The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Wednesday April 21, 2021 (NIV)

Joshua 22:21-23:16

21 Then the people of Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh answered the heads of the clans of Israel: 22 “The Lord, the Mighty One, is God! The Lord, the Mighty One, is God! He knows the truth, and may Israel know it, too! We have not built the altar in treacherous rebellion against the Lord. If we have done so, do not spare our lives this day. 23 If we have built an altar for ourselves to turn away from the Lord or to offer burnt offerings or grain offerings or peace offerings, may the Lord himself punish us.

24 “The truth is, we have built this altar because we fear that in the future your descendants will say to ours, ‘What right do you have to worship the Lord, the God of Israel? 25 The Lord has placed the Jordan River as a barrier between our people and you people of Reuben and Gad. You have no claim to the Lord.’ So your descendants may prevent our descendants from worshiping the Lord.

26 “So we decided to build the altar, not for burnt offerings or sacrifices, 27 but as a memorial. It will remind our descendants and your descendants that we, too, have the right to worship the Lord at his sanctuary with our burnt offerings, sacrifices, and peace offerings. Then your descendants will not be able to say to ours, ‘You have no claim to the Lord.’

28 “If they say this, our descendants can reply, ‘Look at this copy of the Lord’s altar that our ancestors made. It is not for burnt offerings or sacrifices; it is a reminder of the relationship both of us have with the Lord.’ 29 Far be it from us to rebel against the Lord or turn away from him by building our own altar for burnt offerings, grain offerings, or sacrifices. Only the altar of the Lord our God that stands in front of the Tabernacle may be used for that purpose.”

30 When Phinehas the priest and the leaders of the community—the heads of the clans of Israel—heard this from the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, they were satisfied. 31 Phinehas son of Eleazar, the priest, replied to them, “Today we know the Lord is among us because you have not committed this treachery against the Lord as we thought. Instead, you have rescued Israel from being destroyed by the hand of the Lord.”

32 Then Phinehas son of Eleazar, the priest, and the other leaders left the tribes of Reuben and Gad in Gilead and returned to the land of Canaan to tell the Israelites what had happened. 33 And all the Israelites were satisfied and praised God and spoke no more of war against Reuben and Gad.

34 The people of Reuben and Gad named the altar “Witness,”[a] for they said, “It is a witness between us and them that the Lord is our God, too.”

Joshua’s Final Words to Israel

23 The years passed, and the Lord had given the people of Israel rest from all their enemies. Joshua, who was now very old, called together all the elders, leaders, judges, and officers of Israel. He said to them, “I am now a very old man. You have seen everything the Lord your God has done for you during my lifetime. The Lord your God has fought for you against your enemies. I have allotted to you as your homeland all the land of the nations yet unconquered, as well as the land of those we have already conquered—from the Jordan River to the Mediterranean Sea[b] in the west. This land will be yours, for the Lord your God will himself drive out all the people living there now. You will take possession of their land, just as the Lord your God promised you.

“So be very careful to follow everything Moses wrote in the Book of Instruction. Do not deviate from it, turning either to the right or to the left. Make sure you do not associate with the other people still remaining in the land. Do not even mention the names of their gods, much less swear by them or serve them or worship them. Rather, cling tightly to the Lord your God as you have done until now.

“For the Lord has driven out great and powerful nations for you, and no one has yet been able to defeat you. 10 Each one of you will put to flight a thousand of the enemy, for the Lord your God fights for you, just as he has promised. 11 So be very careful to love the Lord your God.

12 “But if you turn away from him and cling to the customs of the survivors of these nations remaining among you, and if you intermarry with them, 13 then know for certain that the Lord your God will no longer drive them out of your land. Instead, they will be a snare and a trap to you, a whip for your backs and thorny brambles in your eyes, and you will vanish from this good land the Lord your God has given you.

14 “Soon I will die, going the way of everything on earth. Deep in your hearts you know that every promise of the Lord your God has come true. Not a single one has failed! 15 But as surely as the Lord your God has given you the good things he promised, he will also bring disaster on you if you disobey him. He will completely destroy you from this good land he has given you. 16 If you break the covenant of the Lord your God by worshiping and serving other gods, his anger will burn against you, and you will quickly vanish from the good land he has given you.”

Footnotes:

  1. 22:34 Some manuscripts lack this word.
  2. 23:4 Hebrew the Great Sea.
New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.


Luke 20:27-47

Discussion about Resurrection

27 Then Jesus was approached by some Sadducees—religious leaders who say there is no resurrection from the dead. 28 They posed this question: “Teacher, Moses gave us a law that if a man dies, leaving a wife but no children, his brother should marry the widow and have a child who will carry on the brother’s name.[a] 29 Well, suppose there were seven brothers. The oldest one married and then died without children. 30 So the second brother married the widow, but he also died. 31 Then the third brother married her. This continued with all seven of them, who died without children. 32 Finally, the woman also died. 33 So tell us, whose wife will she be in the resurrection? For all seven were married to her!”

34 Jesus replied, “Marriage is for people here on earth. 35 But in the age to come, those worthy of being raised from the dead will neither marry nor be given in marriage. 36 And they will never die again. In this respect they will be like angels. They are children of God and children of the resurrection.

37 “But now, as to whether the dead will be raised—even Moses proved this when he wrote about the burning bush. Long after Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob had died, he referred to the Lord[b] as ‘the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.’[c] 38 So he is the God of the living, not the dead, for they are all alive to him.”

39 “Well said, Teacher!” remarked some of the teachers of religious law who were standing there. 40 And then no one dared to ask him any more questions.

Whose Son Is the Messiah?

41 Then Jesus presented them with a question. “Why is it,” he asked, “that the Messiah is said to be the son of David? 42 For David himself wrote in the book of Psalms:

‘The Lord said to my Lord,
Sit in the place of honor at my right hand
43 until I humble your enemies,
making them a footstool under your feet.’[d]

44 Since David called the Messiah ‘Lord,’ how can the Messiah be his son?”

45 Then, with the crowds listening, he turned to his disciples and said, 46 “Beware of these teachers of religious law! For they like to parade around in flowing robes and love to receive respectful greetings as they walk in the marketplaces. And how they love the seats of honor in the synagogues and the head table at banquets. 47 Yet they shamelessly cheat widows out of their property and then pretend to be pious by making long prayers in public. Because of this, they will be severely punished.”

Footnotes:

  1. 20:28 See Deut 25:5-6.
  2. 20:37a Greek when he wrote about the bush. He referred to the Lord.
  3. 20:37b Exod 3:6.
  4. 20:42-43 Ps 110:1.
New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.


Psalm 89:14-37

14 Righteousness and justice are the foundation of your throne.
Unfailing love and truth walk before you as attendants.
15 Happy are those who hear the joyful call to worship,
for they will walk in the light of your presence, Lord.
16 They rejoice all day long in your wonderful reputation.
They exult in your righteousness.
17 You are their glorious strength.
It pleases you to make us strong.
18 Yes, our protection comes from the Lord,
and he, the Holy One of Israel, has given us our king.

19 Long ago you spoke in a vision to your faithful people.
You said, “I have raised up a warrior.
I have selected him from the common people to be king.
20 I have found my servant David.
I have anointed him with my holy oil.
21 I will steady him with my hand;
with my powerful arm I will make him strong.
22 His enemies will not defeat him,
nor will the wicked overpower him.
23 I will beat down his adversaries before him
and destroy those who hate him.
24 My faithfulness and unfailing love will be with him,
and by my authority he will grow in power.
25 I will extend his rule over the sea,
his dominion over the rivers.
26 And he will call out to me, ‘You are my Father,
my God, and the Rock of my salvation.’
27 I will make him my firstborn son,
the mightiest king on earth.
28 I will love him and be kind to him forever;
my covenant with him will never end.
29 I will preserve an heir for him;
his throne will be as endless as the days of heaven.
30 But if his descendants forsake my instructions
and fail to obey my regulations,
31 if they do not obey my decrees
and fail to keep my commands,
32 then I will punish their sin with the rod,
and their disobedience with beating.
33 But I will never stop loving him
nor fail to keep my promise to him.
34 No, I will not break my covenant;
I will not take back a single word I said.
35 I have sworn an oath to David,
and in my holiness I cannot lie:
36 His dynasty will go on forever;
his kingdom will endure as the sun.
37 It will be as eternal as the moon,
my faithful witness in the sky!” Interlude

New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.


Proverbs 13:17-19

17 An unreliable messenger stumbles into trouble,
but a reliable messenger brings healing.

18 If you ignore criticism, you will end in poverty and disgrace;
if you accept correction, you will be honored.

19 It is pleasant to see dreams come true,
but fools refuse to turn from evil to attain them.

New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.


The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Tuesday April 20, 2021 (NIV)

Joshua 21:1-22:20

The Towns Given to the Levites

21 Then the leaders of the tribe of Levi came to consult with Eleazar the priest, Joshua son of Nun, and the leaders of the other tribes of Israel. They came to them at Shiloh in the land of Canaan and said, “The Lord commanded Moses to give us towns to live in and pasturelands for our livestock.” So by the command of the Lord the people of Israel gave the Levites the following towns and pasturelands out of their own grants of land.

The descendants of Aaron, who were members of the Kohathite clan within the tribe of Levi, were allotted thirteen towns that were originally assigned to the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin. The other families of the Kohathite clan were allotted ten towns from the tribes of Ephraim, Dan, and the half-tribe of Manasseh.

The clan of Gershon was allotted thirteen towns from the tribes of Issachar, Asher, Naphtali, and the half-tribe of Manasseh in Bashan.

The clan of Merari was allotted twelve towns from the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and Zebulun.

So the Israelites obeyed the Lord’s command to Moses and assigned these towns and pasturelands to the Levites by casting sacred lots.

The Israelites gave the following towns from the tribes of Judah and Simeon 10 to the descendants of Aaron, who were members of the Kohathite clan within the tribe of Levi, since the sacred lot fell to them first: 11 Kiriath-arba (that is, Hebron), in the hill country of Judah, along with its surrounding pasturelands. (Arba was an ancestor of Anak.) 12 But the open fields beyond the town and the surrounding villages were given to Caleb son of Jephunneh as his possession.

13 The following towns with their pasturelands were given to the descendants of Aaron the priest: Hebron (a city of refuge for those who accidentally killed someone), Libnah, 14 Jattir, Eshtemoa, 15 Holon, Debir, 16 Ain, Juttah, and Beth-shemesh—nine towns from these two tribes.

17 From the tribe of Benjamin the priests were given the following towns with their pasturelands: Gibeon, Geba, 18 Anathoth, and Almon—four towns. 19 So in all, thirteen towns with their pasturelands were given to the priests, the descendants of Aaron.

20 The rest of the Kohathite clan from the tribe of Levi was allotted the following towns and pasturelands from the tribe of Ephraim: 21 Shechem in the hill country of Ephraim (a city of refuge for those who accidentally killed someone), Gezer, 22 Kibzaim, and Beth-horon—four towns.

23 The following towns and pasturelands were allotted to the priests from the tribe of Dan: Eltekeh, Gibbethon, 24 Aijalon, and Gath-rimmon—four towns.

25 The half-tribe of Manasseh allotted the following towns with their pasturelands to the priests: Taanach and Gath-rimmon—two towns. 26 So in all, ten towns with their pasturelands were given to the rest of the Kohathite clan.

27 The descendants of Gershon, another clan within the tribe of Levi, received the following towns with their pasturelands from the half-tribe of Manasseh: Golan in Bashan (a city of refuge for those who accidentally killed someone) and Be-eshterah—two towns.

28 From the tribe of Issachar they received the following towns with their pasturelands: Kishion, Daberath, 29 Jarmuth, and En-gannim—four towns.

30 From the tribe of Asher they received the following towns with their pasturelands: Mishal, Abdon, 31 Helkath, and Rehob—four towns.

32 From the tribe of Naphtali they received the following towns with their pasturelands: Kedesh in Galilee (a city of refuge for those who accidentally killed someone), Hammoth-dor, and Kartan—three towns. 33 So in all, thirteen towns with their pasturelands were allotted to the clan of Gershon.

34 The rest of the Levites—the Merari clan—were given the following towns with their pasturelands from the tribe of Zebulun: Jokneam, Kartah, 35 Dimnah, and Nahalal—four towns.

36 From the tribe of Reuben they received the following towns with their pasturelands: Bezer, Jahaz,[a] 37 Kedemoth, and Mephaath—four towns.

38 From the tribe of Gad they received the following towns with their pasturelands: Ramoth in Gilead (a city of refuge for those who accidentally killed someone), Mahanaim, 39 Heshbon, and Jazer—four towns. 40 So in all, twelve towns were allotted to the clan of Merari.

41 The total number of towns and pasturelands within Israelite territory given to the Levites came to forty-eight. 42 Every one of these towns had pasturelands surrounding it.

43 So the Lord gave to Israel all the land he had sworn to give their ancestors, and they took possession of it and settled there. 44 And the Lord gave them rest on every side, just as he had solemnly promised their ancestors. None of their enemies could stand against them, for the Lord helped them conquer all their enemies. 45 Not a single one of all the good promises the Lord had given to the family of Israel was left unfulfilled; everything he had spoken came true.

The Eastern Tribes Return Home

22 Then Joshua called together the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh. He told them, “You have done as Moses, the servant of the Lord, commanded you, and you have obeyed every order I have given you. During all this time you have not deserted the other tribes. You have been careful to obey the commands of the Lord your God right up to the present day. And now the Lord your God has given the other tribes rest, as he promised them. So go back home to the land that Moses, the servant of the Lord, gave you as your possession on the east side of the Jordan River. But be very careful to obey all the commands and the instructions that Moses gave to you. Love the Lord your God, walk in all his ways, obey his commands, hold firmly to him, and serve him with all your heart and all your soul.” So Joshua blessed them and sent them away, and they went home.

Moses had given the land of Bashan, east of the Jordan River, to the half-tribe of Manasseh. (The other half of the tribe was given land west of the Jordan.) As Joshua sent them away and blessed them, he said to them, “Go back to your homes with the great wealth you have taken from your enemies—the vast herds of livestock, the silver, gold, bronze, and iron, and the large supply of clothing. Share the plunder with your relatives.”

So the men of Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh left the rest of Israel at Shiloh in the land of Canaan. They started the journey back to their own land of Gilead, the territory that belonged to them according to the Lord’s command through Moses.

The Eastern Tribes Build an Altar

10 But while they were still in Canaan, and when they came to a place called Geliloth[b] near the Jordan River, the men of Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh stopped to build a large and imposing altar.

11 The rest of Israel heard that the people of Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh had built an altar at Geliloth at the edge of the land of Canaan, on the west side of the Jordan River. 12 So the whole community of Israel gathered at Shiloh and prepared to go to war against them. 13 First, however, they sent a delegation led by Phinehas son of Eleazar, the priest, to talk with the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh. 14 In this delegation were ten leaders of Israel, one from each of the ten tribes, and each the head of his family within the clans of Israel.

15 When they arrived in the land of Gilead, they said to the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, 16 “The whole community of the Lord demands to know why you are betraying the God of Israel. How could you turn away from the Lord and build an altar for yourselves in rebellion against him? 17 Was our sin at Peor not enough? To this day we are not fully cleansed of it, even after the plague that struck the entire community of the Lord. 18 And yet today you are turning away from following the Lord. If you rebel against the Lord today, he will be angry with all of us tomorrow.

19 “If you need the altar because the land you possess is defiled, then join us in the Lord’s land, where the Tabernacle of the Lord is situated, and share our land with us. But do not rebel against the Lord or against us by building an altar other than the one true altar of the Lord our God. 20 Didn’t divine anger fall on the entire community of Israel when Achan, a member of the clan of Zerah, sinned by stealing the things set apart for the Lord[c]? He was not the only one who died because of his sin.”

Footnotes:

  1. 21:36 Hebrew Jahzah, a variant spelling of Jahaz.
  2. 22:10 Or to the circle of stones; similarly in 22:11.
  3. 22:20 The Hebrew term used here refers to the complete consecration of things or people to the Lord, either by destroying them or by giving them as an offering.
New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.


Luke 20:1-26

The Authority of Jesus Challenged

20 One day as Jesus was teaching the people and preaching the Good News in the Temple, the leading priests, the teachers of religious law, and the elders came up to him. They demanded, “By what authority are you doing all these things? Who gave you the right?”

“Let me ask you a question first,” he replied. “Did John’s authority to baptize come from heaven, or was it merely human?”

They talked it over among themselves. “If we say it was from heaven, he will ask why we didn’t believe John. But if we say it was merely human, the people will stone us because they are convinced John was a prophet.” So they finally replied that they didn’t know.

And Jesus responded, “Then I won’t tell you by what authority I do these things.”

Parable of the Evil Farmers

Now Jesus turned to the people again and told them this story: “A man planted a vineyard, leased it to tenant farmers, and moved to another country to live for several years. 10 At the time of the grape harvest, he sent one of his servants to collect his share of the crop. But the farmers attacked the servant, beat him up, and sent him back empty-handed. 11 So the owner sent another servant, but they also insulted him, beat him up, and sent him away empty-handed. 12 A third man was sent, and they wounded him and chased him away.

13 “‘What will I do?’ the owner asked himself. ‘I know! I’ll send my cherished son. Surely they will respect him.’

14 “But when the tenant farmers saw his son, they said to each other, ‘Here comes the heir to this estate. Let’s kill him and get the estate for ourselves!’ 15 So they dragged him out of the vineyard and murdered him.

“What do you suppose the owner of the vineyard will do to them?” Jesus asked. 16 “I’ll tell you—he will come and kill those farmers and lease the vineyard to others.”

“How terrible that such a thing should ever happen,” his listeners protested.

17 Jesus looked at them and said, “Then what does this Scripture mean?

‘The stone that the builders rejected
has now become the cornerstone.’[a]

18 Everyone who stumbles over that stone will be broken to pieces, and it will crush anyone it falls on.”

19 The teachers of religious law and the leading priests wanted to arrest Jesus immediately because they realized he was telling the story against them—they were the wicked farmers. But they were afraid of the people’s reaction.

Taxes for Caesar

20 Watching for their opportunity, the leaders sent spies pretending to be honest men. They tried to get Jesus to say something that could be reported to the Roman governor so he would arrest Jesus. 21 “Teacher,” they said, “we know that you speak and teach what is right and are not influenced by what others think. You teach the way of God truthfully. 22 Now tell us—is it right for us to pay taxes to Caesar or not?”

23 He saw through their trickery and said, 24 “Show me a Roman coin.[b] Whose picture and title are stamped on it?”

“Caesar’s,” they replied.

25 “Well then,” he said, “give to Caesar what belongs to Caesar, and give to God what belongs to God.”

26 So they failed to trap him by what he said in front of the people. Instead, they were amazed by his answer, and they became silent.

Footnotes:

  1. 20:17 Ps 118:22.
  2. 20:24 Greek a denarius.
New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.


Psalm 89:1-13

Psalm 89

A psalm[a] of Ethan the Ezrahite.

I will sing of the Lord’s unfailing love forever!
Young and old will hear of your faithfulness.
Your unfailing love will last forever.
Your faithfulness is as enduring as the heavens.

The Lord said, “I have made a covenant with David, my chosen servant.
I have sworn this oath to him:
‘I will establish your descendants as kings forever;
they will sit on your throne from now until eternity.’” Interlude
All heaven will praise your great wonders, Lord;
myriads of angels will praise you for your faithfulness.
For who in all of heaven can compare with the Lord?
What mightiest angel is anything like the Lord?
The highest angelic powers stand in awe of God.
He is far more awesome than all who surround his throne.
O Lord God of Heaven’s Armies!
Where is there anyone as mighty as you, O Lord?
You are entirely faithful.

You rule the oceans.
You subdue their storm-tossed waves.
10 You crushed the great sea monster.[b]
You scattered your enemies with your mighty arm.
11 The heavens are yours, and the earth is yours;
everything in the world is yours—you created it all.
12 You created north and south.
Mount Tabor and Mount Hermon praise your name.
13 Powerful is your arm!
Strong is your hand!
Your right hand is lifted high in glorious strength.

Footnotes:

  1. 89:Title Hebrew maskil. This may be a literary or musical term.
  2. 89:10 Hebrew Rahab, the name of a mythical sea monster that represents chaos in ancient literature.
New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.


Proverbs 13:15-16

15 A person with good sense is respected;
a treacherous person is headed for destruction.[a]

16 Wise people think before they act;
fools don’t—and even brag about their foolishness.

Footnotes:

  1. 13:15 As in Greek version; Hebrew reads the way of the treacherous is lasting.
New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.


The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Monday April 19, 2021 (NIV)

Joshua 19-20

The Land Given to Simeon

19 The second allotment of land went to the clans of the tribe of Simeon. Their homeland was surrounded by Judah’s territory.

Simeon’s homeland included Beersheba, Sheba, Moladah, Hazar-shual, Balah, Ezem, Eltolad, Bethul, Hormah, Ziklag, Beth-marcaboth, Hazar-susah, Beth-lebaoth, and Sharuhen—thirteen towns with their surrounding villages. It also included Ain, Rimmon, Ether, and Ashan—four towns with their villages, including all the surrounding villages as far south as Baalath-beer (also known as Ramah of the Negev).

This was the homeland allocated to the clans of the tribe of Simeon. Their allocation of land came from part of what had been given to Judah because Judah’s territory was too large for them. So the tribe of Simeon received an allocation within the territory of Judah.

