticity.
- Romans 14:23 tc Some mss insert 16:25-27 at this point. See the tc note at 16:25 for more information.
A psalm of David.
24 The Lord owns the earth and all it contains,
the world and all who live in it.
2 For he set its foundation upon the seas,
and established[b] it upon the ocean currents.[c]
3 Who is allowed to ascend[d] the mountain of the Lord?[e]
Who may go up to his holy dwelling place?
4 The one whose deeds are blameless
and whose motives are pure,[f]
who does not lie,[g]
or make promises with no intention of keeping them.[h]
5 Such godly people are rewarded by the Lord,[i]
and vindicated by the God who delivers them.[j]
6 Such purity characterizes the people who seek his favor,
Jacob’s descendants, who pray to him.[k] (Selah)
7 Look up,[l] you gates.
Rise up,[m] you eternal doors.
Then the majestic king[n] will enter.[o]
8 Who is this majestic king?[p]
The Lord who is strong and mighty.
The Lord who is mighty in battle.
9 Look up, you gates.
Rise up, you eternal doors.
Then the majestic king will enter.
10 Who is this majestic king?
The Lord of Heaven’s Armies.[q]
He is the majestic king. (Selah)
- Psalm 24:1 sn Psalm 24. The psalmist affirms the universal kingship of the sovereign creator, reminds his people that only the morally pure are qualified to worship him, and celebrates his splendor as a mighty warrior king.
- Psalm 24:2 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood as a preterite, referring to the creation of the world.
- Psalm 24:2 sn He…established it upon the ocean currents. The description reflects ancient Israelite prescientific cosmology, which is based on outward appearances. The language also suggests that God’s creative work involved the subjugation of chaos, symbolized by the sea.
- Psalm 24:3 tn The imperfects in v. 3 are modal, expressing potential or permission.
- Psalm 24:3 sn In this context the Lord’s mountain probably refers to Zion/Jerusalem (see Isa 2:2-3).
- Psalm 24:4 tn Heb “the innocent of hands and the pure of heart.” The “hands” allude to one’s actions, the “heart” to one’s thought life and motives.
- Psalm 24:4 tn Heb “who does not lift up for emptiness my life.” The first person pronoun on נַפְשִׁי (nafshi, “my life”) makes little sense here; many medieval Hebrew mss support the ancient versions in reading a third person pronoun “his.” The idiom “lift the life” here means to “long for” or “desire strongly.” In this context (note the reference to an oath in the following line) “emptiness” probably refers to speech (see Ps 12:2).
- Psalm 24:4 tn Heb “and does not swear an oath deceitfully.”
- Psalm 24:5 tn Heb “he (the righteous individual described in v. 4) lifts up a blessing from the Lord.” The singular subject is representative here, as v. 6 makes clear. The referent (godly people like the individual in v. 4) has been specified in the translation for clarity. The imperfect verbal form is generalizing; such people are typically rewarded for their deeds.
- Psalm 24:5 tn “and vindication from the God of his deliverance.”
- Psalm 24:6 tn Heb “this [is the] generation of the ones seeking him, the ones seeking your face, Jacob.” To “seek the Lord’s face” means to seek his favor through prayer (see 2 Sam 21:1; Pss 27:8; 105:4).sn This verse presents a somewhat idealized view of Jacob’s descendants as devoted worshipers of the Lord.
- Psalm 24:7 tn Heb “lift up your heads.” The gates of the Lord’s dwelling place are here personified. The idiom “lift up the head” often means “be confident, bold” (see Judg 8:28; Job 10:15; Ps 83:2; Zech 1:21).
- Psalm 24:7 tn Heb “lift yourselves up.”
- Psalm 24:7 tn Or “king of glory.”
- Psalm 24:7 tn Following the imperatives of the preceding lines, the prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose or result.
- Psalm 24:8 sn Who is this majestic king? Perhaps the personified gates/doors ask this question, in response to the command given in v. 7.
- Psalm 24:10 tn Traditionally, “the Lord of hosts,” a title which here pictures the Lord as a mighty warrior-king who leads armies into battle.
- Proverbs 20:12 sn The first half of the verse refers to two basic senses that the Lord has given to people. C. H. Toy, however, thinks that they represent all the faculties (Proverbs [ICC], 388). But in the book of Proverbs seeing and hearing come to the fore. By usage, “hearing” also means obeying (15:31; 25:12), and “seeing” also means perceiving and understanding (Isa 6:9-10).
- Proverbs 20:12 sn The verse not only credits God with making these faculties of hearing and sight and giving them to people, but it also emphasizes their spiritual use in God’s service.