The Land Given to Zebulun

10 The third allotment of land went to the clans of the tribe of Zebulun.

The boundary of Zebulun’s homeland started at Sarid. 11 From there it went west, going past Maralah, touching Dabbesheth, and proceeding to the brook east of Jokneam. 12 In the other direction, the boundary went east from Sarid to the border of Kisloth-tabor, and from there to Daberath and up to Japhia. 13 Then it continued east to Gath-hepher, Eth-kazin, and Rimmon and turned toward Neah. 14 The northern boundary of Zebulun passed Hannathon and ended at the valley of Iphtah-el. 15 The towns in these areas included Kattath, Nahalal, Shimron, Idalah, and Bethlehem—twelve towns with their surrounding villages.

16 The homeland allocated to the clans of the tribe of Zebulun included these towns and their surrounding villages.

The Land Given to Issachar

17 The fourth allotment of land went to the clans of the tribe of Issachar.

18 Its boundaries included the following towns: Jezreel, Kesulloth, Shunem, 19 Hapharaim, Shion, Anaharath, 20 Rabbith, Kishion, Ebez, 21 Remeth, En-gannim, En-haddah, and Beth-pazzez. 22 The boundary also touched Tabor, Shahazumah, and Beth-shemesh, ending at the Jordan River—sixteen towns with their surrounding villages.

23 The homeland allocated to the clans of the tribe of Issachar included these towns and their surrounding villages.

The Land Given to Asher

24 The fifth allotment of land went to the clans of the tribe of Asher.

25 Its boundaries included these towns: Helkath, Hali, Beten, Acshaph, 26 Allammelech, Amad, and Mishal. The boundary on the west touched Carmel and Shihor-libnath, 27 then it turned east toward Beth-dagon, and ran as far as Zebulun in the valley of Iphtah-el, going north to Beth-emek and Neiel. It then continued north to Cabul, 28 Abdon,[a] Rehob, Hammon, Kanah, and as far as Greater Sidon. 29 Then the boundary turned toward Ramah and the fortress of Tyre, where it turned toward Hosah and came to the Mediterranean Sea.[b] The territory also included Mehebel, Aczib, 30 Ummah, Aphek, and Rehob—twenty-two towns with their surrounding villages.

31 The homeland allocated to the clans of the tribe of Asher included these towns and their surrounding villages.

The Land Given to Naphtali

32 The sixth allotment of land went to the clans of the tribe of Naphtali.

33 Its boundary ran from Heleph, from the oak at Zaanannim, and extended across to Adami-nekeb, Jabneel, and as far as Lakkum, ending at the Jordan River. 34 The western boundary ran past Aznoth-tabor, then to Hukkok, and touched the border of Zebulun in the south, the border of Asher on the west, and the Jordan River[c] on the east. 35 The fortified towns included in this territory were Ziddim, Zer, Hammath, Rakkath, Kinnereth, 36 Adamah, Ramah, Hazor, 37 Kedesh, Edrei, En-hazor, 38 Yiron, Migdal-el, Horem, Beth-anath, and Beth-shemesh—nineteen towns with their surrounding villages.

39 The homeland allocated to the clans of the tribe of Naphtali included these towns and their surrounding villages.

The Land Given to Dan

40 The seventh allotment of land went to the clans of the tribe of Dan.

41 The land allocated as their homeland included the following towns: Zorah, Eshtaol, Ir-shemesh, 42 Shaalabbin, Aijalon, Ithlah, 43 Elon, Timnah, Ekron, 44 Eltekeh, Gibbethon, Baalath, 45 Jehud, Bene-berak, Gath-rimmon, 46 Me-jarkon, Rakkon, and the territory across from Joppa.

47 But the tribe of Dan had trouble taking possession of their land,[d] so they attacked the town of Laish.[e] They captured it, slaughtered its people, and settled there. They renamed the town Dan after their ancestor.

48 The homeland allocated to the clans of the tribe of Dan included these towns and their surrounding villages.

The Land Given to Joshua

49 After all the land was divided among the tribes, the Israelites gave a piece of land to Joshua as his allocation. 50 For the Lord had said he could have any town he wanted. He chose Timnath-serah in the hill country of Ephraim. He rebuilt the town and lived there.

51 These are the territories that Eleazar the priest, Joshua son of Nun, and the tribal leaders allocated as grants of land to the tribes of Israel by casting sacred lots in the presence of the Lord at the entrance of the Tabernacle[f] at Shiloh. So the division of the land was completed.

The Cities of Refuge

20 The Lord said to Joshua, “Now tell the Israelites to designate the cities of refuge, as I instructed Moses. Anyone who kills another person accidentally and unintentionally can run to one of these cities; they will be places of refuge from relatives seeking revenge for the person who was killed.

“Upon reaching one of these cities, the one who caused the death will appear before the elders at the city gate and present his case. They must allow him to enter the city and give him a place to live among them. If the relatives of the victim come to avenge the killing, the leaders must not release the slayer to them, for he killed the other person unintentionally and without previous hostility. But the slayer must stay in that city and be tried by the local assembly, which will render a judgment. And he must continue to live in that city until the death of the high priest who was in office at the time of the accident. After that, he is free to return to his own home in the town from which he fled.”

The following cities were designated as cities of refuge: Kedesh of Galilee, in the hill country of Naphtali; Shechem, in the hill country of Ephraim; and Kiriath-arba (that is, Hebron), in the hill country of Judah. On the east side of the Jordan River, across from Jericho, the following cities were designated: Bezer, in the wilderness plain of the tribe of Reuben; Ramoth in Gilead, in the territory of the tribe of Gad; and Golan in Bashan, in the land of the tribe of Manasseh. These cities were set apart for all the Israelites as well as the foreigners living among them. Anyone who accidentally killed another person could take refuge in one of these cities. In this way, they could escape being killed in revenge prior to standing trial before the local assembly.

Footnotes:

  1. 19:28 As in some Hebrew manuscripts (see also 21:30); most Hebrew manuscripts read Ebron.
  2. 19:29 Hebrew the sea.
  3. 19:34 Hebrew and Judah at the Jordan River.
  4. 19:47a Or had trouble holding on to their land.
  5. 19:47b Hebrew Leshem, a variant spelling of Laish.
  6. 19:51 Hebrew Tent of Meeting.
New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.


Luke 19:28-48

Jesus’ Triumphant Entry

28 After telling this story, Jesus went on toward Jerusalem, walking ahead of his disciples. 29 As he came to the towns of Bethphage and Bethany on the Mount of Olives, he sent two disciples ahead. 30 “Go into that village over there,” he told them. “As you enter it, you will see a young donkey tied there that no one has ever ridden. Untie it and bring it here. 31 If anyone asks, ‘Why are you untying that colt?’ just say, ‘The Lord needs it.’”

32 So they went and found the colt, just as Jesus had said. 33 And sure enough, as they were untying it, the owners asked them, “Why are you untying that colt?”

34 And the disciples simply replied, “The Lord needs it.” 35 So they brought the colt to Jesus and threw their garments over it for him to ride on.

36 As he rode along, the crowds spread out their garments on the road ahead of him. 37 When he reached the place where the road started down the Mount of Olives, all of his followers began to shout and sing as they walked along, praising God for all the wonderful miracles they had seen.

38 “Blessings on the King who comes in the name of the Lord!
Peace in heaven, and glory in highest heaven!”[a]

39 But some of the Pharisees among the crowd said, “Teacher, rebuke your followers for saying things like that!”

40 He replied, “If they kept quiet, the stones along the road would burst into cheers!”

Jesus Weeps over Jerusalem

41 But as he came closer to Jerusalem and saw the city ahead, he began to weep. 42 “How I wish today that you of all people would understand the way to peace. But now it is too late, and peace is hidden from your eyes. 43 Before long your enemies will build ramparts against your walls and encircle you and close in on you from every side. 44 They will crush you into the ground, and your children with you. Your enemies will not leave a single stone in place, because you did not recognize it when God visited you.[b]

Jesus Clears the Temple

45 Then Jesus entered the Temple and began to drive out the people selling animals for sacrifices. 46 He said to them, “The Scriptures declare, ‘My Temple will be a house of prayer,’ but you have turned it into a den of thieves.”[c]

47 After that, he taught daily in the Temple, but the leading priests, the teachers of religious law, and the other leaders of the people began planning how to kill him. 48 But they could think of nothing, because all the people hung on every word he said.

Footnotes:

  1. 19:38 Pss 118:26; 148:1.
  2. 19:44 Greek did not recognize the time of your visitation, a reference to the Messiah’s coming.
  3. 19:46 Isa 56:7; Jer 7:11.
New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.


Psalm 88

Psalm 88

For the choir director: A psalm of the descendants of Korah. A song to be sung to the tune “The Suffering of Affliction.” A psalm[a] of Heman the Ezrahite.

O Lord, God of my salvation,
I cry out to you by day.
I come to you at night.
Now hear my prayer;
listen to my cry.
For my life is full of troubles,
and death[b] draws near.
I am as good as dead,
like a strong man with no strength left.
They have left me among the dead,
and I lie like a corpse in a grave.
I am forgotten,
cut off from your care.
You have thrown me into the lowest pit,
into the darkest depths.
Your anger weighs me down;
with wave after wave you have engulfed me. Interlude

You have driven my friends away
by making me repulsive to them.
I am in a trap with no way of escape.
My eyes are blinded by my tears.
Each day I beg for your help, O Lord;
I lift my hands to you for mercy.
10 Are your wonderful deeds of any use to the dead?
Do the dead rise up and praise you? Interlude

11 Can those in the grave declare your unfailing love?
Can they proclaim your faithfulness in the place of destruction?[c]
12 Can the darkness speak of your wonderful deeds?
Can anyone in the land of forgetfulness talk about your righteousness?
13 O Lord, I cry out to you.
I will keep on pleading day by day.
14 O Lord, why do you reject me?
Why do you turn your face from me?

15 I have been sick and close to death since my youth.
I stand helpless and desperate before your terrors.
16 Your fierce anger has overwhelmed me.
Your terrors have paralyzed me.
17 They swirl around me like floodwaters all day long.
They have engulfed me completely.
18 You have taken away my companions and loved ones.
Darkness is my closest friend.

Footnotes:

  1. 88:Title Hebrew maskil. This may be a literary or musical term.
  2. 88:3 Hebrew Sheol.
  3. 88:11 Hebrew in Abaddon?
New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.


Proverbs 13:12-14

12 Hope deferred makes the heart sick,
but a dream fulfilled is a tree of life.

13 People who despise advice are asking for trouble;
those who respect a command will succeed.

14 The instruction of the wise is like a life-giving fountain;
those who accept it avoid the snares of death.

New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.


The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Sunday April 18, 2021 (NIV)

Joshua 16-18

The Land Given to Ephraim and West Manasseh

16 The allotment for the descendants of Joseph extended from the Jordan River near Jericho, east of the springs of Jericho, through the wilderness and into the hill country of Bethel. From Bethel (that is, Luz)[a] it ran over to Ataroth in the territory of the Arkites. Then it descended westward to the territory of the Japhletites as far as Lower Beth-horon, then to Gezer and over to the Mediterranean Sea.[b]

This was the homeland allocated to the families of Joseph’s sons, Manasseh and Ephraim.

The Land Given to Ephraim

The following territory was given to the clans of the tribe of Ephraim.

The boundary of their homeland began at Ataroth-addar in the east. From there it ran to Upper Beth-horon, then on to the Mediterranean Sea. From Micmethath on the north, the boundary curved eastward past Taanath-shiloh to the east of Janoah. From Janoah it turned southward to Ataroth and Naarah, touched Jericho, and ended at the Jordan River. From Tappuah the boundary extended westward, following the Kanah Ravine to the Mediterranean Sea. This is the homeland allocated to the clans of the tribe of Ephraim.

In addition, some towns with their surrounding villages in the territory allocated to the half-tribe of Manasseh were set aside for the tribe of Ephraim. 10 They did not drive the Canaanites out of Gezer, however, so the people of Gezer live as slaves among the people of Ephraim to this day.

The Land Given to West Manasseh

17 The next allotment of land was given to the half-tribe of Manasseh, the descendants of Joseph’s older son. Makir, the firstborn son of Manasseh, was the father of Gilead. Because his descendants were experienced soldiers, the regions of Gilead and Bashan on the east side of the Jordan had already been given to them. So the allotment on the west side of the Jordan was for the remaining families within the clans of the tribe of Manasseh: Abiezer, Helek, Asriel, Shechem, Hepher, and Shemida. These clans represent the male descendants of Manasseh son of Joseph.

However, Zelophehad, a descendant of Hepher son of Gilead, son of Makir, son of Manasseh, had no sons. He had only daughters, whose names were Mahlah, Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Tirzah. These women came to Eleazar the priest, Joshua son of Nun, and the Israelite leaders and said, “The Lord commanded Moses to give us a grant of land along with the men of our tribe.”

So Joshua gave them a grant of land along with their uncles, as the Lord had commanded. As a result, Manasseh’s total allocation came to ten parcels of land, in addition to the land of Gilead and Bashan across the Jordan River, because the female descendants of Manasseh received a grant of land along with the male descendants. (The land of Gilead was given to the rest of the male descendants of Manasseh.)

The boundary of the tribe of Manasseh extended from the border of Asher to Micmethath, near Shechem. Then the boundary went south from Micmethath to the settlement near the spring of Tappuah. The land surrounding Tappuah belonged to Manasseh, but the town of Tappuah itself, on the border of Manasseh’s territory, belonged to the tribe of Ephraim. From the spring of Tappuah, the boundary of Manasseh followed the Kanah Ravine to the Mediterranean Sea.[c] Several towns south of the ravine were inside Manasseh’s territory, but they actually belonged to the tribe of Ephraim. 10 In general, however, the land south of the ravine belonged to Ephraim, and the land north of the ravine belonged to Manasseh. Manasseh’s boundary ran along the northern side of the ravine and ended at the Mediterranean Sea. North of Manasseh was the territory of Asher, and to the east was the territory of Issachar.

11 The following towns within the territory of Issachar and Asher, however, were given to Manasseh: Beth-shan,[d] Ibleam, Dor (that is, Naphoth-dor),[e] Endor, Taanach, and Megiddo, each with their surrounding settlements.

12 But the descendants of Manasseh were unable to occupy these towns because the Canaanites were determined to stay in that region. 13 Later, however, when the Israelites became strong enough, they forced the Canaanites to work as slaves. But they did not drive them out of the land.

14 The descendants of Joseph came to Joshua and asked, “Why have you given us only one portion of land as our homeland when the Lord has blessed us with so many people?”

15 Joshua replied, “If there are so many of you, and if the hill country of Ephraim is not large enough for you, clear out land for yourselves in the forest where the Perizzites and Rephaites live.”

16 The descendants of Joseph responded, “It’s true that the hill country is not large enough for us. But all the Canaanites in the lowlands have iron chariots, both those in Beth-shan and its surrounding settlements and those in the valley of Jezreel. They are too strong for us.”

17 Then Joshua said to the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh, the descendants of Joseph, “Since you are so large and strong, you will be given more than one portion. 18 The forests of the hill country will be yours as well. Clear as much of the land as you wish, and take possession of its farthest corners. And you will drive out the Canaanites from the valleys, too, even though they are strong and have iron chariots.”

The Allotments of the Remaining Land

18 Now that the land was under Israelite control, the entire community of Israel gathered at Shiloh and set up the Tabernacle.[f] But there remained seven tribes who had not yet been allotted their grants of land.

Then Joshua asked them, “How long are you going to wait before taking possession of the remaining land the Lord, the God of your ancestors, has given to you? Select three men from each tribe, and I will send them out to explore the land and map it out. They will then return to me with a written report of their proposed divisions of their new homeland. Let them divide the land into seven sections, excluding Judah’s territory in the south and Joseph’s territory in the north. And when you record the seven divisions of the land and bring them to me, I will cast sacred lots in the presence of the Lord our God to assign land to each tribe.

“The Levites, however, will not receive any allotment of land. Their role as priests of the Lord is their allotment. And the tribes of Gad, Reuben, and the half-tribe of Manasseh won’t receive any more land, for they have already received their grant of land, which Moses, the servant of the Lord, gave them on the east side of the Jordan River.”

As the men started on their way to map out the land, Joshua commanded them, “Go and explore the land and write a description of it. Then return to me, and I will assign the land to the tribes by casting sacred lots here in the presence of the Lord at Shiloh.” The men did as they were told and mapped the entire territory into seven sections, listing the towns in each section. They made a written record and then returned to Joshua in the camp at Shiloh. 10 And there at Shiloh, Joshua cast sacred lots in the presence of the Lord to determine which tribe should have each section.

The Land Given to Benjamin

11 The first allotment of land went to the clans of the tribe of Benjamin. It lay between the territory assigned to the tribes of Judah and Joseph.

12 The northern boundary of Benjamin’s land began at the Jordan River, went north of the slope of Jericho, then west through the hill country and the wilderness of Beth-aven. 13 From there the boundary went south to Luz (that is, Bethel) and proceeded down to Ataroth-addar on the hill that lies south of Lower Beth-horon.

14 The boundary then made a turn and swung south along the western edge of the hill facing Beth-horon, ending at the village of Kiriath-baal (that is, Kiriath-jearim), a town belonging to the tribe of Judah. This was the western boundary.

15 The southern boundary began at the outskirts of Kiriath-jearim. From that western point it ran[g] to the spring at the waters of Nephtoah,[h] 16 and down to the base of the mountain beside the valley of Ben-Hinnom, at the northern end of the valley of Rephaim. From there it went down the valley of Hinnom, crossing south of the slope where the Jebusites lived, and continued down to En-rogel. 17 From En-rogel the boundary proceeded in a northerly direction and came to En-shemesh and on to Geliloth (which is across from the slopes of Adummim). Then it went down to the Stone of Bohan. (Bohan was Reuben’s son.) 18 From there it passed along the north side of the slope overlooking the Jordan Valley.[i] The border then went down into the valley, 19 ran past the north slope of Beth-hoglah, and ended at the north bay of the Dead Sea,[j] which is the southern end of the Jordan River. This was the southern boundary.

20 The eastern boundary was the Jordan River.

These were the boundaries of the homeland allocated to the clans of the tribe of Benjamin.

The Towns Given to Benjamin

21 These were the towns given to the clans of the tribe of Benjamin.

Jericho, Beth-hoglah, Emek-keziz, 22 Beth-arabah, Zemaraim, Bethel, 23 Avvim, Parah, Ophrah, 24 Kephar-ammoni, Ophni, and Geba—twelve towns with their surrounding villages. 25 Also Gibeon, Ramah, Beeroth, 26 Mizpah, Kephirah, Mozah, 27 Rekem, Irpeel, Taralah, 28 Zela, Haeleph, the Jebusite town (that is, Jerusalem), Gibeah, and Kiriath-jearim[k]—fourteen towns with their surrounding villages.

This was the homeland allocated to the clans of the tribe of Benjamin.

Footnotes:

  1. 16:2 As in Greek version (also see 18:13); Hebrew reads From Bethel to Luz.
  2. 16:3 Hebrew the sea; also in 16:6, 8.
  3. 17:9 Hebrew the sea; also in 17:10.
  4. 17:11a Hebrew Beth-shean, a variant spelling of Beth-shan; also in 17:16.
  5. 17:11b The meaning of the Hebrew here is uncertain.
  6. 18:1 Hebrew Tent of Meeting.
  7. 18:15a Or From there it went to Mozah. The meaning of the Hebrew is uncertain.
  8. 18:15b Or the spring at Me-nephtoah.
  9. 18:18 Hebrew overlooking the Arabah, or overlooking Beth-arabah.
  10. 18:19 Hebrew Salt Sea.
  11. 18:28 As in Greek version; Hebrew reads Kiriath.
New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.


Luke 19:1-27

Jesus and Zacchaeus

19 Jesus entered Jericho and made his way through the town. There was a man there named Zacchaeus. He was the chief tax collector in the region, and he had become very rich. He tried to get a look at Jesus, but he was too short to see over the crowd. So he ran ahead and climbed a sycamore-fig tree beside the road, for Jesus was going to pass that way.

When Jesus came by, he looked up at Zacchaeus and called him by name. “Zacchaeus!” he said. “Quick, come down! I must be a guest in your home today.”

Zacchaeus quickly climbed down and took Jesus to his house in great excitement and joy. But the people were displeased. “He has gone to be the guest of a notorious sinner,” they grumbled.

Meanwhile, Zacchaeus stood before the Lord and said, “I will give half my wealth to the poor, Lord, and if I have cheated people on their taxes, I will give them back four times as much!”

Jesus responded, “Salvation has come to this home today, for this man has shown himself to be a true son of Abraham. 10 For the Son of Man[a] came to seek and save those who are lost.”

Parable of the Ten Servants

11 The crowd was listening to everything Jesus said. And because he was nearing Jerusalem, he told them a story to correct the impression that the Kingdom of God would begin right away. 12 He said, “A nobleman was called away to a distant empire to be crowned king and then return. 13 Before he left, he called together ten of his servants and divided among them ten pounds of silver,[b] saying, ‘Invest this for me while I am gone.’ 14 But his people hated him and sent a delegation after him to say, ‘We do not want him to be our king.’

15 “After he was crowned king, he returned and called in the servants to whom he had given the money. He wanted to find out what their profits were. 16 The first servant reported, ‘Master, I invested your money and made ten times the original amount!’

17 “‘Well done!’ the king exclaimed. ‘You are a good servant. You have been faithful with the little I entrusted to you, so you will be governor of ten cities as your reward.’

18 “The next servant reported, ‘Master, I invested your money and made five times the original amount.’

19 “‘Well done!’ the king said. ‘You will be governor over five cities.’

20 “But the third servant brought back only the original amount of money and said, ‘Master, I hid your money and kept it safe. 21 I was afraid because you are a hard man to deal with, taking what isn’t yours and harvesting crops you didn’t plant.’

22 “‘You wicked servant!’ the king roared. ‘Your own words condemn you. If you knew that I’m a hard man who takes what isn’t mine and harvests crops I didn’t plant, 23 why didn’t you deposit my money in the bank? At least I could have gotten some interest on it.’

24 “Then, turning to the others standing nearby, the king ordered, ‘Take the money from this servant, and give it to the one who has ten pounds.’

25 “‘But, master,’ they said, ‘he already has ten pounds!’

26 “‘Yes,’ the king replied, ‘and to those who use well what they are given, even more will be given. But from those who do nothing, even what little they have will be taken away. 27 And as for these enemies of mine who didn’t want me to be their king—bring them in and execute them right here in front of me.’”

Footnotes:

  1. 19:10 “Son of Man” is a title Jesus used for himself.
  2. 19:13 Greek ten minas; one mina was worth about three months’ wages.
New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.


Psalm 87

Psalm 87

A song. A psalm of the descendants of Korah.

On the holy mountain
stands the city founded by the Lord.
He loves the city of Jerusalem
more than any other city in Israel.[a]
O city of God,
what glorious things are said of you! Interlude

I will count Egypt[b] and Babylon among those who know me—
also Philistia and Tyre, and even distant Ethiopia.[c]
They have all become citizens of Jerusalem!
Regarding Jerusalem[d] it will be said,
“Everyone enjoys the rights of citizenship there.”
And the Most High will personally bless this city.
When the Lord registers the nations, he will say,
“They have all become citizens of Jerusalem.” Interlude

The people will play flutes[e] and sing,
“The source of my life springs from Jerusalem!”

Footnotes:

  1. 87:2 Hebrew He loves the gates of Zion more than all the dwellings of Jacob. See note on 44:4.
  2. 87:4a Hebrew Rahab, the name of a mythical sea monster that represents chaos in ancient literature. The name is used here as a poetic name for Egypt.
  3. 87:4b Hebrew Cush.
  4. 87:5 Hebrew Zion.
  5. 87:7 Or will dance.
New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.


Proverbs 13:11

11 Wealth from get-rich-quick schemes quickly disappears;
wealth from hard work grows over time.

New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.


The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Saturday April 17, 2021 (NIV)

Joshua 15

15 The land allotted to the tribe of Judah by its clans reached to the border of Edom, to the wilderness of Zin in the Negev far to the south.[a] Their southern border started at the southern tip of the Salt Sea,[b] extended[c] south of the Scorpion Ascent,[d] crossed to Zin, went up from the south to Kadesh Barnea, crossed to Hezron, went up to Addar, and turned toward Karka. It then crossed to Azmon, extended to the Stream of Egypt,[e] and ended at the Mediterranean Sea. This was their[f] southern border.

The eastern border was the Salt Sea to the mouth[g] of the Jordan River.[h]

The northern border started north of the Salt Sea at the mouth of the Jordan,[i] went up to Beth Hoglah, crossed north of Beth Arabah, and went up to the Stone of Bohan son of Reuben. It then went up to Debir from the Valley of Achor, turning northward to Gilgal (which is opposite the Pass[j] of Adummim south of the valley), crossed to the waters of En Shemesh and extended to En Rogel. It then went up the Valley of Ben Hinnom to the slope of the Jebusites on the south (that is, Jerusalem), going up to the top of the hill opposite the Valley of Ben Hinnom to the west, which is at the end of the Valley of the Rephaites to the north. It then went from the top of the hill to the spring of the waters of Nephtoah, extended to the cities of Mount Ephron, and went to Baalah (that is, Kiriath Jearim). 10 It then turned from Baalah westward to Mount Seir, crossed to the slope of Mount Jearim on the north (that is Kesalon), descended to Beth Shemesh, and crossed to Timnah. 11 It then extended to the slope of Ekron to the north, went toward Shikkeron, crossed to Mount Baalah, extended to Jabneel, and ended at the sea.

12 The western border was the Mediterranean Sea.[k] These were the borders of the tribe of Judah and its clans.[l]

13 Caleb son of Jephunneh was assigned Kiriath Arba (that is Hebron) within the tribe of Judah, according to the Lord’s instructions to Joshua. (Arba was the father of Anak.)[m] 14 Caleb drove out[n] from there three Anakites—Sheshai, Ahiman, and Talmai, descendants of Anak. 15 From there he attacked the people of Debir.[o] (Debir used to be called Kiriath Sepher.) 16 Caleb said, “To the man who attacks and captures Kiriath Sepher I will give my daughter Achsah as a wife.” 17 When Othniel son of Kenaz, Caleb’s brother,[p] captured it, Caleb[q] gave Achsah his daughter to him as a wife.

18 One time Achsah[r] came and charmed her father[s] so that she could ask him for some land. When she got down from her donkey, Caleb said to her, “What would you like?” 19 She answered, “Please give me a special present.[t] Since you have given me land in the Negev, now give me springs of water.” So he gave her both the upper and lower springs.

20 This is the land assigned to the tribe of Judah by its clans:[u] 21 These cities were located at the southern extremity of Judah’s tribal land near the border of Edom:[v] Kabzeel, Eder, Jagur, 22 Kinah, Dimonah, Adadah, 23 Kedesh, Hazor, Ithnan, 24 Ziph, Telem, Bealoth, 25 Hazor Hadattah, Kerioth Hezron (that is, Hazor), 26 Amam, Shema, Moladah, 27 Hazar Gaddah, Heshbon, Beth Pelet, 28 Hazar Shual, Beer Sheba, Biziothiah, 29 Baalah, Iim, Ezem, 30 Eltolad, Kesil, Hormah, 31 Ziklag, Madmannah, Sansannah, 32 Lebaoth, Shilhim, Ain, and Rimmon—a total of twenty-nine cities and their towns.[w]

33 These cities were[x] in the foothills:[y] Eshtaol, Zorah, Ashnah, 34 Zanoah, En Gannim, Tappuah, Enam, 35 Jarmuth, Adullam, Socoh, Azekah, 36 Shaaraim, Adithaim, and Gederah (or Gederothaim)—a total of fourteen cities and their towns.

37 Zenan, Hadashah, Migdal Gad, 38 Dilean, Mizpah, Joktheel, 39 Lachish, Bozkath, Eglon, 40 Cabbon, Lahmas, Kitlish, 41 Gederoth, Beth Dagon, Naamah, and Makkedah—a total of sixteen cities and their towns.

42 Libnah, Ether, Ashan, 43 Iphtah, Ashnah, Nezib, 44 Keilah, Achzib, and Mareshah—a total of nine cities and their towns.

45 Ekron and its surrounding towns[z] and settlements; 46 from Ekron westward, all those in the vicinity of Ashdod and their towns; 47 Ashdod with its surrounding towns and settlements, and Gaza with its surrounding towns and settlements, as far as the Stream of Egypt[aa] and the border at the Mediterranean Sea.[ab]

48 These cities were[ac] in the hill country: Shamir, Jattir, Socoh, 49 Dannah, Kiriath Sannah (that is, Debir), 50 Anab, Eshtemoh, Anim, 51 Goshen, Holon, and Giloh—a total of eleven cities and their towns.

52 Arab, Dumah,[ad] Eshan, 53 Janim, Beth Tappuah, Aphekah, 54 Humtah, Kiriath Arba (that is, Hebron), and Zior—a total of nine cities and their towns.

55 Maon, Carmel, Ziph, Juttah, 56 Jezreel, Jokdeam, Zanoah, 57 Kain, Gibeah, and Timnah—a total of ten cities and their towns.

58 Halhul, Beth Zur, Gedor, 59 Maarath, Beth Anoth, and Eltekon—a total of six cities and their towns.

60 Kiriath Baal (that is, Kiriath Jearim) and Rabbah—a total of two cities and their towns.

61 These cities were[ae] in the wilderness: Beth Arabah, Middin, Secacah, 62 Nibshan, the City of Salt, and En Gedi—a total of six cities and their towns.

63 The men of Judah were unable to conquer the Jebusites living in Jerusalem. The Jebusites live with the people of Judah in Jerusalem to this very day.[af]

Footnotes:

  1. Joshua 15:1 tn Heb “The lot was to the tribe of the sons of Judah by their clans to the border of Edom, the wilderness of Zin toward the south, southward.”
  2. Joshua 15:2 tn Heb “Their southern border was from the end of the Salt Sea, from the tongue that faces to the south.”sn The Salt Sea is another name for the Dead Sea (also in v. 5).
  3. Joshua 15:3 tn Heb “went out.”
  4. Joshua 15:3 tn Or “the Ascent of Akrabbim” (עַקְרַבִּים [ʿaqrabbim] means “scorpions” in Hebrew).
  5. Joshua 15:4 tn Traditionally “the Brook of Egypt,” although a number of recent translations have “the Wadi of Egypt” (cf. NAB, NIV, NRSV).
  6. Joshua 15:4 tn The translation follows the LXX at this point. The MT reads, “This will be your southern border.”
  7. Joshua 15:5 tn Heb “end.”
  8. Joshua 15:5 tn The word “River” is not in the Hebrew text, but has been supplied for clarity.
  9. Joshua 15:5 tn Heb “the border on the northern side was from the tongue of the sea, from the end of the Jordan.”
  10. Joshua 15:7 tn Or “ascent.”
  11. Joshua 15:12 tn Heb “the Great Sea,” the typical designation for the Mediterranean Sea.
  12. Joshua 15:12 tn Heb “this was the border of the sons of Judah round about, by their clans.”
  13. Joshua 15:13 tn Heb “To Caleb son of Jephunneh he gave a portion in the midst of the sons of Judah according to the mouth [i.e., command] of the Lord to Joshua, Kiriath Arba (the father of Anak), it is Hebron.”
  14. Joshua 15:14 tn Or “dispossessed.”
  15. Joshua 15:15 tn Heb “he went up against the inhabitants of Debir.”
  16. Joshua 15:17 tn “Caleb’s brother” may refer either to Othniel or to Kenaz. If Kenaz was the brother of Caleb, Othniel is Caleb’s nephew.
  17. Joshua 15:17 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Caleb) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  18. Joshua 15:18 tn Heb “she”; the referent (Achsah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  19. Joshua 15:18 tn Heb “him.” The referent of the pronoun could be Othniel, in which case the translation would be “she incited him [Othniel] to ask her father for a field.” This is problematic, however, for Achsah, not Othniel, makes the request in v. 19. The LXX has “he [Othniel] urged her to ask her father for a field.” This appears to be an attempt to reconcile the apparent inconsistency and probably does not reflect the original text. If Caleb is understood as the referent of the pronoun, the problem disappears. For a fuller discussion of the issue, see P. G. Mosca, “Who Seduced Whom? A Note on Joshua 15:18//Judges 1:14, ” CBQ 46 (1984): 18-22. This incident is also recorded in Judg 1:14.
  20. Joshua 15:19 tn Elsewhere this Hebrew word (בְּרָכָה, berakhah) is often translated “blessing,” but here it refers to a gift (as in Gen 33:11; 1 Sam 25:27; 30:26; 2 Kgs 5:15).
  21. Joshua 15:20 tn Heb “This is the inheritance of the tribe of the sons of Judah by their clans.”
  22. Joshua 15:21 tn Heb “and the cities were at the end of the tribe of the sons of Judah, at the border of Edom, to the south.”
  23. Joshua 15:32 tn The total number of names in the list is thirty-six, not twenty-nine. Perhaps (1) some of the names are alternatives (though the text appears to delineate clearly such alternative names here and elsewhere, see vv. 8, 9, 10, 13, 25b) or (2), more likely, later scribes added to a list originally numbering twenty-nine and failed to harmonize the concluding summary statement with the expanded list.
  24. Joshua 15:33 tn The words “these cities were” have been supplied for English stylistic reasons.
  25. Joshua 15:33 tn The foothills (שְׁפֵלָה, shephelah) are the region between the Judean hill country and the Mediterranean coastal plain.
  26. Joshua 15:45 tn Heb “daughters.”
  27. Joshua 15:47 tn See the note on this place name in 15:4.
  28. Joshua 15:47 tn Heb “the Great Sea,” the typical designation for the Mediterranean Sea.
  29. Joshua 15:48 tn The words “These cities were” have been supplied in the translation for English stylistic reasons.
  30. Joshua 15:52 tc Some Hebrew mss and some mss of the LXX read “Rumah” in place of “Dumah.”
  31. Joshua 15:61 tn The words “These cities were” have been supplied for English stylistic reasons.
  32. Joshua 15:63 sn The statement to this very day reflects the perspective of the author, who must have written prior to David’s conquest of the Jebusites (see 2 Sam 5:6-7).
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Luke 18:18-43

The Wealthy Ruler

18 Now[a] a certain leader[b] asked him, “Good teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?”[c] 19 Jesus[d] said to him, “Why do you call me good?[e] No one is good except God alone. 20 You know the commandments: ‘Do not commit adultery, do not murder, do not steal, do not give false testimony, honor your father and mother.’”[f] 21 The man[g] replied, “I have wholeheartedly obeyed[h] all these laws[i] since my youth.”[j] 22 When Jesus heard this, he said to him, “One thing you still lack. Sell all that you have[k] and give the money[l] to the poor,[m] and you will have treasure[n] in heaven. Then[o] come, follow me.” 23 But when the man[p] heard this he became very sad,[q] for he was extremely wealthy. 24 When Jesus noticed this,[r] he said, “How hard[s] it is for the rich to enter the kingdom of God![t] 25 In fact, it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle[u] than for a rich person to enter the kingdom of God.” 26 Those who heard this said, “Then[v] who can be saved?”[w] 27 He replied, “What is impossible[x] for mere humans[y] is possible for God.” 28 And Peter said, “Look, we have left everything we own[z] to follow you! 29 Then[aa] Jesus[ab] said to them, “I tell you the truth,[ac] there is no one who has left home or wife or brothers[ad] or parents or children for the sake of God’s kingdom 30 who will not receive many times more[ae] in this age[af]—and in the age to come, eternal life.”[ag]

Another Prediction of Jesus’ Passion

31 Then[ah] Jesus[ai] took the twelve aside and said to them, “Look, we are going up to Jerusalem, and everything that is written about the Son of Man by the prophets will be accomplished.[aj] 32 For he will be handed over[ak] to the Gentiles; he will be mocked,[al] mistreated,[am] and spat on.[an] 33 They will flog him severely[ao] and kill him. Yet[ap] on the third day he will rise again.” 34 But[aq] the twelve[ar] understood none of these things. This[as] saying was hidden from them, and they did not grasp[at] what Jesus meant.[au]

Healing a Blind Man

35 As[av] Jesus[aw] approached[ax] Jericho, a blind man was sitting by the road begging. 36 When he heard a crowd going by, he asked what was going on. 37 They[ay] told him, “Jesus the Nazarene is passing by.” 38 So[az] he called out,[ba] “Jesus, Son of David,[bb] have mercy[bc] on me!” 39 And those who were in front[bd] scolded[be] him to get him to be quiet, but he shouted[bf] even more, “Son of David, have mercy on me!” 40 So[bg] Jesus stopped and ordered the beggar[bh] to be brought to him. When the man[bi] came near, Jesus[bj] asked him, 41 “What do you want me to do for you?” He replied,[bk] “Lord, let me see again.”[bl] 42 Jesus[bm] said to him, “Receive[bn] your sight; your faith has healed you.”[bo] 43 And immediately he regained[bp] his sight and followed Jesus,[bq] praising[br] God. When[bs] all the people saw it, they too[bt] gave praise to God.

Footnotes:

  1. Luke 18:18 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
  2. Luke 18:18 tn Grk “a certain ruler.” BDAG 140 s.v. ἄρχων 2.a takes this to be a member of the Sanhedrin, but Bock understands this to be “an influential wealthy man or civic leader who may have been known for his piety” (D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT] 2:1476).sn Only Luke states this man is a leader (cf. the parallels in Matt 19:16-22 and Mark 10:17-22, where the questioner is described only as “someone”). He is probably a civic leader of some kind, a leader in the society.
  3. Luke 18:18 sn The rich man wanted to know what he must do to inherit eternal life, but Jesus had just finished teaching that eternal life was not earned but simply received (18:17). See the similar question about inheriting eternal life in Luke 10:25.
  4. Luke 18:19 tn Grk “And Jesus.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  5. Luke 18:19 sn Jesus’ response, Why do you call me good?, was designed to cause the ruler to stop and think for a moment about who Jesus really was. The following statement No one is good except God alone seems to point the man in the direction of Jesus’ essential nature and the demands which logically follow on the man for having said it.
  6. Luke 18:20 sn A quotation from Exod 20:12-16 and Deut 5:16-20. Jesus cited the parts of the ten commandments that relate to how others should be treated.
  7. Luke 18:21 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (the ruler mentioned in v. 18) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  8. Luke 18:21 tn Grk “kept.” The implication of this verb is that the man has obeyed the commandments without fail throughout his life, so the adverb “wholeheartedly” has been added to the translation to bring out this nuance.
  9. Luke 18:21 tn Grk “these things.” The referent of the pronoun (the laws mentioned by Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.sn While the rich man was probably being sincere when he insisted I have wholeheartedly obeyed all these laws, he had confined his righteousness to external obedience. The rich man’s response to Jesus’ command to give away all he had revealed that internally he loved money more than God.
  10. Luke 18:21 sn Since my youth. Judaism regarded the age of thirteen as the age when a man would have become responsible to live by God’s commands.
  11. Luke 18:22 sn See Luke 14:33.
  12. Luke 18:22 tn The words “the money” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
  13. Luke 18:22 sn See Luke 1:50-53; 6:20-23; 14:12-14.
  14. Luke 18:22 sn The call for sacrifice comes with a promise of eternal reward:…you will have treasure in heaven. Jesus’ call is a test to see how responsive the man is to God’s direction through him. Will he walk the path God’s agent calls him to walk? For a rich person who got it right, see Zacchaeus in Luke 19:1-10.
  15. Luke 18:22 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the conversation.
  16. Luke 18:23 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  17. Luke 18:23 tn Or “very distressed” (L&N 25.277).
  18. Luke 18:24 tc ‡ The phrase περίλυπον γενόμενον (perilupon genomenon, “[When Jesus saw him] becoming sad”) is found in the majority of mss (A [D] W Θ Ψ 078 ƒ13 33vid M latt sy), and it is not unknown in Lukan style to repeat a word or phrase in adjacent passages (TCGNT 143). However, the phrase is lacking in some significant mss (א B L ƒ1 579 1241 2542 co). The shorter reading is nevertheless difficult to explain if it is not autographic: It is possible that these witnesses omitted this phrase out of perceived redundancy from the preceding verse, although intentional omissions, especially by several and varied witnesses, are generally unlikely. NA28 places the words in brackets, indicating doubts as to their authenticity.tn Grk “him.”
  19. Luke 18:24 sn For the rich it is hard for wealth not to be the point of focus, as the contrast in vv. 28-30 will show, and for rich people to trust God. Wealth was not an automatic sign of blessing as far as Jesus was concerned.
  20. Luke 18:24 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus’ teaching. See the note on this phrase in v. 16.
  21. Luke 18:25 sn The eye of a needle refers to a sewing needle, one of the smallest items one might deal with on a regular basis, in contrast to the biggest animal of the region. (Although the story of a small gate in Jerusalem known as “The Needle’s Eye” has been widely circulated and may go back as far as the middle ages, there is no evidence that such a gate ever existed.) Jesus is saying rhetorically that this is impossible, unless God (v. 27) intervenes.
  22. Luke 18:26 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of thought.
  23. Luke 18:26 sn The assumption is that the rich are blessed, so if they risk exclusion, who is left to be saved?
  24. Luke 18:27 sn The term impossible is in the emphatic position in the Greek text. God makes the impossible possible.
  25. Luke 18:27 tn The plural Greek term ἄνθρωποις (anthrōpois) is used here in a generic sense, referring to both men and women (cf. NASB 1995 update, “people”). Because of the contrast here between mere mortals and God (“impossible for men…possible for God”) the phrase “mere humans” has been used in the translation.
  26. Luke 18:28 tn Or “left our homes,” “left our possessions”; Grk “left our own things.” The word ἴδιος (idios) can refer to one’s home (including the people and possessions in it) or to one’s property or possessions. Both options are mentioned in BDAG 467 s.v. 4.b. See also I. H. Marshall, Luke (NIGTC), 688; D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1488.
  27. Luke 18:29 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  28. Luke 18:29 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  29. Luke 18:29 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
  30. Luke 18:29 tn The term “brothers” could be understood as generic here, referring to either male or female siblings. However, it is noteworthy that in the parallel passages in both Matt 19:29 and Mark 10:29, “sisters” are explicitly mentioned in the Greek text.
  31. Luke 18:30 sn Jesus reassures his disciples with a promise that (1) much benefit in this life (many times more) and (2) eternal life in the age to come will be given.
  32. Luke 18:30 tn Grk “this time” (καιρός, kairos), but for stylistic reasons this has been translated “this age” here.
  33. Luke 18:30 sn Note that Luke (see also Matt 19:29; Mark 10:30; Luke 10:25) portrays eternal life as something one receives in the age to come, unlike John, who emphasizes the possibility of receiving eternal life in the present (John 5:24).
  34. Luke 18:31 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  35. Luke 18:31 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  36. Luke 18:31 tn Or “fulfilled.” Jesus goes to Jerusalem by divine plan as the scripture records (Luke 2:39; 12:50; 22:37; Acts 13:29). See Luke 9:22, 44.
  37. Luke 18:32 sn The passive voice verb be handed over does not indicate by whom, but other passages note the Jewish leadership and betrayal (9:22, 44).
  38. Luke 18:32 sn See Luke 22:63; 23:11, 36.
  39. Luke 18:32 tn Or “and insulted.” L&N 33.390 and 88.130 note ὑβρίζω (hubrizō) can mean either “insult” or “mistreat with insolence.”
  40. Luke 18:32 sn And spat on. Later Luke does not note this detail in the passion narrative in chaps. 22-23, but see Mark 14:65; 15:19; Matt 26:67; 27:30 where Jesus’ prediction is fulfilled.
  41. Luke 18:33 tn Traditionally, “scourge” (the term means to beat severely with a whip, L&N 19.9). BDAG 620 s.v. μαστιγόω 1. states, “Of the beating (Lat. verberatio) given those condemned to death…J 19:1; cf. Mt 20:19; Mk 10:34; Lk 18:33.” Here the term has been translated “flog…severely” to distinguish it from the term φραγελλόω (phragelloō) used in Matt 27:26; Mark 15:15.
  42. Luke 18:33 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
  43. Luke 18:34 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast.
  44. Luke 18:34 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the twelve, v. 31) has been specified in the context for clarity.
  45. Luke 18:34 tn Grk “And this.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  46. Luke 18:34 sn This failure of the Twelve to grasp what Jesus meant probably does not mean that they did not understand linguistically what Jesus said, but that they could not comprehend how this could happen to him, if he was really God’s agent. The saying being hidden probably refers to God’s sovereign timing.
  47. Luke 18:34 tn Grk “the things having been said.” The active agent, Jesus, has been specified for clarity, and “said” has been translated as “meant” to indicate that comprehension of the significance is really in view here.
  48. Luke 18:35 tn Grk “Now it happened that as.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  49. Luke 18:35 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been supplied in the translation for clarity.
  50. Luke 18:35 tn The phrase is “he drew near to” (19:29; 24:28). It is also possible the term merely means “is in the vicinity of.” Also possible is a reversal in the timing of the healing and Zacchaeus events for literary reasons as the blind man “sees” where the rich man with everything did not.
  51. Luke 18:37 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated. “They” could refer to bystanders or people in the crowd.
  52. Luke 18:38 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the blind man learning that Jesus was nearby.
  53. Luke 18:38 tn Grk “called out, saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  54. Luke 18:38 sn Jesus was more than a Nazarene to this blind person, who saw quite well that Jesus was Son of David. He understood what Luke 7:22-23 affirms. There was a tradition in Judaism that the Son of David (Solomon) had great powers of healing (Josephus, Ant. 8.2.5 [8.42-49]).
  55. Luke 18:38 sn Have mercy on me is a request for healing (cf. 17:13). It is not owed the man. He simply asks for God’s kind grace.
  56. Luke 18:39 sn That is, those who were at the front of the procession.
  57. Luke 18:39 tn Or “rebuked.” The crowd’s view was that surely Jesus would not be bothered with someone as unimportant as a blind beggar.
  58. Luke 18:39 sn Public opinion would not sway the blind man from getting Jesus’ attention. The term shouted is strong as it can be used of animal cries.
  59. Luke 18:40 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the beggar’s cries.
  60. Luke 18:40 tn Grk “ordered him”; the referent (the blind beggar, v. 35) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  61. Luke 18:40 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the beggar) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  62. Luke 18:40 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  63. Luke 18:41 tn Grk “said.”
  64. Luke 18:41 tn Grk “Lord, that I may see [again].” The phrase can be rendered as an imperative of request, “Please, give me sight.” Since the man is not noted as having been blind from birth (as the man in John 9 was) it is likely the request is to receive back the sight he once had.
  65. Luke 18:42 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  66. Luke 18:42 tn Or “Regain” (see the note on the phrase “let me see again” in the previous verse).
  67. Luke 18:42 tn Grk “has saved you,” but in a nonsoteriological sense; the man has been delivered from his disability.
  68. Luke 18:43 tn Or “received” (see the note on the phrase “let me see again” in v. 41).
  69. Luke 18:43 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  70. Luke 18:43 sn The presence of God’s work leads again to joy, with both the beggar and the people praising God (1:64; 2:20; 5:25-26; 7:16; 13:13; 17:15; 19:37).
  71. Luke 18:43 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  72. Luke 18:43 tn The word “too” has been supplied for stylistic reasons.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Psalm 86

Psalm 86[a]

A prayer of David.

86 Listen,[b] O Lord. Answer me.
For I am oppressed and needy.
Protect me,[c] for I am loyal.
You are my God; deliver your servant who trusts in you.
Have mercy on me,[d] O Lord,
for I cry out to you all day long.
Make your servant[e] glad,
for to you, O Lord, I pray.[f]
Certainly,[g] O Lord, you are kind[h] and forgiving,
and show great faithfulness to all who cry out to you.
O Lord, hear my prayer.
Pay attention to my plea for mercy.
In my time of trouble I cry out to you,
for you will answer me.
None can compare to you among the gods, O Lord.
Your exploits are incomparable.[i]
All the nations, whom you created,
will come and worship you,[j] O Lord.
They will honor your name.
10 For you are great and do amazing things.
You alone are God.
11 O Lord, teach me how you want me to live.[k]
Then I will obey your commands.[l]
Make me wholeheartedly committed to you.[m]
12 O Lord, my God, I will give you thanks with my whole heart.
I will honor your name continually.[n]
13 For you will extend your great loyal love to me,[o]
and will deliver my life[p] from the depths of Sheol.[q]
14 O God, arrogant men attack me;[r]
a gang[s] of ruthless men, who do not respect you, seek my life.[t]
15 But you, O Lord, are a compassionate and merciful God.
You are patient[u] and demonstrate great loyal love and faithfulness.[v]
16 Turn toward me and have mercy on me.
Give your servant your strength.
Deliver this son of your female servant.[w]
17 Show me evidence of your favor.[x]
Then those who hate me will see it and be ashamed,[y]
for you, O Lord, will help me and comfort me.[z]

Footnotes:

  1. Psalm 86:1 sn Psalm 86. The psalmist appeals to God’s mercy as he asks for deliverance from his enemies.
  2. Psalm 86:1 tn Heb “turn your ear.”
  3. Psalm 86:2 tn Heb “my life.”
  4. Psalm 86:3 tn Or “show me favor.”
  5. Psalm 86:4 tn Heb “the soul of your servant.”
  6. Psalm 86:4 tn Heb “I lift up my soul.”
  7. Psalm 86:5 tn Or “for.”
  8. Psalm 86:5 tn Heb “good.”
  9. Psalm 86:8 tn Heb “and there are none like your acts.”
  10. Psalm 86:9 tn Or “bow down before you.”
  11. Psalm 86:11 tn Heb “teach me your way.” The Lord’s “way” refers here to the moral principles he expects the psalmist to follow. See Pss 25:4; 27:11.
  12. Psalm 86:11 tn Heb “I will walk in your truth.” The Lord’s commandments are referred to as “truth” here because they are a trustworthy and accurate expression of the divine will. See Ps 25:5.
  13. Psalm 86:11 tn Heb “Bind my heart to the fearing of your name.” The verb translated “bind” occurs only here in the Piel stem. It appears twice in the Qal, meaning “be joined” in both cases (Gen 49:6; Isa 14:20). To “fear” God’s name means to have a healthy respect for him which in turn motivates one to obey his commands (see Pss 61:5; 102:15).
  14. Psalm 86:12 tn Or “forever.”
  15. Psalm 86:13 tn Heb “for your loyal love [is] great over me.”
  16. Psalm 86:13 tn Or “for he will have delivered my life.” The verb form indicates a future perfect here.
  17. Psalm 86:13 tn Or “lower Sheol.”
  18. Psalm 86:14 tn Heb “rise up against me.”
  19. Psalm 86:14 tn Or “assembly.”
  20. Psalm 86:14 tn Heb “seek my life and do not set you before them.” See Ps 54:3.
  21. Psalm 86:15 tn Heb “slow to anger.”
  22. Psalm 86:15 tn Heb “and great of loyal love and faithfulness.”sn The psalmist’s confession of faith in this verse echoes Exod 34:6.
  23. Psalm 86:16 tn Heb “the son of your female servant.” The phrase “son of a female servant” (see also Ps 116:16) is used of a son born to a secondary wife or concubine (Exod 23:12). In some cases the child’s father is the master of the house (see Gen 21:10, 13; Judg 9:18). The phrase may be used metaphorically and idiomatically to emphasize the psalmist’s humility before the Lord and his status as the Lord’s servant. Or it may be a reference to the psalmist’s own mother who also was a servant of the Lord.
  24. Psalm 86:17 tn Heb “Work with me a sign for good.” The expression “work a sign” also occurs in Judg 6:17.
  25. Psalm 86:17 tn After the imperative in the preceding line (“work”), the prefixed verb forms with prefixed vav (ו) conjunctive indicate purpose or result.
  26. Psalm 86:17 tn The perfect verbal forms are understood here as dramatic/rhetorical, expressing the psalmist’s certitude that such a sign from the Lord will be followed by his intervention. Another option is to understand the forms as future perfects (“for you, O Lord, will have helped me and comforted me”).
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Proverbs 13:9-10

The light[a] of the righteous shines brightly,[b]
but the lamp[c] of the wicked goes out.[d]
10 With pride[e] comes only[f] contention,
but wisdom is with the well-advised.[g]

Footnotes:

  1. Proverbs 13:9 sn The images of “light” and “darkness” are used frequently in scripture. Here “light” is an implied comparison: “light” represents life, joy, and prosperity; “darkness” signifies adversity and death. So the “light of the righteous” represents the prosperous life of the righteous.
  2. Proverbs 13:9 tn The verb יִשְׂמָח (yismakh) is normally translated “to make glad; to rejoice.” But with “light” as the subject, it has the connotation “to shine brightly” (see G. R. Driver, “Problems in the Hebrew Text of Proverbs,” Bib 32 [1951]: 180).
  3. Proverbs 13:9 sn The lamp is an implied comparison as well, comparing the life of the wicked to a lamp that is going to be extinguished.
  4. Proverbs 13:9 tc The LXX adds, “Deceitful souls go astray in sins, but the righteous are pitiful and merciful.” tn The verb דָּעַךְ (daʿakh) means “to go out [in reference to a fire or lamp]; to be extinguished.” The idea is that of being made extinct, snuffed out (cf. NIV, NLT). The imagery may have been drawn from the sanctuary where the flame was to be kept burning perpetually. Not so with the wicked.
  5. Proverbs 13:10 sn The parallelism suggests pride here means contempt for the opinions of others. The wise listen to advice rather than argue out of stubborn pride.
  6. Proverbs 13:10 tn The particle רַק (raq, “only”) modifies the noun “contention”—only contention can come from such a person.
  7. Proverbs 13:10 tn The Niphal of יָעַץ (yaʿats, “to advise; to counsel”) means “to consult together; to take counsel.” It means being well-advised, receiving advice or consultation (cf. NCV “those who take advice are wise”).
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Friday April 16, 2021 (NIV)

Joshua 13-14

The Lord Speaks to Joshua

13 When Joshua was very old,[a] the Lord told him, “You are very old, and a great deal of land remains to be conquered. This is the land that remains: all the territory of the Philistines and all the Geshurites, from the Shihor River[b] east of[c] Egypt northward to the territory of Ekron (it is regarded as Canaanite territory),[d] including the area belonging to the five Philistine lords who ruled in Gaza, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Gath, and Ekron, as well as Avvite land[e] to the south;[f] all the Canaanite territory,[g] from Arah[h] in the region of Sidon[i] to Aphek, as far as Amorite territory; the territory of Byblos[j] and all Lebanon to the east, from Baal Gad below Mount Hermon to Lebo Hamath.[k] I will drive out before the Israelites all who live in the hill country from Lebanon to Misrephoth Maim,[l] all the Sidonians; you be sure to parcel it out to Israel as I instructed you.[m] Now, divide up this land[n] among the nine tribes and the half-tribe of Manasseh.”

Tribal Lands East of the Jordan

The other half of Manasseh,[o] Reuben, and Gad received their allotted tribal lands on east side of the Jordan,[p] just as Moses, the Lord’s servant, had assigned them. Their territory started[q] from Aroer (on the edge of the Arnon Valley), included the city in the middle of the valley, the whole plain of Medeba as far as Dibon, 10 and all the cities of King Sihon of the Amorites who ruled in Heshbon, and ended at the Ammonite border. 11 Their territory also included[r] Gilead, Geshurite and Maacathite territory, all Mount Hermon, and all Bashan to Salecah— 12 the whole kingdom of Og in Bashan, who ruled in Ashtaroth and Edrei. (He was one of the few remaining Rephaites.)[s] Moses defeated them and took their lands.[t] 13 But the Israelites did not conquer[u] the Geshurites and Maacathites; Geshur and Maacah live among Israel to this very day. 14 However, Moses[v] did not assign land as an inheritance[w] to the Levites; their inheritance[x] is the sacrificial offerings[y] made to the Lord God of Israel, as he instructed[z] them.

15 Moses assigned land to the tribe of Reuben[aa] by its clans. 16 Their territory started at Aroer[ab] (on the edge of the Arnon Valley) and included the city in the middle of the valley, the whole plain of Medeba, 17 Heshbon and all its surrounding cities on the plain, including Dibon, Bamoth Baal, Beth Baal Meon, 18 Jahaz, Kedemoth, Mephaath, 19 Kiriathaim, Sibmah, Zereth Shahar on the hill in the valley, 20 Beth Peor, the slopes of Pisgah, and Beth Jeshimoth. 21 It encompassed[ac] all the cities of the plain and the whole realm of King Sihon of the Amorites who ruled in Heshbon. Moses defeated him and the Midianite leaders Evi, Rekem, Zur, Hur, and Reba (they were subjects of Sihon and lived in his territory).[ad] 22 The Israelites killed Balaam son of Beor, the omen reader,[ae] along with the others.[af] 23 The border of the tribe of Reuben was the Jordan. The land allotted to the tribe of Reuben by its clans included these cities and their towns.[ag]

24 Moses assigned land to the tribe of Gad[ah] by its clans. 25 Their territory included Jazer, all the cities of Gilead, and half the Ammonite territory[ai] as far as Aroer near[aj] Rabbah. 26 Their territory ran[ak] from Heshbon to Ramath Mizpah and Betonim, and from Mahanaim to the territory of Debir. 27 It included the valley of Beth Haram,[al] Beth Nimrah, Sukkoth, and Zaphon, and the rest of the realm of King Sihon of Heshbon, the area east of the Jordan to the end of the Sea of Kinnereth.[am] 28 The land allotted to the tribe of Gad by its clans included these cities and their towns.[an]

29 Moses assigned land to the half-tribe of Manasseh[ao] by its clans. 30 Their territory started at[ap] Mahanaim and encompassed all Bashan, the whole realm of King Og of Bashan, including all sixty cities in Havvoth Jair[aq] in Bashan. 31 Half of Gilead, Ashtaroth, and Edrei, cities in the kingdom of Og in Bashan, were assigned to the descendants of Makir son of Manasseh, to half the descendants of Makir by their clans.

32 These are the land assignments made by Moses[ar] in the rift valley plains of Moab[as] east of the Jordan River opposite Jericho.[at] 33 However, Moses did not assign land as an inheritance[au] to the Levites; their inheritance[av] is the Lord God of Israel, as he instructed[aw] them.

Judah’s Tribal Lands

14 The following is a record of the territory assigned to the Israelites in the land of Canaan by Eleazar the priest, Joshua son of Nun, and the Israelite tribal leaders.[ax] The land assignments to the nine-and-a-half tribes were made by drawing lots, as the Lord had instructed Moses.[ay] Now Moses had assigned land[az] to the two-and-a-half tribes east of the Jordan, but he assigned no land[ba] to the Levites.[bb] The descendants of Joseph were considered as two tribes, Manasseh and Ephraim. The Levites were allotted no territory, though they were assigned cities in which to live, along with the grazing areas for their cattle and possessions.[bc] The Israelites followed the Lord’s instructions to Moses and divided up the land.[bd]

The men of Judah approached Joshua in Gilgal, and Caleb son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite said to him, “You know what the Lord said about you and me to Moses, the man of God, at Kadesh Barnea.[be] I was forty years old when Moses, the Lord’s servant, sent me from Kadesh Barnea to spy on the land and I brought back to him an honest report.[bf] My countrymen[bg] who accompanied[bh] me frightened the people,[bi] but I remained loyal to the Lord my God.[bj] That day Moses made this solemn promise:[bk] ‘Surely the land on which you walked[bl] will belong to you and your descendants permanently,[bm] for you remained loyal to the Lord your God.’ 10 So now, look, the Lord has preserved my life, just as he promised, these past forty-five years since the Lord spoke these words to Moses, while Israel traveled through the wilderness. See here, I am today eighty-five years old! 11 Today I am still as strong as when Moses sent me out. I can fight and go about my daily activities with the same energy I had then.[bn] 12 Now, assign me this hill country that the Lord promised me at that time! No doubt you heard then that the Anakites live there in large, fortified cities.[bo] But assuming the Lord is with me, I will conquer[bp] them, as the Lord promised.” 13 Joshua asked God to empower Caleb son of Jephunneh and assigned him Hebron.[bq] 14 So Hebron remains the assigned land of Caleb son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite to this very day[br] because he remained loyal to the Lord God of Israel. 15 (Hebron used to be called Kiriath Arba. Arba was a famous Anakite.[bs]) Then the land was free of war.

Footnotes:

  1. Joshua 13:1 tn Heb “was old, coming into the days.” This expression, referring to advancing in years, also occurs in the following clause.
  2. Joshua 13:3 tn Heb “the Shihor”; the word “River” is not in the Hebrew text, but has been supplied to clarify the meaning.
  3. Joshua 13:3 tn Heb “in front of.”
  4. Joshua 13:3 tn Heb “it is reckoned to the Canaanites.”
  5. Joshua 13:3 tn Heb “the five lords of the Philistines, the Gazaite, the Ashdodite, the Ashkelonite, the Gathite, and the Ekronite, and the Avvites.”
  6. Joshua 13:4 tn Or “from Teman.” The phrase is especially problematic if taken with what follows, as the traditional verse division suggests. For further discussion see T. C. Butler, Joshua (WBC), 146.
  7. Joshua 13:4 tn Heb “all the land of the Canaanites.”
  8. Joshua 13:4 tc The reading “Arah” assumes a slight emendation of the Hebrew vowel pointing. The MT reads, “and a cave,” or “and Mearah” (if one understands the word as a proper noun).
  9. Joshua 13:4 tn Heb “which belongs to the Sidonians.”
  10. Joshua 13:5 tn Heb “and the land of the Gebalites.”
  11. Joshua 13:5 tn Or “the entrance to Hamath.” Most modern translations take the phrase “Lebo Hamath” to be a proper name, but often provide a note with the alternative, where “Hamath” is the proper name and לְבוֹא (levoʾ) is taken to mean “entrance to.”
  12. Joshua 13:6 tn The meaning of the Hebrew name “Misrephoth Maim” is perhaps “lime-kilns by the water” (see HALOT 641 s.v. מִשְׂרָפוֹת).
  13. Joshua 13:6 tn Heb “only you, assign it by lots to Israel as an inheritance as I commanded you.”
  14. Joshua 13:7 tn Heb “now apportion this land as an inheritance.”
  15. Joshua 13:8 tn The MT reads “with him,” which is problematic, since the reference would be to the other half of the tribe of Manasseh (not the half mentioned in v. 7).
  16. Joshua 13:8 tn Heb “received their inheritance, which Moses had assigned to them beyond the Jordan to the east.”
  17. Joshua 13:9 tn The words “their territory started” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
  18. Joshua 13:11 tn The words “their territory also included” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
  19. Joshua 13:12 tn Heb “from the remnant of the Rephaites.”sn The Rephaites were apparently an extremely tall ethnic group. See Deut 2:10-11, 20; 3:11.
  20. Joshua 13:12 tn Or “dispossessed them.”
  21. Joshua 13:13 tn Or “dispossess.”
  22. Joshua 13:14 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Moses) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  23. Joshua 13:14 tn Heb “did not assign an inheritance.”
  24. Joshua 13:14 tn That is, “their source of food and life.”
  25. Joshua 13:14 tn Or “offerings made by fire.”
  26. Joshua 13:14 tn Or “promised” (Heb “spoke”).sn For the background of this observation, see Deut 18:1-2.
  27. Joshua 13:15 tn Heb “assigned to the sons of Reuben.”
  28. Joshua 13:16 tn Heb “their territory was from.”
  29. Joshua 13:21 tn The words “it encompassed” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
  30. Joshua 13:21 tn Heb “princes of Sihon, inhabitants of the land.”
  31. Joshua 13:22 tn Or “diviner.”
  32. Joshua 13:22 tn Heb “Balaam son of Beor, the omen-reader, the Israelites killed with the sword, along with their slain ones.”
  33. Joshua 13:23 tn Heb “This is the inheritance of the sons of Reuben by their clans, the cities and their towns.”
  34. Joshua 13:24 tn Heb “assigned to the tribe of Gad, to the sons of Gad.”
  35. Joshua 13:25 tn Heb “and half of the land of the sons of Ammon.”
  36. Joshua 13:25 tn Heb “which [is] in front of.”
  37. Joshua 13:26 tn The words “Their territory ran” are not in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied for clarification.
  38. Joshua 13:27 tn Or “it included in the valley, Beth Haram.”
  39. Joshua 13:27 sn The Sea of Kinnereth is another name for the Sea of Galilee. See the note on the word “Kinnereth” in 11:2.
  40. Joshua 13:28 tn Heb “This is the inheritance of the sons of Gad by their clans, the cities and their towns.”
  41. Joshua 13:29 tn Heb “assigned to the half-tribe of Manasseh, and it belonged to the half-tribe of Manasseh.”
  42. Joshua 13:30 tn The words “their territory started at” are not in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied for clarification.
  43. Joshua 13:30 sn The Hebrew name Havvoth Jair means “the tent villages of Jair.”
  44. Joshua 13:32 tn Heb “These are [the lands] which Moses gave as an inheritance.”
  45. Joshua 13:32 sn This is the area of rift valley basin to the north of the Dead Sea and east of the Jordan. Some translate as the “plains of Moab” (NASB, NIV, ESV) but this can give the wrong impression of the larger part of Moab above the rift valley. See the note at Num 22:1.
  46. Joshua 13:32 tn Heb “beyond the Jordan, east of Jericho.” The word “River” is not in the Hebrew text, but has been supplied to clarify the meaning.
  47. Joshua 13:33 tn Heb “Moses did not assign an inheritance.” The word “land” has been supplied in the translation to clarify what the inheritance consisted of.
  48. Joshua 13:33 tn That is, “their source of food and life.”
  49. Joshua 13:33 tn Or “as he promised”; Heb “as he spoke to.”sn For the background of this observation, see Deut 18:1-2.
  50. Joshua 14:1 tn Heb “These are [the lands] which the sons of Israel received as an inheritance in the land of Canaan, which Eleazar the priest, Joshua son of Nun, and the heads of the fathers of the tribes assigned as an inheritance to the sons of Israel.”
  51. Joshua 14:2 tn Heb “By lot was their inheritance, as the Lord had commanded by Moses, to the nine tribes and the half-tribe.”
  52. Joshua 14:3 tn Or “assigned an inheritance.”
  53. Joshua 14:3 tn Or “no inheritance.”
  54. Joshua 14:3 tn The Hebrew text adds, “in their midst.”
  55. Joshua 14:4 tn Heb “and they did not assign a portion to the Levites in the land, except cities [in which] to live and their pastures for their cattle and property.”
  56. Joshua 14:5 tn Heb “Just as the Lord had commanded Moses, so the sons of Israel did, and they divided up the land.”
  57. Joshua 14:6 tn Heb “You know the word which the Lord spoke to Moses, the man of God, because of me and because of you in Kadesh Barnea.”sn On this incident at Kadesh Barnea see Num 14:30.
  58. Joshua 14:7 tn Heb “and I brought back to him a word just as [was] in my heart.”
  59. Joshua 14:8 tn Heb “brothers.”
  60. Joshua 14:8 tn Heb “went up with.”
  61. Joshua 14:8 tn Heb “made the heart[s] of the people melt.”
  62. Joshua 14:8 tn Heb “I filled up after the Lord my God,” an idiomatic statement meaning that Caleb remained loyal to the Lord.
  63. Joshua 14:9 tn Heb “swore an oath.”
  64. Joshua 14:9 tn Heb “on which your foot has walked.”
  65. Joshua 14:9 tn Heb “will belong to you for an inheritance, and to your sons forever.”
  66. Joshua 14:11 tn Heb “like my strength then, like my strength now, for battle and for going out and coming in.”
  67. Joshua 14:12 tn Heb “are there and large, fortified cities.”
  68. Joshua 14:12 tn Or “will dispossess.”
  69. Joshua 14:13 tn Heb “Joshua blessed him and gave Hebron to Caleb son of Jephunneh as an inheritance.”
  70. Joshua 14:14 tn Heb “Therefore Hebron belongs to Caleb son of Jephunneh for an inheritance to this day.”
  71. Joshua 14:15 tn Heb “And he was the great man among the Anakites.”
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Luke 18:1-17

Prayer and the Parable of the Persistent Widow

18 Then[a] Jesus[b] told them a parable to show them they should always[c] pray and not lose heart.[d] He said,[e] “In a certain city[f] there was a judge[g] who neither feared God nor respected people.[h] There was also a widow[i] in that city[j] who kept coming[k] to him and saying, ‘Give me justice against my adversary.’ For[l] a while he refused, but later on[m] he said to himself, ‘Though I neither fear God nor have regard for people,[n] yet because this widow keeps on bothering me, I will give her justice, or in the end she will wear me out[o] by her unending pleas.’”[p] And the Lord said, “Listen to what the unrighteous judge says![q] Won’t[r] God give justice to his chosen ones, who cry out[s] to him day and night?[t] Will he delay[u] long to help them? I tell you, he will give them justice speedily.[v] Nevertheless, when the Son of Man comes, will he find faith[w] on earth?”

The Parable of the Pharisee and Tax Collector

Jesus[x] also told this parable to some who were confident that they were righteous and looked down[y] on everyone else. 10 “Two men went up[z] to the temple to pray, one a Pharisee[aa] and the other a tax collector.[ab] 11 The Pharisee stood and prayed about himself like this:[ac] ‘God, I thank[ad] you that I am not like other people:[ae] extortionists,[af] unrighteous people,[ag] adulterers—or even like this tax collector.[ah] 12 I fast twice[ai] a week; I give a tenth[aj] of everything I get.’ 13 The tax collector, however, stood[ak] far off and would not even look up[al] to heaven, but beat his breast and said, ‘God, be merciful[am] to me, sinner that I am!’[an] 14 I tell you that this man went down to his home justified[ao] rather than the Pharisee.[ap] For everyone who exalts[aq] himself will be humbled, but he who humbles himself will be exalted.”

Jesus and Little Children

15 Now people[ar] were even bringing their babies[as] to him for him to touch.[at] But when the disciples saw it, they began to scold those who brought them.[au] 16 But Jesus called for the children,[av] saying, “Let the little children come to me and do not try to stop them, for the kingdom of God[aw] belongs to such as these.[ax] 17 I tell you the truth,[ay] whoever does not receive[az] the kingdom of God like a child[ba] will never[bb] enter it.”

Footnotes:

  1. Luke 18:1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  2. Luke 18:1 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  3. Luke 18:1 tn Or “should pray at all times” (L&N 67.88).
  4. Luke 18:1 sn This is one of the few parables that comes with an explanation at the start:…they should always pray and not lose heart. It is part of Luke’s goal in encouraging Theophilus (1:4).
  5. Luke 18:2 tn Grk “lose heart, saying.” This is a continuation of the previous sentence in the Greek text, but a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronominal subject “He.”
  6. Luke 18:2 tn Or “town.”
  7. Luke 18:2 sn The judge here is apparently portrayed as a civil judge who often handled financial cases.
  8. Luke 18:2 tn Grk “man,” but the singular ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos) is used as a generic in comparison to God.
  9. Luke 18:3 sn This widow was not necessarily old, since many people lived only into their thirties in the 1st century.
  10. Luke 18:3 tn Or “town.”
  11. Luke 18:3 tn This is an iterative imperfect; the widow did this on numerous occasions.
  12. Luke 18:4 tn Grk “And for.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  13. Luke 18:4 tn Grk “after these things.”
  14. Luke 18:4 tn Grk “man,” but the singular ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos) is used as a generic in comparison to God.
  15. Luke 18:5 tn The term ὑπωπιάζω (hupōpiazō) in this context means “to wear someone out by continual annoying” (L&N 25.245).
  16. Luke 18:5 tn Grk “by her continual coming,” but the point of annoyance to the judge is her constant pleas for justice (v. 3).
  17. Luke 18:6 sn Listen to what the unrighteous judge says! The point of the parable is that the judge’s lack of compassion was overcome by the widow’s persistence.
  18. Luke 18:7 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  19. Luke 18:7 sn The prayers have to do with the righteous who cry out to him to receive justice. The context assumes the righteous are persecuted.
  20. Luke 18:7 tn The emphatic particles in this sentence indicate that God will indeed give justice to the righteous.
  21. Luke 18:7 sn The issue of delay has produced a whole host of views for this verse. (1) Does this assume provision to endure in the meantime? Or (2) does it mean God restricts the level of persecution until he comes? Either view is possible.
  22. Luke 18:8 tn Some argue this should be translated “suddenly.” When vindication comes it will be quick. But the more natural meaning is “soon.” God will not forget his elect and will respond to them. It may be that this verse has a prophetic perspective. In light of the eternity that comes, vindication is soon.
  23. Luke 18:8 sn Will he find faith on earth? The Son of Man is looking for those who continue to believe in him, despite the wait.
  24. Luke 18:9 tn Grk “He”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  25. Luke 18:9 tn Grk “and despised.” This is a second parable with an explanatory introduction.
  26. Luke 18:10 sn The temple is on a hill in Jerusalem, so one would go up to enter its precincts.
  27. Luke 18:10 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.
  28. Luke 18:10 sn See the note on tax collectors in 3:12.
  29. Luke 18:11 tn Or “stood by himself and prayed like this.” The prepositional phrase πρὸς ἑαυτόν (pros eauton, “to/about himself”) could go with either the aorist participle σταθείς (statheis, “stood”) or with the imperfect verb προσηύχετο (prosēucheto, “he prayed”). If taken with the participle, then the meaning would seem at first glance to be: “stood ‘by himself’,” or “stood ‘alone’.” Now it is true that πρός can mean “by” or “with” when used with intransitive verbs such as ἵστημι (histēmi, “I stand”; cf. BDAG 874 s.v. πρός 2.a), but πρὸς ἑαυτόν together never means “by himself” or “alone” in biblical Greek. On the other hand, if πρὸς ἑαυτόν is taken with the verb, then two different nuances emerge, both of which highlight in different ways the principal point Jesus seems to be making about the arrogance of this religious leader: (1) “prayed to himself,” but not necessarily silently, or (2) “prayed about himself,” with the connotation that he prayed out loud, for all to hear. Since his prayer is really a review of his moral résumé, directed both at advertising his own righteousness and exposing the perversion of the tax collector, whom he actually mentions in his prayer, the latter option seems preferable. If this is the case, then the Pharisee’s mention of God is really nothing more than a formality.
  30. Luke 18:11 sn The Pharisee’s prayer started out as a thanksgiving psalm to God, but the praise ended up not being about God.
  31. Luke 18:11 tn Here the plural Greek term ἀνθρώπων (anthrōpōn) is used as a generic and can refer to both men and women (NASB, NRSV, “people”; NLT, “everyone else”; NAB, “the rest of humanity”).
  32. Luke 18:11 tn Or “swindlers” (BDAG 134 s.v. ἅρπαξ 2); see also Isa 10:2; Josephus, J. W. 6.3.4 [6.203].
  33. Luke 18:11 sn A general category for “sinners” (1 Cor 6:9; Lev 19:3).
  34. Luke 18:11 sn Note what the Pharisee assumes about the righteousness of this tax collector by grouping him with extortionists, unrighteous people, and adulterers.
  35. Luke 18:12 sn The law only required fasting on the Day of Atonement. Such voluntary fasting as this practiced twice a week by the Pharisee normally took place on Monday and Thursday.
  36. Luke 18:12 tn Or “I tithe.”
  37. Luke 18:13 tn Grk “standing”; the Greek participle has been translated as a finite verb.
  38. Luke 18:13 tn Grk “even lift up his eyes” (an idiom).
  39. Luke 18:13 tn The prayer is a humble call for forgiveness. The term for mercy (ἱλάσκομαι, hilaskomai) is associated with the concept of a request for atonement (BDAG 473-74 s.v. 1; Pss 51:1, 3; 25:11; 34:6, 18).
  40. Luke 18:13 tn Grk “the sinner.” The tax collector views himself not just as any sinner but as the worst of all sinners. See ExSyn 222-23.
  41. Luke 18:14 sn The prayer that was heard and honored was the one given with humility; in a surprising reversal it was the tax collector who went down to his home justified.
  42. Luke 18:14 tn Grk “the other”; the referent (the Pharisee, v. 10) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  43. Luke 18:14 sn Everyone who exalts himself. See Luke 14:11. Jesus often called for humility and condemned those who sought honor.
  44. Luke 18:15 tn Grk “they.”
  45. Luke 18:15 tn The term βρέφος (brephos) here can refer to babies or to toddlers (2:12, 16; Acts 7:19; 2 Tim 3:15; 1 Pet 2:2).
  46. Luke 18:15 tn Grk “so that he would touch them.” Here the touch is connected with (or conveys) a blessing (cf. Mark 10:16; also BDAG 126 s.v. ἅπτω 2.c).
  47. Luke 18:15 tn Grk “the disciples began to scold them.” In the translation the referent has been specified as “those who brought them,” since otherwise the statement could be understood to mean that the disciples began scolding the children rather than their parents who brought them.
  48. Luke 18:16 tn Grk “summoned them”; the referent (the children) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  49. Luke 18:16 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus’ teaching. The nature of the kingdom of God in the NT and in Jesus’ teaching has long been debated by interpreters and scholars, with discussion primarily centering around the nature of the kingdom (earthly, heavenly, or both) and the kingdom’s arrival (present, future, or both). An additional major issue concerns the relationship between the kingdom of God and the person and work of Jesus himself. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.
  50. Luke 18:16 sn The kingdom of God belongs to such as these. Children are a picture of those whose simple trust illustrates what faith is all about. The remark illustrates how everyone is important to God, even those whom others regard as insignificant.
  51. Luke 18:17 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
  52. Luke 18:17 sn On receive see John 1:12.
  53. Luke 18:17 sn The point of the comparison receive the kingdom of God like a child has more to do with a child’s trusting spirit and willingness to be dependent and receive from others than any inherent humility the child might possess.
  54. Luke 18:17 tn The negation in Greek used here (οὐ μή, ou mē) is very strong.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Psalm 85

Psalm 85[a]

For the music director, written by the Korahites, a psalm.

85 O Lord, you showed favor to your land;
you restored the well-being of Jacob.[b]
You pardoned[c] the wrongdoing of your people;
you forgave[d] all their sin. (Selah)
You withdrew all your fury;
you turned back from your raging anger.[e]
Restore us, O God our deliverer.
Do not be displeased with us.[f]
Will you stay mad at us forever?
Will you remain angry throughout future generations?[g]
Will you not revive us once more?
Then your people will rejoice in you.
O Lord, show us your loyal love.
Bestow on us your deliverance.
I will listen to what God the Lord says.[h]
For he will make[i] peace with his people, his faithful followers.[j]
Yet they must not[k] return to their foolish ways.
Certainly his loyal followers will soon experience his deliverance;[l]
then his splendor will again appear in our land.[m]
10 Loyal love and faithfulness meet;[n]
deliverance and peace greet each other with a kiss.[o]
11 Faithfulness grows from the ground,
and deliverance looks down from the sky.[p]
12 Yes, the Lord will bestow his good blessings,[q]
and our land will yield[r] its crops.
13 Deliverance goes[s] before him,
and prepares[t] a pathway for him.[u]

Footnotes:

  1. Psalm 85:1 sn Psalm 85. God’s people recall how he forgave their sins in the past, pray that he might now restore them to his favor, and anticipate renewed blessings.
  2. Psalm 85:1 tn Heb “you turned with a turning [toward] Jacob.” The Hebrew term שְׁבוּת (shevut) is apparently a cognate accusative of שׁוּב (shuv). See Pss 14:7; 53:6.
  3. Psalm 85:2 tn Heb “lifted up.”
  4. Psalm 85:2 tn Heb “covered over.”
  5. Psalm 85:3 tn Heb “the rage of your anger.” The phrase “rage of your anger” employs an appositional genitive. Synonyms are joined in a construct relationship to emphasize the single idea. For a detailed discussion of the grammatical point with numerous examples, see Y. Avishur, “Pairs of Synonymous Words in the Construct State (and in Appositional Hendiadys) in Biblical Hebrew,” Semitics 2 (1971): 17-81. See Pss 69:24; 78:49.
  6. Psalm 85:4 tn Heb “break your displeasure with us.” Some prefer to emend הָפֵר (hafer, “break”) to הָסֵר (haser, “turn aside”).
  7. Psalm 85:5 tn Heb “Will your anger stretch to a generation and a generation?”
  8. Psalm 85:8 sn I will listen. Having asked for the Lord’s favor, the psalmist (who here represents the nation) anticipates a divine word of assurance.
  9. Psalm 85:8 tn Heb “speak.” The idiom “speak peace” refers to establishing or maintaining peaceful relations with someone (see Gen 37:4; Zech 9:10; cf. Ps 122:8).
  10. Psalm 85:8 tn Heb “to his people and to his faithful followers.” The translation assumes that “his people” and “his faithful followers” are viewed as identical here.
  11. Psalm 85:8 tn Or “yet let them not.” After the negative particle אֵל (ʾel), the prefixed verbal form is jussive, indicating the speaker’s desire or wish.
  12. Psalm 85:9 tn Heb “certainly his deliverance [is] near to those who fear him.”
  13. Psalm 85:9 tn Heb “to dwell, glory, in our land.” “Glory” is the subject of the infinitive. The infinitive with ל (lamed), “to dwell,” probably indicates result here (“then”). When God delivers his people and renews his relationship with them, he will once more reveal his royal splendor in the land.
  14. Psalm 85:10 tn The psalmist probably uses the perfect verbal forms in v. 10 in a dramatic or rhetorical manner, describing what he anticipates as if it were already occurring or had already occurred.
  15. Psalm 85:10 sn Deliverance and peace greet each other with a kiss. The psalmist personifies these abstract qualities to emphasize that God’s loyal love and faithfulness will yield deliverance and peace for his people.
  16. Psalm 85:11 sn The psalmist already sees undeniable signs of God’s faithfulness and expects deliverance to arrive soon.
  17. Psalm 85:12 tn Heb “what is good.”
  18. Psalm 85:12 tn Both “bestow” and “yield” translate the same Hebrew verb (נָתַן, natan). The repetition of the word emphasizes that agricultural prosperity is the direct result of divine blessing.
  19. Psalm 85:13 tn Or “will go.”
  20. Psalm 85:13 tn Or “will prepare.”
  21. Psalm 85:13 tn Heb “and it prepares for a way his footsteps.” Some suggest emending וְיָשֵׂם (veyasem, “and prepares”) to וְשָׁלוֹם (veshalom, “and peace”) since “deliverance” and “peace” are closely related earlier in v. 13. This could be translated, “and peace [goes ahead, making] a pathway for his footsteps” (cf. NEB).
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Proverbs 13:7-8

There is one who pretends to be rich[a] and yet has nothing;
another pretends to be poor[b] and yet possesses great wealth.[c]
The ransom[d] of a person’s[e] life is his wealth,
thus the poor person has never heard[f] a threat.[g]

Footnotes:

  1. Proverbs 13:7 tn The Hitpael of עָשַׁר (ʿashar, “to be rich”) means “to pretend to be rich” (BDB 799 s.v. עָשַׁר Hithp). Here the Hitpael means to show or present oneself in a state (cf. GKC 1256 §54e, Joüon 147 §53i, IBHS 431 §26.2f).
  2. Proverbs 13:7 tn The Hitpolel of רוּשׁ (rush, “to be poor”) means “to pretend to be poor” (BDB 930 s.v. Hithpolel). The Hitpolel forms of hollow root verbs are the equivalent of Hitpael forms; this Hitpolel functions like the Hitpael in the first part of the verse.
  3. Proverbs 13:7 sn The proverb seems to be a general observation on certain people in life, but it is saying more. Although there are times when such pretending may not be wrong, the proverb is instructing people to be honest. An empty pretentious display or a concealing of wealth can come to no good.
  4. Proverbs 13:8 sn As the word “ransom” (כֹּפֶר, cofer) indicates, the rich are susceptible to kidnapping and robbery. But the poor man pays no attention to blackmail—he does not have money to buy off oppressors. So the rich person is exposed to legal attacks and threats of physical violence and must use his wealth as ransom.
  5. Proverbs 13:8 tn Heb “the life of a man.”
  6. Proverbs 13:8 tn Heb “has not heard.” The perfect verb form has been chosen to emphasize the pattern that has been known from past experience. It implies that the pattern is unlikely to change.
  7. Proverbs 13:8 tn The term גְּעָרָה (geʿarah) may mean (1) “rebuke” (so KJV, NASB) or (2) “threat” (so NIV; cf. ASV, NRSV, NLT). If “rebuke” is the sense here, it means that the burdens of society fall on the rich as well as the dangers. But the sense of “threat” better fits the context: The rich are threatened with extortion, but the poor are not (cf. CEV “the poor don’t have that problem”).
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Thursday April 15, 2021 (NIV)

Joshua 11-12

Israel Defeats a Northern Coalition

11 When King Jabin of Hazor heard the news about Israel’s victories,[a] he organized a coalition, including[b] King Jobab of Madon, the king of Shimron, the king of Acshaph, and the northern kings who ruled in[c] the hill country, in the rift valley south of Kinnereth,[d] in the foothills, and on the heights of Dor to the west. Canaanites came[e] from the east and west; Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, and Jebusites from the hill country; and Hivites from below Hermon in the area[f] of Mizpah. These kings came out with their armies; they were as numerous as the sand on the seashore and had a large number of horses and chariots.[g] All these kings gathered and joined forces[h] at the Waters of Merom to fight Israel.

The Lord told Joshua, “Don’t be afraid of them, for about this time tomorrow I will cause all of them to lie dead before Israel. You must hamstring their horses and burn[i] their chariots.” Joshua and his whole army caught them by surprise at the Waters of Merom and attacked them.[j] The Lord handed them over to Israel, and they struck them down and chased them all the way to Greater Sidon, Misrephoth Maim,[k] and the Mizpah Valley to the east. They struck them down until no survivors remained. Joshua did to them as the Lord had commanded him; he hamstrung their horses and burned[l] their chariots.

10 At that time Joshua turned, captured Hazor, and struck down its king with the sword, for Hazor was at that time[m] the leader of all these kingdoms. 11 They annihilated everyone who lived there with the sword[n]—no one who breathed remained—and burned[o] Hazor.

12 Joshua captured all these royal cities and all their kings and annihilated them with the sword,[p] as Moses the Lord’s servant had commanded. 13 But Israel did not burn any of the cities located on mounds[q] except for Hazor; it was the only one Joshua burned. 14 The Israelites plundered all the goods of these cities and the cattle, but they totally destroyed all the people[r] and allowed no one who breathed to live. 15 Moses the Lord’s servant passed on the Lord’s commands to Joshua, and Joshua did as he was told. He did not ignore any of the commands the Lord had given Moses.[s]

A Summary of Israel’s Victories

16 Joshua conquered the whole land,[t] including the hill country, all the Negev,[u] all the land of Goshen, the foothills,[v] the rift valley,[w] the hill country of Israel and its foothills, 17 from Mount Halak up to Seir, as far as Baal Gad in the Lebanon Valley below Mount Hermon. He captured all their kings and executed them.[x] 18 Joshua campaigned against[y] these kings for quite some time.[z] 19 No city made peace with the Israelites (except the Hivites living in Gibeon);[aa] they had to conquer all of them,[ab] 20 for the Lord determined to make them obstinate so they would attack Israel. He wanted Israel to annihilate them without mercy, as he had instructed Moses.[ac]

21 At that time Joshua attacked and eliminated the Anakites from the hill country[ad]—from Hebron, Debir, Anab, and all the hill country of Judah and Israel.[ae] Joshua annihilated them and their cities. 22 No Anakites were left in Israelite territory, though some remained in Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod. 23 Joshua conquered[af] the whole land, just as the Lord had promised Moses,[ag] and he assigned Israel their tribal portions.[ah] Then the land was free of war.

12 Now these are the kings of the land whom the Israelites defeated and drove from their land[ai] on the east side of the Jordan,[aj] from the Arnon Valley to Mount Hermon, including all the eastern rift valley:[ak]

King Sihon of the Amorites who lived[al] in Heshbon and ruled from Aroer (on the edge of the Arnon Valley)—including the city in the middle of the valley[am] and half of Gilead—all the way to the Jabbok Valley bordering Ammonite territory. His kingdom included[an] the eastern rift valley from the Sea of Kinnereth[ao] to the sea of the rift valley (the Salt Sea),[ap] including the route to Beth Jeshimoth and the area southward below the slopes of Pisgah.[aq]

The territory of King Og of Bashan, one of the few remaining Rephaites,[ar] who lived[as] in Ashtaroth and Edrei and ruled over Mount Hermon, Salecah, all Bashan to the border of the Geshurites and Maacathites, and half of Gilead as far as the border of King Sihon of Heshbon.

Moses the Lord’s servant and the Israelites defeated them and Moses the Lord’s servant assigned their land[at] to Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh.

These are the kings of the land whom Joshua and the Israelites defeated on the west side of the Jordan, from Baal Gad in the Lebanon Valley to Mount Halak up to Seir. Joshua assigned this territory to the Israelite tribes,[au] including the hill country, the foothills,[av] the rift valley,[aw] the slopes,[ax] the wilderness, and the Negev[ay]—the land of[az] the Hittites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites:

the king of Jericho (one),
the king of Ai—located near Bethel—(one),
10 the king of Jerusalem (one),
the king of Hebron (one),
11 the king of Jarmuth (one),
the king of Lachish (one),
12 the king of Eglon (one),
the king of Gezer (one),
13 the king of Debir (one),
the king of Geder (one),
14 the king of Hormah (one),
the king of Arad (one),
15 the king of Libnah (one),
the king of Adullam (one),
16 the king of Makkedah (one),
the king of Bethel (one),
17 the king of Tappuah (one),
the king of Hepher (one),
18 the king of Aphek (one),
the king of Lasharon (one),
19 the king of Madon (one),
the king of Hazor (one),
20 the king of Shimron Meron (one),
the king of Acshaph (one),
21 the king of Taanach (one),
the king of Megiddo (one),
22 the king of Kedesh (one),
the king of Jokneam near Carmel (one),
23 the king of Dor—near Naphath Dor—(one),
the king of Goyim—near Gilgal—(one),
24 the king of Tirzah (one),

a total of thirty-one kings.

Footnotes:

  1. Joshua 11:1 tn The words “about Israel’s victories” are not in the Hebrew text but have been supplied for clarity.
  2. Joshua 11:1 tn Heb “he sent to.”
  3. Joshua 11:2 tn Heb “and to the kings who [are] from the north in.”
  4. Joshua 11:2 tn Heb “Chinneroth,” a city and plain located in the territory of Naphtali in Galilee (BDB 490 s.v. כִּנֶּרֶת, כִּנֲרוֹת).sn Kinnereth was a city in Galilee located near the Sea of Galilee (Deut 3:17). The surrounding region also became known by this name (1 Kgs 15:20; cf. Matt 14:34), and eventually even the lake itself (Josh 12:3; cf. Luke 5:1). The “rift valley south of” Galilee probably refers to the northern part of the Jordan Valley from the lake to where the Jezreel Valley joins the rift valley. Dor is nearly due west from that point.
  5. Joshua 11:3 tn The verb “came” is supplied in the translation (see v. 4).
  6. Joshua 11:3 tn Or “land.”
  7. Joshua 11:4 tn Heb “They and all their camps with them came out, a people as numerous as the sand which is on the edge of the sea in multitude, and [with] horses and chariots very numerous.”
  8. Joshua 11:5 tn Heb “and came and camped together.”
  9. Joshua 11:6 tn Heb “burn with fire”; the words “with fire” are redundant in English and have not been included in the translation.
  10. Joshua 11:7 tn Heb “Joshua and all the people of war with him came upon them at the Waters of Merom suddenly and fell upon them.”
  11. Joshua 11:8 tn The meaning of the Hebrew name “Misrephoth Maim” is perhaps “lime-kilns by the water” (see HALOT 641 s.v. מִשְׂרָפוֹת).
  12. Joshua 11:9 tn Heb “burned with fire”; the words “with fire” are redundant in English and have not been included in the translation.
  13. Joshua 11:10 tn Or “formerly.”
  14. Joshua 11:11 tn Heb “and they struck down all life which was in it with the edge of the sword, annihilating.”
  15. Joshua 11:11 tn Heb “burned with fire”; the words “with fire” are redundant in English and have not been included in the translation.
  16. Joshua 11:12 tn Heb “and he struck them down with the edge of the sword, he annihilated them.”
  17. Joshua 11:13 tn Heb “standing on their mounds.”
  18. Joshua 11:14 tn Heb “but all the people they struck down with the edge of the sword until they destroyed them.”
  19. Joshua 11:15 tn Heb “As the Lord commanded Moses his servant, so Moses commanded Joshua, and Joshua acted accordingly; he did not turn aside a thing from all which the Lord commanded Moses.”
  20. Joshua 11:16 tn Heb “Joshua took all this land.”
  21. Joshua 11:16 sn The Negev is an area south of the Judean hill country and west of the rift valley. As a geographic feature it is an arid depression extending south to the Gulf of Aqabah, but the biblical reference is probably to the northern part of this region.
  22. Joshua 11:16 sn The foothills (שְׁפֵלָה, “shephelah”) refer to the transition region between the Judean hill country and the Mediterranean coastal plain.
  23. Joshua 11:16 sn As a geographic feature, the rift valley (עֲרָבָה, ʿaravah) extends from Galilee to the Gulf of Aqaba. The reference here is probably to the Jordan Valley and the wider part of the rift valley below the Dead Sea.
  24. Joshua 11:17 tn Heb “and struck them down and killed them.”
  25. Joshua 11:18 tn Heb “made war with.”
  26. Joshua 11:18 tn Heb “for many days.”
  27. Joshua 11:19 tn The LXX omits this parenthetical note, which may represent a later scribal addition.
  28. Joshua 11:19 tn Heb “the whole they took in battle.”
  29. Joshua 11:20 tn Heb “for from the Lord it was to harden their heart[s] to meet for the battle with Israel, in order to annihilate them, so that they would receive no mercy, in order annihilate them, as the Lord commanded Moses.”
  30. Joshua 11:21 tn Heb “went and cut off the Anakites from the hill country.”
  31. Joshua 11:21 tn Heb “and from all the hill country of Israel.”
  32. Joshua 11:23 tn Heb “took.”
  33. Joshua 11:23 tn Heb “according to all which the Lord said to Moses.” The translation assumes this refers to the promise of the land (see 1:3). Another possibility is that it refers to the Lord’s instructions, in which case the phrase could be translated, “just as the Lord had instructed Moses” (so NLT; cf. also NIV “had directed Moses”).
  34. Joshua 11:23 tn Heb “and Joshua gave it for an inheritance to Israel according to their allotted portions by their tribes.”
  35. Joshua 12:1 tn Heb “and took possession of their land.”
  36. Joshua 12:1 tn Heb “beyond the Jordan, toward the rising of the sun.”
  37. Joshua 12:1 sn The rift valley is a geographic feature that extends from Mt. Hermon to the Gulf of Aqaba and includes the Sea of Galilee, the Jordan River, and the Dead Sea. The section described here extends from the border of Moab, the Arnon which runs into the middle of the Dead Sea, northward up the entire Jordan valley and beyond Galilee to Mt. Hermon at the border of Lebanon.
  38. Joshua 12:2 tn Or perhaps, “reigned.”
  39. Joshua 12:2 tc The MT reads here “and the middle of the valley,” but the reading “the city in the middle of valley” can be reconstructed on the basis of Josh 13:9, 16.
  40. Joshua 12:3 tn The words “his kingdom included” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
  41. Joshua 12:3 sn The Sea of Kinnereth is another name for the Sea of Galilee. See the note on the word “Kinnereth” in 11:2.
  42. Joshua 12:3 sn The Salt Sea is another name for the Dead Sea.
  43. Joshua 12:3 sn The slopes of Pisgah lie east of the northern tip of the Dead Sea.
  44. Joshua 12:4 tn Heb “from the remnant of the Rephaites.”sn The Rephaites were apparently an extremely tall ethnic group. See Deut 2:10-11, 20; 3:11.
  45. Joshua 12:4 tn Or perhaps “who reigned.”
  46. Joshua 12:6 tn Heb “gave it for a possession.”
  47. Joshua 12:7 tn Heb “Joshua gave it to the tribes of Israel as a possession according to their allotted portions.”
  48. Joshua 12:8 sn The foothills (שְׁפֵלָה, shephelah) are the transition region between the Judean hill country and the Mediterranean coastal plain. These are areas of eocene limestone with a distinct pattern of erosion, soil, and vegetation cover.
  49. Joshua 12:8 sn The rift valley (עֲרָבָה, ʿaravah) is a geographic feature extending from Galilee to the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. Here it probably refers to the Jordan valley and an area extending south of the Dead Sea by the Negev.
  50. Joshua 12:8 sn The slopes (אֲשֵׁדוֹת, ʾashedot) refer to the ascent from the rift valley up to the hill country and to the flatlands (or wilderness) south of the hill country.
  51. Joshua 12:8 sn The Negev is the area of central southern Judah, south of the hill country and west of the rift valley. As a geographic feature it is a depression extending south to the Gulf of Aqaba, but the biblical reference is probably to the northern portion of the region.
  52. Joshua 12:8 tn The words “the land of” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Luke 17:11-37

The Grateful Leper

11 Now on[a] the way to Jerusalem,[b] Jesus[c] was passing along[d] between Samaria and Galilee. 12 As[e] he was entering[f] a village, ten men with leprosy[g] met him. They[h] stood at a distance, 13 raised their voices and said, “Jesus, Master, have mercy[i] on us.” 14 When[j] he saw them he said, “Go[k] and show yourselves to the priests.”[l] And[m] as they went along, they were cleansed. 15 Then one of them, when he saw he was healed, turned back, praising[n] God with a loud voice. 16 He[o] fell with his face to the ground[p] at Jesus’ feet and thanked him.[q] (Now[r] he was a Samaritan.)[s] 17 Then[t] Jesus said,[u] “Were[v] not ten cleansed? Where are the other[w] nine? 18 Was no one found to turn back and give praise to God except this foreigner?”[x] 19 Then[y] he said to the man,[z] “Get up and go your way. Your faith has made you well.”[aa]

The Coming of the Kingdom

20 Now at one point[ab] the Pharisees[ac] asked Jesus[ad] when the kingdom of God[ae] was coming, so he answered, “The kingdom of God is not coming with signs[af] to be observed, 21 nor will they say, ‘Look, here it is!’ or ‘There!’ For indeed, the kingdom of God is[ag] in your midst.”[ah]

The Coming of the Son of Man

22 Then[ai] he said to the disciples, “The days are coming when you will desire to see one of the days[aj] of the Son of Man, and you will not see it. 23 Then people[ak] will say to you, ‘Look, there he is!’[al] or ‘Look, here he is!’ Do not go out or chase after them.[am] 24 For just like the lightning flashes[an] and lights up the sky from one side to the other, so will the Son of Man be in his day.[ao] 25 But first he must[ap] suffer many things and be rejected by this generation. 26 Just[aq] as it was[ar] in the days of Noah,[as] so too it will be in the days of the Son of Man. 27 People[at] were eating,[au] they were drinking, they were marrying, they were being given in marriage—right up to the day Noah entered the ark. Then[av] the flood came and destroyed them all.[aw] 28 Likewise, just as it was[ax] in the days of Lot, people[ay] were eating, drinking, buying, selling, planting, building; 29 but on the day Lot went out from Sodom, fire and sulfur rained down from heaven and destroyed them all.[az] 30 It will be the same on the day the Son of Man is revealed. 31 On that day, anyone who is on the roof,[ba] with his goods in the house, must not come down[bb] to take them away, and likewise the person in the field must not turn back. 32 Remember Lot’s wife![bc] 33 Whoever tries to keep[bd] his life[be] will lose it,[bf] but whoever loses his life will preserve it. 34 I tell you, in that night there will be two people in one bed; one will be taken and the other left.[bg] 35 There will be two women grinding grain together;[bh] one will be taken and the other left.”[bi]

37 Then[bj] the disciples[bk] said[bl] to him, “Where,[bm] Lord?” He replied to them, “Where the dead body[bn] is, there the vultures[bo] will gather.”[bp]

Footnotes:

  1. Luke 17:11 tn Grk “Now it happened that on.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  2. Luke 17:11 sn This is another travel note about Jesus going to Jerusalem in Luke 9:51-19:48, the so-called “Jerusalem journey” section of Luke’s Gospel. It is not a straight line journey, because to travel along the Galilean and Samaritan border is to go east or west, not south to Jerusalem.
  3. Luke 17:11 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  4. Luke 17:11 tn Or “was traveling about.”
  5. Luke 17:12 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  6. Luke 17:12 tn The participle εἰσερχομένου (eiserchomenou) is taken temporally.
  7. Luke 17:12 sn The ten men with leprosy would have been unable to approach Jesus (Lev 13:45-46; Num 5:2-3). A leper was totally ostracized from society until he was declared cured (Lev 13:45-46). For more on the condition, see the note on lepers in Luke 4:27.
  8. Luke 17:12 tn Grk “leprosy, who.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun was replaced with a personal pronoun and a new sentence started at this point in the translation.
  9. Luke 17:13 snHave mercy on us” is a request to heal them (Luke 18:38-39; 16:24; Matt 9:27; 15:22; 17:15; 20:31-32; Mark 10:47-49).
  10. Luke 17:14 tn Καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  11. Luke 17:14 tn The participle πορευθέντες (poreuthentes) is a good example of an adverbial participle of attendant circumstance. As such, it picks up the force of an imperative from the verb to which it is related (ExSyn 640-45).
  12. Luke 17:14 sn These are the instructions of what to do with a healing (Lev 13:19; 14:1-11; Luke 5:14).
  13. Luke 17:14 tn Grk “And it happened that as.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  14. Luke 17:15 tn Grk “glorifying God.”
  15. Luke 17:16 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  16. Luke 17:16 tn Grk “he fell on his face” (an idiom for complete prostration).
  17. Luke 17:16 sn And thanked him. This action recognized God’s healing work through Jesus.
  18. Luke 17:16 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of a parenthetical comment.
  19. Luke 17:16 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author. The comment that the man was a Samaritan means that to most Jews of Jesus’ day he would have been despised as a half-breed and a heretic. The note adds a touch of irony to the account (v. 18).
  20. Luke 17:17 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  21. Luke 17:17 tn Grk “Jesus answering said”; this is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified in the translation.
  22. Luke 17:17 tn The Greek construction used here (οὐχί, ouchi) expects a positive reply.
  23. Luke 17:17 tn The word “other” is implied in the context.
  24. Luke 17:18 sn Jesus’ point in calling the man a foreigner is that none of the other nine, who were presumably Israelites, responded with gratitude. Only the “outsiders” were listening and responding.
  25. Luke 17:19 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  26. Luke 17:19 tn Grk “to him”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  27. Luke 17:19 tn Or “has delivered you”; Grk “has saved you.” The remark about faith suggests the benefit of trusting in Jesus’ ability to deliver. Apparently the Samaritan benefited from the healing in a way the other nine did not.
  28. Luke 17:20 tn The words “at one point” are supplied to indicate that the following incident is not necessarily in chronological sequence with the preceding event.
  29. Luke 17:20 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.
  30. Luke 17:20 tn Grk “having been asked by the Pharisees.” The passive construction has been translated as an active one in keeping with contemporary English style, and the direct object, Jesus, has been supplied from the context.
  31. Luke 17:20 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus’ teaching. The nature of the kingdom of God in the NT and in Jesus’ teaching has long been debated by interpreters and scholars, with discussion primarily centering around the nature of the kingdom (earthly, heavenly, or both) and the kingdom’s arrival (present, future, or both). An additional major issue concerns the relationship between the kingdom of God and the person and work of Jesus himself. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.
  32. Luke 17:20 tn Or “is not coming in a way that it can be closely watched” (L&N 24.48). Although there are differing interpretations of what this means, it probably refers to the cosmic signs often associated with the kingdom’s coming in the Jewish view (1 En. 91, 93; 2 Bar. 53–74). See D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1412-14, also H. Riesenfeld, TDNT 8:150.
  33. Luke 17:21 tn This is a present tense in the Greek text. In contrast to waiting and looking for the kingdom, it is now available.
  34. Luke 17:21 tn This is a far better translation than “in you.” Jesus would never tell the hostile Pharisees that the kingdom was inside them. The reference is to Jesus present in their midst. He brings the kingdom. Another possible translation would be “in your grasp.” For further discussion and options, see D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1414-19.
  35. Luke 17:22 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  36. Luke 17:22 sn This is a reference to the days of the full manifestation of Jesus’ power in a fully established kingdom. The reference to “days” instead of “day” is unusual, appearing only here and in v. 26, but it may be motivated merely by parallelism with the “days” of Noah there and the “days of Lot” in v. 28.
  37. Luke 17:23 tn Grk “And they will say.” The plural in Greek is indefinite, referring to people in general. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  38. Luke 17:23 tn The words “he is” here and in the following clause are understood and have been supplied from the context.
  39. Luke 17:23 sn Do not go out or chase after them. There will be no need to search for the Son of Man at his coming, though many will falsely claim its arrival.
  40. Luke 17:24 sn The Son of Man’s coming in power will be sudden and obvious like lightning. No one will need to point it out.
  41. Luke 17:24 tc Some very significant mss (P75 B D it sa) lack the words ἐν τῇ ἡμέρα αὐτοῦ (en tē hēmera autou, “in his day”), but the words are included in א A L W Θ Ψ ƒ1,13 M lat sy bo. On the one hand, the shorter reading is impressive because it has some of the best Alexandrian and Western witnesses in support; on the other hand, the expression ἐν τῇ ἡμέρα αὐτοῦ is unusual (found nowhere else in the NT), and may be considered the harder reading. A decision is difficult, but it is probably best to retain the words. NA28 rightly has the words in brackets, expressing doubt as to their authenticity.
  42. Luke 17:25 sn The Son of Man’s suffering and rejection by this generation is another “it is necessary” type of event in God’s plan (Luke 4:43; 24:7, 26, 44) and the fifth passion prediction in Luke’s account (9:22, 44; 12:50; 13:32-33; for the last, see 18:32-33).
  43. Luke 17:26 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  44. Luke 17:26 tn Or “as it happened.”
  45. Luke 17:26 sn Like the days of Noah, the time of the flood in Gen 6:5-8:22, the judgment will come as a surprise as people live their day to day lives.
  46. Luke 17:27 tn Grk “They.” The plural in Greek is indefinite, referring to people in general.
  47. Luke 17:27 tn These verbs (“eating…drinking…marrying…being given in marriage”) are all progressive imperfects, describing action in progress at that time.
  48. Luke 17:27 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  49. Luke 17:27 sn Like that flood came and destroyed them all, the coming judgment associated with the Son of Man will condemn many.
  50. Luke 17:28 tn Or “as it happened.”
  51. Luke 17:28 tn Grk “they.” The plural in Greek is indefinite, referring to people in general.
  52. Luke 17:29 sn And destroyed them all. The coming of the Son of Man will be like the judgment on Sodom, one of the most immoral places of the OT (Gen 19:16-17; Deut 32:32-33; Isa 1:10).
  53. Luke 17:31 sn Most of the roofs in the NT were flat roofs made of pounded dirt, sometimes mixed with lime or stones, supported by heavy wooden beams. They generally had an easy means of access, either a sturdy wooden ladder or stone stairway, sometimes on the outside of the house.
  54. Luke 17:31 sn The swiftness and devastation of the judgment will require a swift escape. There is no time to come down from one’s roof and pick up anything from inside one’s home.
  55. Luke 17:32 sn An allusion to Gen 19:26. The warning about Lot’s wife is not to look back and long to be where one used to be. The world is being judged, and the person who delays or turns back will be destroyed.
  56. Luke 17:33 tn Or “tries to preserve”; Grk “seeks to gain.”
  57. Luke 17:33 tn Grk “soul.” See the discussion of this Greek term in the note on “life” in Luke 9:24.
  58. Luke 17:33 sn The Greek word translated life can refer to both earthly, physical life and inner, transcendent life (one’s “soul”). In the context, if a person is not willing to suffer the world’s rejection and persecution in order to follow Jesus but instead seeks to retain his physical life, then that person will lose both physical life and inner, transcendent life (at the judgment). On the other hand, the one who willingly gives up earthly, physical life to follow Jesus (“loses his life”) will ultimately preserve one’s “soul” (note that the parallel in John’s Gospel speaks of “guarding one’s ‘soul’ for eternal life” (John 12:25).
  59. Luke 17:34 sn There is debate among commentators and scholars over the phrase one will be taken and the other left about whether one is taken for judgment or for salvation. If the imagery is patterned after the rescue of Noah from the flood and Lot from Sodom, as some suggest, the ones taken are the saved (as Noah and Lot were) and those left behind are judged. The imagery, however, is not directly tied to the identification of the two groups. Its primary purpose in context is to picture the sudden, surprising separation of the righteous and the judged (i.e., condemned) at the return of the Son of Man.
  60. Luke 17:35 tn Grk “at the same place.” According to L&N 46.16, this refers to a hand mill normally operated by two women.
  61. Luke 17:35 tc Several mss (D ƒ13 [579] 700 al lat sy) add (with several variations among these witnesses) 17:36 “There will be two in the field; one will be taken and the other left.” It is not well enough attested to be original. Further, it is an assimilation to the parallel in Matt 24:40, which marks the addition as secondary. The present translation follows NA28 in omitting the verse number, a procedure also followed by a number of other modern translations.
  62. Luke 17:37 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  63. Luke 17:37 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the disciples, v. 22) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  64. Luke 17:37 tn Grk “answering, they said to him.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified in the translation.
  65. Luke 17:37 sn The question “Where, Lord?” means, “Where will the judgment take place?”
  66. Luke 17:37 tn Or “corpse.”
  67. Luke 17:37 tn The same Greek term can refer to “eagles” or “vultures” (L&N 4.42; BDAG 22 s.v. ἀετός), but in this context it must mean vultures, because the gruesome image is one of dead bodies being consumed by scavengers. sn Jesus’ answer is that when the judgment comes, the scenes of death will be obvious and so will the location of the judgment.
  68. Luke 17:37 tn Grk “will be gathered.” The passive construction has been translated as an active one in English.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Psalm 84

Psalm 84[a]

For the music director, according to the gittith style;[b] written by the Korahites, a psalm.

84 How lovely is the place where you live,[c]
O Lord of Heaven’s Armies![d]
I desperately want to be[e]
in the courts of the Lord’s temple.[f]
My heart and my entire being[g] shout for joy
to the living God.
Even the birds find a home there,
and the swallow[h] builds a nest,
where she can protect her young[i]
near your altars, O Lord of Heaven’s Armies,
my King and my God.
How blessed[j] are those who live in your temple
and praise you continually. (Selah)
How blessed are those who[k] find their strength in you,
and long to travel the roads that lead to your temple.[l]
As they pass through the Baca Valley,[m]
he provides a spring for them.[n]
The rain[o] even covers it with pools of water.[p]
They are sustained as they travel along;[q]
each one appears[r] before God in Zion.
O Lord God of Heaven’s Armies,[s]
hear my prayer.
Listen, O God of Jacob. (Selah)
O God, take notice of our shield.[t]
Show concern for your chosen king.[u]
10 Certainly[v] spending just one day in your temple courts is better
than spending a thousand elsewhere.[w]
I would rather stand at the entrance[x] to the temple of my God
than live[y] in the tents of the wicked.
11 For the Lord God is our sovereign protector.[z]
The Lord bestows favor[aa] and honor;
he withholds no good thing from those who have integrity.[ab]
12 O Lord of Heaven’s Armies,[ac]
how blessed are those who trust in you.[ad]

Footnotes:

  1. Psalm 84:1 sn Psalm 84. The psalmist expresses his desire to be in God’s presence in the Jerusalem temple, for the Lord is the protector of his people.
  2. Psalm 84:1 tn The precise meaning of the Hebrew term הַגִּתִּית (haggittit) is uncertain; it probably refers to a musical style or instrument.
  3. Psalm 84:1 tn Or “your dwelling place[s].” The plural form of the noun may indicate degree or quality; this is the Lord’s special dwelling place (see Pss 43:3; 46:4; 132:5, 7).
  4. Psalm 84:1 tn Traditionally, “Lord of hosts.” The title draws attention to God’s sovereign position (see Ps 69:6).
  5. Psalm 84:2 tn Heb “my soul longs, it even pines for.”
  6. Psalm 84:2 tn Heb “the courts of the Lord” (see Ps 65:4).
  7. Psalm 84:2 tn Heb “my flesh,” which stands for his whole person and being.
  8. Psalm 84:3 tn The word translated “swallow” occurs only here and in Prov 26:2.
  9. Psalm 84:3 tn Heb “even a bird finds a home, and a swallow a nest for herself, [in] which she places her young.”sn The psalmist here romanticizes the temple as a place of refuge and safety. As he thinks of the birds nesting near its roof, he envisions them finding protection in God’s presence.
  10. Psalm 84:4 tn The Hebrew noun is an abstract plural. The word often refers metonymically to the happiness that God-given security and prosperity produce (see v. 12 and Pss 1:1; 2:12; 34:9; 41:1; 65:4; 89:15; 106:3; 112:1; 127:5; 128:1; 144:15).
  11. Psalm 84:5 tn Heb “[Oh] the happiness [of] the man.” Hebrew literature often assumes and reflects the male-oriented perspective of ancient Israelite society. The principle stated here was certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender or age. To facilitate modern application, we translate the gender and age specific “man” with the plural “those.” The individual referred to in v. 5a is representative of followers of God, as the use of plural forms in vv. 5b-7 indicates.
  12. Psalm 84:5 tn Heb “roads [are] in their heart[s].” The roads are here those that lead to Zion (see v. 7).
  13. Psalm 84:6 tn The translation assumes that the Hebrew phrase עֵמֶק הַבָּכָא (ʿemeq habbakhaʾ) is the name of an otherwise unknown arid valley through which pilgrims to Jerusalem passed. The term בָּכָא (bakhaʾ) may be the name of a particular type of plant or shrub that grew in this valley. O. Borowski (Agriculture in Iron Age Israel, 130) suggests it is the black mulberry. Some take the phrase as purely metaphorical and relate בָּכָא to the root בָּכָה (bakhah, “to weep”). In this case one might translate, “the valley of weeping” or “the valley of affliction.”
  14. Psalm 84:6 tc The MT reads “a spring they make it,” but this makes little sense. Many medieval Hebrew mss, as well as the LXX, understand God to be the subject and the valley to be the object, “he [God] makes it [the valley] [into] a spring.”
  15. Psalm 84:6 tn This rare word may refer to the early (or autumn) rains (see Joel 2:23).
  16. Psalm 84:6 tc The MT reads בְּרָכוֹת (berakhot, “blessings”) but the preceding reference to a “spring” favors an emendation to בְּרֵכוֹת (berekhot, “pools”).sn Pools of water. Because water is so necessary for life, it makes an apt symbol for divine favor and blessing. As the pilgrims traveled to Jerusalem, God provided for their physical needs and gave them a token of his favor and of the blessings awaiting them at the temple.
  17. Psalm 84:7 tn Heb “they go from strength to strength.” The phrase “from strength to strength” occurs only here in the OT. With a verb of motion, the expression “from [common noun] to [same common noun]” normally suggests movement from one point to another or through successive points (see Num 36:7; 1 Chr 16:20; 17:5; Ps 105:13; Jer 25:32). Ps 84:7 may be emphasizing that the pilgrims move successively from one “place of strength” to another as they travel toward Jerusalem. All along the way they find adequate provisions and renewed energy for the trip.
  18. Psalm 84:7 tn The psalmist returns to the singular (see v. 5a), which he uses in either a representative or distributive (“each one”) sense.
  19. Psalm 84:8 tn HebLord, God, hosts.” One expects the construct form אֱלֹהֵי before צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot, “hosts”; see Ps 89:9) but יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים (yehvah ʾelohim) precedes צְבָאוֹת in Pss 59:5 and 80:4, 19 as well.
  20. Psalm 84:9 tn The phrase “our shield” refers metaphorically to the Davidic king, who, as God’s vice-regent, was the human protector of the people. Note the parallelism with “your anointed one” here and with “our king” in Ps 89:18.
  21. Psalm 84:9 tn Heb “look [on] the face of your anointed one.” The Hebrew phrase מְשִׁיחֶךָ (meshikhekha, “your anointed one”) refers here to the Davidic king (see Pss 2:2; 18:50; 20:6; 28:8; 89:38, 51; 132:10, 17).
  22. Psalm 84:10 tn Or “for.”
  23. Psalm 84:10 tn Heb “better is a day in your courts than a thousand [spent elsewhere].”
  24. Psalm 84:10 tn Heb “I choose being at the entrance of the house of my God over living in the tents of the wicked.” The verb סָפַף (safaf) appears only here in the OT; it is derived from the noun סַף (saf, “threshold”). Traditionally some have interpreted this as a reference to being a doorkeeper at the temple, though some understand it to mean “lie as a beggar at the entrance to the temple” (see HALOT 765 s.v. ספף).
  25. Psalm 84:10 tn The verb דּוּר (dur, “to live”) occurs only here in the OT.
  26. Psalm 84:11 tn Heb “[is] a sun and a shield.” The epithet “sun,” though rarely used of Israel’s God in the OT, was a well-attested royal title in the ancient Near East. For several examples from Ugaritic texts, the Amarna letters, and Assyrian royal inscriptions, see R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 131, n. 2.
  27. Psalm 84:11 tn Or “grace.”
  28. Psalm 84:11 tn Heb “he does not withhold good to those walking in integrity.”
  29. Psalm 84:12 tn Traditionally “Lord of hosts.”
  30. Psalm 84:12 tn Heb “[Oh] the happiness [of] the man [who] trusts in you.” Hebrew literature often assumes and reflects the male-oriented perspective of ancient Israelite society. The principle stated here is certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender or age. To facilitate modern application, we translate the gender and age specific “man” with the plural “those.” The individual referred to here is representative of all followers of God, as the use of the plural form in v. 12b indicates.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Proverbs 13:5-6

The righteous person will reject[a] anything false,[b]
but the wicked person will act in shameful disgrace.[c]
Righteousness[d] guards the one who lives with integrity,[e]
but wickedness[f] overthrows the sinner.

Footnotes:

  1. Proverbs 13:5 tn Heb “will hate.” The verb שָׂנֵא (saneʾ, “to hate”) can express a range of feelings of dislike or the implications of such. It can, then, have the connotation “to reject, spurn” (see NIDOTTE 1254 s.v.).
  2. Proverbs 13:5 tn Heb “a word of falsehood.” The genitive “falsehood” functions as an attributive genitive. The construct noun דְּבַר (devar) means either “word” or “thing.” Hence, the phrase means “a false word” or “a false thing.”
  3. Proverbs 13:5 tc The versions render this phrase variously: “is ashamed and without confidence” (LXX); “is ashamed and put to the blush” (Tg. Prov 13:5); “confounds and will be confounded” (Vulgate). The variety is due in part to confusion of בָּאַשׁ (baʾash, “to stink”) and בּוֹשׁ (bosh, “to be ashamed”). Cf. NASB “acts disgustingly and shamefully.”tn Heb “acts shamefully and disgracefully.” The verb בָּאַשׁ (baʾash) literally means “to cause a stink; to emit a stinking odor” (e.g., Exod 5:21; Eccl 10:1) and figuratively means “to act shamefully” (BDB 92 s.v.). The verb וְיַחְפִּיר (veyakhpir) means “to display shame.” Together, they can be treated as a verbal hendiadys: “to act in disgraceful shame,” or more colorfully “to make a shameful smell,” or as W. McKane has it, “spread the smell of scandal” (Proverbs [OTL], 460). W. G. Plaut says, “Unhappily, the bad odor adheres not only to the liar but also to the one about whom he lies—especially when the lie is a big one” (Proverbs, 152).
  4. Proverbs 13:6 sn Righteousness refers to that which conforms to law and order. One who behaves with integrity will be safe from consequences of sin.
  5. Proverbs 13:6 tn Heb “integrity of way.” The term דָּרֶךְ (darekh) is a genitive of specification: “integrity in respect to his way.” This means living above reproach in their course of life. Cf. NASB “whose way is blameless”; NAB “who walks honestly.”
  6. Proverbs 13:6 sn Righteousness and wickedness are personified in this proverb to make the point of security and insecurity for the two courses of life.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Wednesday April 14, 2021 (NIV)

Joshua 9:3-10:43

When the residents of Gibeon heard what Joshua did to Jericho and Ai, they did something clever. They collected some provisions[a] and put worn-out sacks on their donkeys, along with worn-out wineskins that were ripped and patched. They had worn-out, patched sandals on their feet and dressed in worn-out clothes. All their bread[b] was dry and hard.[c] They came to Joshua at the camp in Gilgal and said to him and the men of Israel, “We have come from a distant land. Make a treaty with us.” The men of Israel said to the Hivites, “Perhaps you live near us.[d] So how can we make a treaty with you?” But they said to Joshua, “We are willing to be your subjects.”[e] So Joshua said to them, “Who are you and where do you come from?” They told him, “Your subjects[f] have come from a very distant land because of the reputation[g] of the Lord your God, for we have heard the news about all he did in Egypt[h] 10 and all he did to the two Amorite kings on the other side of the Jordan—King Sihon of Heshbon and King Og of Bashan in Ashtaroth. 11 Our leaders and all who live in our land told us, ‘Take provisions for your journey and go meet them. Tell them, “We are willing to be your subjects.[i] Make a treaty with us.”’ 12 This bread of ours was warm when we packed it in our homes the day we started out to meet you,[j] but now it is dry and hard.[k] 13 These wineskins we filled were brand new, but look how they have ripped. Our clothes and sandals have worn out because it has been a very long journey.” 14 The men examined[l] some of their provisions, but they failed to ask the Lord’s advice.[m] 15 Joshua made a peace treaty with them and agreed to let them live. The leaders of the community[n] sealed it with an oath.[o]

16 Three days after they made the treaty with them, the Israelites found out they were from the local area and lived nearby.[p] 17 So the Israelites set out and on the third day arrived at their cities—Gibeon, Kephirah, Beeroth, and Kiriath Jearim. 18 The Israelites did not attack them because the leaders of the community had sworn an oath to them in the name of the Lord God of Israel.[q] The whole community criticized[r] the leaders, 19 but all the leaders told the whole community, “We swore an oath to them in the name of[s] the Lord God of Israel! So now we can’t hurt[t] them. 20 We must let them live so we can escape the curse attached to the oath we swore to them.”[u] 21 The leaders then added,[v] “Let them live.” So they became[w] woodcutters and water carriers for the whole community, as the leaders had decided.[x]

22 [y] Joshua summoned the Gibeonites[z] and said to them, “Why did you trick[aa] us by saying, ‘We live far away from you,’ when you really live nearby?[ab] 23 Now you are condemned to perpetual servitude as woodcutters and water carriers for the house of my God.”[ac] 24 They said to Joshua, “It was carefully reported to your subjects[ad] how the Lord your God commanded Moses his servant to assign you the whole land and to destroy all who live in the land from before you. Because of you we were terrified[ae] we would lose our lives, so we did this thing. 25 So now we are in your power.[af] Do to us what you think is good and appropriate.”[ag] 26 Joshua did as they said; he kept the Israelites from killing them[ah] 27 and that day made them woodcutters and water carriers for the community and for the altar of the Lord at the divinely chosen site. (They continue in that capacity to this very day.)[ai]

Israel Defeats an Amorite Coalition

10 Adoni-Zedek, king of Jerusalem, heard how Joshua captured Ai and annihilated it and its king as he did Jericho and its king.[aj] He also heard how[ak] the people of Gibeon made peace with Israel and lived among them. All Jerusalem was terrified[al] because Gibeon was a large city, like one of the royal cities. It was larger than Ai and all its men were warriors. So King Adoni-Zedek of Jerusalem sent this message to King Hoham of Hebron, King Piram of Jarmuth, King Japhia of Lachish, and King Debir of Eglon: “Come to my aid[am] so we can attack Gibeon, for it has made peace with Joshua and the Israelites.” So the five Amorite kings (the kings of Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon) and all their troops gathered together and advanced. They deployed their troops and fought against Gibeon.[an]

The men of Gibeon sent this message to Joshua at the camp in Gilgal, “Do not abandon[ao] your subjects![ap] Come up here quickly and rescue us! Help us! For all the Amorite kings living in the hill country are attacking us.”[aq] So Joshua and his whole army, including the bravest warriors, marched up from Gilgal.[ar] The Lord told Joshua, “Don’t be afraid of them, for I am handing them over to you.[as] Not one of them can resist you.”[at] Joshua attacked them by surprise after marching all night from Gilgal.[au] 10 The Lord routed[av] them before Israel. Israel[aw] thoroughly defeated them[ax] at Gibeon. They chased them up the road to the pass[ay] of Beth Horon and struck them down all the way to Azekah and Makkedah. 11 As they fled from Israel on the slope leading down from[az] Beth Horon, the Lord threw down on them large hailstones from the sky,[ba] all the way to Azekah. They died—in fact, more died from the hailstones than the Israelites killed with the sword.

12 The day the Lord delivered the Amorites over to the Israelites, Joshua prayed to the Lord before Israel:[bb]

“O sun, stand still over Gibeon;
O moon, over the Valley of Aijalon!”

13 The sun stood still and the moon stood motionless while the nation took vengeance on its enemies. The event is recorded in the Scroll of the Upright One.[bc] The sun stood motionless in the middle of the sky and did not set for about a full day.[bd] 14 There has not been a day like it before or since. The Lord listened to a human being, for the Lord fought for Israel! 15 Then Joshua and all Israel returned to the camp at Gilgal.

16 The five Amorite kings[be] ran away and hid in the cave at Makkedah. 17 Joshua was told, “The five kings have been found hiding in the cave at Makkedah.” 18 Joshua said, “Roll large stones over the mouth of the cave and post guards in front of it.[bf] 19 But don’t you delay! Chase your enemies and catch them.[bg] Don’t allow them to retreat to[bh] their cities, for the Lord your God is handing them over to you.”[bi] 20 Joshua and the Israelites almost totally wiped them out, but some survivors did escape to the fortified cities.[bj] 21 Then the whole army safely returned to Joshua at the camp in Makkedah.[bk] No one[bl] dared threaten the Israelites.[bm] 22 Joshua said, “Open the cave’s mouth and bring the five kings[bn] out of the cave to me.” 23 They did as ordered;[bo] they brought the five kings[bp] out of the cave to him—the kings of Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon. 24 When they brought the kings out to Joshua, he[bq] summoned all the men of Israel and said to the commanders of the troops who accompanied him, “Come here[br] and put your feet on the necks of these kings.” So they came up[bs] and put their feet on their necks. 25 Then Joshua said to them, “Don’t be afraid and don’t panic![bt] Be strong and brave, for the Lord will do the same thing to all your enemies you fight.” 26 Then Joshua executed them[bu] and hung them on five trees. They were left hanging on the trees until evening. 27 At sunset Joshua ordered his men to take them down from the trees.[bv] They threw them into the cave where they had hidden and piled large stones over the mouth of the cave. (They remain to this very day.)[bw]

Joshua Launches a Southern Campaign

28 That day Joshua captured Makkedah and put the sword to it and its king. He annihilated everyone who lived in it; he left no survivors. He did to its king what he had done to the king of Jericho.

29 Joshua and all Israel marched from Makkedah to Libnah and fought against it.[bx] 30 The Lord handed it and its king over to Israel, and Israel[by] put the sword to all who lived there; they[bz] left no survivors. They did to its king what they had done to the king of Jericho.

31 Joshua and all Israel marched from Libnah to Lachish. He deployed his troops[ca] and fought against it. 32 The Lord handed Lachish over to Israel, and they[cb] captured it on the second day. They put the sword to all who lived there, just as they had done to Libnah. 33 Then King Horam of Gezer came up to help Lachish, but Joshua struck him down, as well as his army,[cc] until no survivors remained.

34 Joshua and all Israel marched from Lachish to Eglon. They deployed troops[cd] and fought against it. 35 That day they captured it and put the sword to all who lived there. That day they[ce] annihilated it just as they had done to Lachish.

36 Joshua and all Israel marched up from Eglon to Hebron and fought against it. 37 They captured it and put the sword to its king, all its surrounding cities, and all who lived in it; they[cf] left no survivors. As they had done at Eglon, they annihilated it and all who lived there.

38 Joshua and all Israel turned to Debir and fought against it. 39 They[cg] captured it, its king, and all its surrounding cities and put the sword to them. They annihilated everyone who lived there; they[ch] left no survivors. They did to Debir and its king what they had done to Libnah and its king and to Hebron.[ci]

40 Joshua defeated the whole land, including the hill country, the Negev,[cj] the foothills,[ck] the slopes,[cl] and all their kings. He left no survivors. He annihilated everything that breathed, just as the Lord God of Israel had commanded. 41 Joshua conquered the area between Kadesh Barnea and Gaza and the whole region of Goshen, all the way to Gibeon.[cm] 42 Joshua captured in one campaign[cn] all these kings and their lands, for the Lord God of Israel fought for Israel. 43 Then Joshua and all Israel returned to the camp at Gilgal.

Footnotes:

  1. Joshua 9:4 tc Heb “and they went and [?].” The root and meaning of the verb form יִצְטַיָּרוּ (yitstayyaru) are uncertain. The Hebrew text form most likely should be יִצְטַיָּדוּ (yitstayyadu), read by some Hebrew mss and ancient versions, from the root צוּד (tsud, “take provisions,” BDB 845 s.v. II צוד) which also occurs in v. 11. Note NRSV “they went and prepared provisions”; cf. NEB “They went and disguised themselves”; NIV “they went as a delegation.”
  2. Joshua 9:5 tn Heb “all the bread of their provisions.”
  3. Joshua 9:5 tn Or “moldy.”
  4. Joshua 9:7 tn Heb “in our midst.”
  5. Joshua 9:8 tn Heb “we are your servants.”
  6. Joshua 9:9 tn Or “servants.”
  7. Joshua 9:9 tn Heb “name.”
  8. Joshua 9:9 tn Heb “the report about him, all that he did in Egypt.”
  9. Joshua 9:11 tn Heb “your servants.”
  10. Joshua 9:12 tn Heb “in the day we went out to come to you.”
  11. Joshua 9:12 tn Or “moldy.”
  12. Joshua 9:14 tn Heb “took.” This probably means they tasted some of the food to make sure it was stale.
  13. Joshua 9:14 tn Heb “but they did not ask the mouth of the Lord.” This refers to seeking the Lord’s will and guidance through an oracle.
  14. Joshua 9:15 tn Or “assembly.”
  15. Joshua 9:15 tn Heb “Joshua made peace with them and made a treaty with them to let them live, and the leaders of the community swore an oath to them.”
  16. Joshua 9:16 tn Heb “At the end of three days, after they made the treaty with them, they heard that they were neighbors to them and in their midst they were living.”
  17. Joshua 9:18 tn Heb “by the Lord God of Israel.”
  18. Joshua 9:18 tn Or “grumbled against.”
  19. Joshua 9:19 tn Heb “to them by….”
  20. Joshua 9:19 tn Or “touch.”
  21. Joshua 9:20 tn Heb “This is what we will do to them, keeping them alive so there will not be upon us anger concerning the oath which we swore to them.”
  22. Joshua 9:21 tc Heb “and the leaders said to them.” The LXX omits the words “and the leaders said to them.”
  23. Joshua 9:21 tn The vav (ו) consecutive construction in the Hebrew text suggests that the narrative resumes at this point. The LXX reads here, “and they will be,” understanding what follows to be a continuation of the leaders’ words rather than a comment by the narrator.
  24. Joshua 9:21 tn Heb “as the leaders said to them.”
  25. Joshua 9:22 sn Verses 22-27 appear to elaborate on v. 21b.
  26. Joshua 9:22 tn Heb “them.”
  27. Joshua 9:22 tn Or “deceive.”
  28. Joshua 9:22 tn Heb “live in our midst?”
  29. Joshua 9:23 tn Heb “Now you are cursed and a servant will not be cut off from you, woodcutters and water carriers for the house of my God.”
  30. Joshua 9:24 tn Heb “your servants.”
  31. Joshua 9:24 tn Or “we were very afraid.”
  32. Joshua 9:25 tn Heb “so now, look, we are in your hand.”
  33. Joshua 9:25 tn Heb “according to what is good and according to what is upright in your eyes to do us, do.”
  34. Joshua 9:26 tn Heb “And he did to them so and he rescued them from the hand of the sons of Israel and they did not kill them.”
  35. Joshua 9:27 tn Heb “and Joshua made them in that day woodcutters and water carriers for the community, and for the altar of the Lord to this day at the place which he chooses.”
  36. Joshua 10:1 tn Heb “as he had done to Jericho and to its king, so he did to Ai and to its king.”
  37. Joshua 10:1 tn Heb “and how.”
  38. Joshua 10:2 tn This statement is subordinated to v. 1 in the Hebrew text, which reads literally, “When Adoni-Zedek…they feared greatly.” The subject of the plural verb at the beginning of v. 2 is probably the residents of Jerusalem.
  39. Joshua 10:4 tn Heb “Come up to me and help me.”
  40. Joshua 10:5 tn Heb “and they camped against Gibeon and fought against it.”
  41. Joshua 10:6 tn Heb “do not let your hand drop from us.”
  42. Joshua 10:6 tn Heb “your servants!”
  43. Joshua 10:6 tn Heb “have gathered against us.”
  44. Joshua 10:7 tn Heb “And Joshua went up from Gilgal, he and all the people of war with him, and all the brave warriors.”
  45. Joshua 10:8 tn Heb “I have given them into your hand.” The verbal form is a perfect of certitude, emphasizing the certainty of the action.
  46. Joshua 10:8 tn Heb “and not a man [or “one”] of them will stand before you.”
  47. Joshua 10:9 tn Heb “Joshua came upon them suddenly, all the night he went up from Gilgal.”
  48. Joshua 10:10 tn Or “caused to panic.”
  49. Joshua 10:10 tn Heb “he.” The referent is probably Israel (mentioned at the end of the previous sentence in the verse; cf. NIV, NRSV), but it is also possible that the Lord should be understood as the referent (cf. NASB “and He slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon”), or even Joshua (cf. NEB “and Joshua defeated them utterly in Gibeon”).
  50. Joshua 10:10 tn Heb “struck them down with a great striking down.”
  51. Joshua 10:10 tn Or “ascent.”
  52. Joshua 10:11 tn Heb “on the descent of.”
  53. Joshua 10:11 tn Or “heaven” (also in v. 13). The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heaven(s)” or “sky” depending on the context.
  54. Joshua 10:12 tn Heb “Then Joshua spoke to the Lord in the day the Lord placed the Amorites before the sons of Israel and he said in the eyes of Israel.” It is uncertain whether the phrase “before the sons of Israel” modifies the verb “placed” (as in the present translation, “delivered the Amorites over to the Israelites”) or the verb “spoke” (“Joshua spoke to the Lord before the sons of Israel in the day the Lord delivered over the Amorites”).
  55. Joshua 10:13 tn Heb “Is it not written down in the Scroll of the Upright One?” Many modern translations render this as “the Book of Jashar.” Yashar (יָשָׁר) means “Upright One.”sn The Scroll of the Upright One was apparently an ancient Israelite collection of songs and prayers (see also 2 Sam 1:18), but it has not been preserved.
  56. Joshua 10:13 tn Heb “and did not hurry to set [for] about a full day.”sn The nature of the event described here is debated. Various options have been suggested, including (1) the earth stopped rotating, (2) the light of the sun somehow shone longer than normal, (3) the light of the sun was blocked by an eclipse, (4) the position of the sun and moon in the sky was interpreted as an omen, or (5) the language is figurative and metaphorical, describing the battle in poetic terms. For a good discussion of these options, see D. M. Howard, Jr., Joshua (NAC), 241-49.
  57. Joshua 10:16 tn Heb “these five kings.”
  58. Joshua 10:18 tn Heb “and appoint by it men to guard them.”
  59. Joshua 10:19 tn Heb “But [as for] you, don’t stand still, chase after your enemies and attack them from the rear.”
  60. Joshua 10:19 tn Or “enter into.”
  61. Joshua 10:19 tn Heb “has given them into your hand.” The verbal form is a perfect of certitude, emphasizing the certainty of the action.
  62. Joshua 10:20 tn Heb “When Joshua and the sons of Israel finished defeating them with a very great defeat until they were destroyed (now the survivors escaped to the fortified cities).” In the Hebrew text the initial temporal clause (“when Joshua…finished”) is subordinated to v. 21 (“the whole army returned”).
  63. Joshua 10:21 tn Heb “all the people returned to the camp, to Joshua [at] Makkedah [in] peace.”
  64. Joshua 10:21 tc Heb “No man.” The lamed (ל) prefixed to אִישׁ (ʾish, “man”) is probably dittographic (note the immediately preceding יִשְׂרָאֵל [yisraʾel] which ends in lamed, ל); cf. the LXX.
  65. Joshua 10:21 tn Heb “no man sharpened [or perhaps, “pointed”] his tongue against the sons of Israel.” Cf. NEB “not a man of the Israelites suffered so much as a scratch on his tongue,” which understands “sharpened” as “scratched” (referring to a minor wound). Most modern translations understand the Hebrew expression “sharpened his tongue” figuratively for opposition or threats against the Israelites.
  66. Joshua 10:22 tn Heb “these five kings.”
  67. Joshua 10:23 tn Heb “they did so.”
  68. Joshua 10:23 tn Heb “these five kings.”
  69. Joshua 10:24 tn Heb “Joshua.” The translation has replaced the proper name with the pronoun (“he”) because a repetition of the proper name here would be redundant according to English style.
  70. Joshua 10:24 tn Or “Draw near.”
  71. Joshua 10:24 tn Or “drew near.”
  72. Joshua 10:25 tn Or perhaps “and don’t get discouraged!”
  73. Joshua 10:26 tn Heb “struck them down and killed them.”
  74. Joshua 10:27 sn For the legal background of the removal of the corpses before sundown, see Deut 21:22-23.
  75. Joshua 10:27 tn Heb “to this very day.” The words “They remain” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
  76. Joshua 10:29 tn Heb “Libnah.” Repetition of the proper name here would be redundant according to English style, so the pronoun (“it”) has been employed in the translation.
  77. Joshua 10:30 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
  78. Joshua 10:30 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army). So also for “They did to its king” and “they had done.”
  79. Joshua 10:31 tn Heb “encamped against it.”
  80. Joshua 10:32 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
  81. Joshua 10:33 tn Heb “people.”
  82. Joshua 10:34 tn Heb “they encamped against it.”
  83. Joshua 10:35 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army). So also for “they had done to Lachish.”
  84. Joshua 10:37 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army). So also for “they had done” and “they annihilated.”
  85. Joshua 10:39 tn Heb “He”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
  86. Joshua 10:39 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army). So also for “They did to Debir” and “they had done to Libnah.”
  87. Joshua 10:39 tn Heb “as he did to Hebron, so he did to Debir and its king, and as he did to Libnah and its king.” The clauses have been rearranged in the translation for stylistic reasons.
  88. Joshua 10:40 sn The Negev is an area of central southern Judah, south of the hill country and west of the rift valley. As a geographic feature it is a depression extending south to the Gulf of Aqabah, but the biblical reference is probably to the northern portion of the region.
  89. Joshua 10:40 sn The foothills (שְׁפֵלָה, shephelah) are the transition region from the hill country to the Mediterranean coastal plains.
  90. Joshua 10:40 sn In contrast to the foothills on the western side of the hill country, the slopes are on the eastern side leading down to the rift valley of the Dead Sea and Jordan river.
  91. Joshua 10:41 tn Heb “and Joshua struck them down, from Kadesh Barnea even to Gaza, and all the land of Goshen, even to Gibeon.”
  92. Joshua 10:42 tn Heb “at one time.”
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Luke 16:19-17:10

The Rich Man and Lazarus

19 “There was a rich man who dressed in purple[a] and fine linen and who feasted sumptuously[b] every day. 20 But at his gate lay[c] a poor man named Lazarus[d] whose body was covered with sores,[e] 21 who longed to eat[f] what fell from the rich man’s table. In addition, the dogs[g] came and licked[h] his sores.

22 “Now[i] the poor man died and was carried by the angels to Abraham’s side.[j] The[k] rich man also died and was buried.[l] 23 And in Hades,[m] as he was in torment,[n] he looked up[o] and saw Abraham far off with Lazarus at his side.[p] 24 So[q] he called out,[r] ‘Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus[s] to dip the tip of his finger[t] in water and cool my tongue, because I am in anguish[u] in this fire.’[v] 25 But Abraham said, ‘Child,[w] remember that in your lifetime you received your good things and Lazarus likewise bad things, but now he is comforted here and you are in anguish.[x] 26 Besides all this,[y] a great chasm[z] has been fixed between us,[aa] so that those who want to cross over from here to you cannot do so, and no one can cross from there to us.’ 27 So[ab] the rich man[ac] said, ‘Then I beg you, father—send Lazarus[ad] to my father’s house 28 (for I have five brothers) to warn[ae] them so that they don’t come[af] into this place of torment.’ 29 But Abraham said,[ag] ‘They have Moses and the prophets; they must respond to[ah] them.’ 30 Then[ai] the rich man[aj] said, ‘No, father Abraham, but if someone from the dead[ak] goes to them, they will repent.’ 31 He[al] replied to him, ‘If they do not respond to[am] Moses and the prophets, they will not be convinced even if someone rises from the dead.’”[an]

Sin, Forgiveness, Faith, and Service

17 Jesus[ao] said to his disciples, “Stumbling blocks are sure to come, but woe[ap] to the one through whom they come! It would be better for him to have a millstone[aq] tied around his neck and be thrown into the sea[ar] than for him to cause one of these little ones to sin.[as] Watch[at] yourselves! If[au] your brother[av] sins, rebuke him. If[aw] he repents, forgive him. Even if he sins against you seven times in a day, and seven times returns to you saying, ‘I repent,’ you must forgive[ax] him.”

The[ay] apostles said to the Lord, “Increase our faith!”[az] So[ba] the Lord replied,[bb] “If[bc] you had faith the size of[bd] a mustard seed, you could say to this black mulberry[be] tree, ‘Be pulled out by the roots and planted in the sea,’[bf] and it would obey[bg] you.

“Would any one of you say[bh] to your slave[bi] who comes in from the field after plowing or shepherding sheep, ‘Come at once and sit down for a meal’?[bj] Won’t[bk] the master[bl] instead say to him, ‘Get my dinner ready, and make yourself ready[bm] to serve me while[bn] I eat and drink. Then[bo] you may eat and drink’? He won’t thank the slave because he did what he was told,[bp] will he?[bq] 10 So you too, when you have done everything you were commanded to do, should say, ‘We are slaves undeserving of special praise;[br] we have only done what was our duty.’”[bs]

Footnotes:

  1. Luke 16:19 sn Purple describes a fine, expensive dye used on luxurious clothing, and by metonymy, refers to clothing colored with that dye. It pictures someone of great wealth.
  2. Luke 16:19 tn Or “celebrated with ostentation” (L&N 88.255), that is, with showing off. Here was the original conspicuous consumer.
  3. Luke 16:20 tn The passive verb ἐβέβλητο (ebeblēto) does not indicate how Lazarus got there. Cf. BDAG 163 s.v. βάλλω 1.b, “he lay before the door”; Josephus, Ant. 9.10.2 (9.209).
  4. Luke 16:20 sn This is the one time in all the gospels that a figure in a parable is mentioned by name. It will become important later in the account.
  5. Luke 16:20 tn Or “was covered with ulcers.” The words “whose body” are implied in the context (L&N 23.180).
  6. Luke 16:21 tn Grk “to eat his fill,” but this phrase has been simplified as “to eat” for stylistic reasons.
  7. Luke 16:21 tn The term κύνες (kunes) refers to “wild” dogs (either “street” dogs or watchdogs), not house pets (L&N 4.34).
  8. Luke 16:21 sn When the dogs came and licked his sores it meant that he was unclean. See the negative image of Rev 22:15 that draws on this picture.
  9. Luke 16:22 tn Grk “Now it happened that the.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  10. Luke 16:22 tn Grk “to Abraham’s bosom.” The phrase “carried by the angels to Abraham’s bosom” describes being gathered to the fathers and is a way to refer to heaven (Gen 15:15; 47:30; Deut 31:16).
  11. Luke 16:22 tn Grk “And the.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  12. Luke 16:22 sn The shorter description suggests a different fate, which is confirmed in the following verses.
  13. Luke 16:23 sn The Greek term Hades stands for the Hebrew concept of Sheol. This is where the dead were gathered (Pss 16:10; 86:13). In the NT Hades sometimes has an additional negative force of awaiting judgment (Rev 20:13).
  14. Luke 16:23 sn Hades is a place of torment, especially as one knows that he is separated from God.
  15. Luke 16:23 tn Grk “he lifted up his eyes” (an idiom).
  16. Luke 16:23 tn Grk “in his bosom,” the same phrase used in 16:22. This idiom refers to heaven and/or participation in the eschatological banquet. An appropriate modern equivalent is “at Abraham’s side.”
  17. Luke 16:24 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous actions in the narrative.
  18. Luke 16:24 tn Grk “calling out he said”; this is redundant in contemporary English style and has been simplified to “he called out.”
  19. Luke 16:24 sn The rich man had not helped Lazarus before, when he lay outside his gate (v. 20), but he knew him well enough to know his name. This is why the use of the name Lazarus in the parable is significant. (The rich man’s name, on the other hand, is not mentioned, because it is not significant for the point of the story.)
  20. Luke 16:24 sn The dipping of the tip of his finger in water is evocative of thirst. The thirsty are in need of God’s presence (Ps 42:1-2; Isa 5:13). The imagery suggests the rich man is now separated from the presence of God.
  21. Luke 16:24 tn Or “in terrible pain” (L&N 24.92).
  22. Luke 16:24 sn Fire in this context is OT imagery; see Isa 66:24.
  23. Luke 16:25 tn The Greek term here is τέκνον (teknon), which could be understood as a term of endearment.
  24. Luke 16:25 tn Or “in terrible pain” (L&N 24.92). Here is the reversal Jesus mentioned in Luke 6:20-26.
  25. Luke 16:26 tn Grk “And in all these things.” There is no way Lazarus could carry out this request even if divine justice were not involved.
  26. Luke 16:26 sn The great chasm between heaven and hell is impassable forever. The rich man’s former status meant nothing now.
  27. Luke 16:26 tn Grk “between us and you.”
  28. Luke 16:27 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the rich man’s response to Abraham’s words.
  29. Luke 16:27 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the rich man, v. 19) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  30. Luke 16:27 tn Grk “Then I beg you, father, that you send him”; the referent (Lazarus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  31. Luke 16:28 sn To warn them. The warning would consist of a call to act differently than their dead brother had, or else meet his current terrible fate.
  32. Luke 16:28 tn Grk “lest they also come.”
  33. Luke 16:29 tn Grk “says.” This is one of the few times Luke uses the historical present.
  34. Luke 16:29 tn Or “obey”; Grk “hear.” This recalls the many OT texts calling for a righteous heart to respond to people in need (Deut 14:28-29; Isa 3:14-15; Amos 2:6-8; Mic 2:1-2; Zech 7:9-10).
  35. Luke 16:30 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  36. Luke 16:30 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the rich man, v. 19) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  37. Luke 16:30 sn If someone from the dead goes to them. The irony and joy of the story is that what is denied the rich man’s brothers, a word of warning from beyond the grave, is given to the reader of the Gospel in this exchange.
  38. Luke 16:31 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  39. Luke 16:31 tn Or “obey”; Grk “hear.” See the note on the phrase “respond to” in v. 29.
  40. Luke 16:31 sn The concluding statement of the parable, they will not be convinced even if someone rises from the dead, provides a hint that even Jesus’ resurrection will not help some to respond. The message of God should be good enough. Scripture is the sign to be heeded.
  41. Luke 17:1 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  42. Luke 17:1 sn See Luke 6:24-26.
  43. Luke 17:2 tn This term refers to the heavy upper stone of a grinding mill (L&N 7.70; BDAG 660 s.v. μυλικός). sn The punishment of drowning with a heavy weight attached is extremely gruesome and reflects Jesus’ views concerning those who cause others who believe in him to sin.
  44. Luke 17:2 tn Grk “if a millstone were tied…and he were thrown.” The conditional construction in Greek has been translated by English infinitives: “to have…and be thrown.”
  45. Luke 17:2 tn Or “to stumble.” This verb, σκανδαλίσῃ (skandalisē), has the same root as the noun σκάνδαλον (skandalon) in 17:1, translated “stumbling blocks”; this wordplay is difficult to reproduce in English. It is possible that the primary cause of offense here would be leading disciples (“little ones”) astray in a similar fashion.
  46. Luke 17:3 tn It is difficult to know if this looks back or forward or both. The warning suggests it looks back. For this verb, see Luke 8:18; 12:1, 15; 20:46; 21:8, 34. The present imperative reflects an ongoing spirit of watchfulness.
  47. Luke 17:3 tn Both the “if” clause in this verse and the “if” clause in v. 4 are third class conditions in Greek.
  48. Luke 17:3 tn Here the term “brother” means “fellow believer” or “fellow Christian” (cf. BDAG 18 s.v. ἀδελφός 2.a, contra BDAG 19 s.v. 2.c), but with a familial connotation. It refers equally to men, women, or children. However, because of the familial connotations, “brother” has been retained in the translation here in preference to the more generic “fellow believer” (“fellow Christian” would be anachronistic in this context).
  49. Luke 17:3 tn Grk “And if.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  50. Luke 17:4 sn You must forgive him. Forgiveness is to be readily given and not withheld. In a community that is to have restored relationships, grudges are not beneficial.
  51. Luke 17:5 tn Grk “And the.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  52. Luke 17:5 sn The request of the apostles, “Increase our faith,” is not a request for a gift of faith, but a request to increase the depth of their faith.
  53. Luke 17:6 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.
  54. Luke 17:6 tn Grk “said.”
  55. Luke 17:6 tn This is a mixed condition, with ἄν (an) in the apodosis.
  56. Luke 17:6 tn Grk “faith as,” “faith like.”
  57. Luke 17:6 sn A black mulberry tree is a deciduous fruit tree that grows about 20 ft (6 m) tall and has black juicy berries. This tree has an extensive root system, so to pull it up would be a major operation.
  58. Luke 17:6 tn The passives here (ἐκριζώθητι and φυτεύθητι, ekrizōthēti and phuteuthēti) are probably a circumlocution for God performing the action (the so-called divine passive, see ExSyn 437-38). The issue is not the amount of faith (which in the example is only very tiny), but its presence, which can accomplish impossible things. To cause a tree to be uprooted and planted in the sea is impossible. The expression is a rhetorical idiom. It is like saying a camel can go through the eye of a needle (Luke 18:25).
  59. Luke 17:6 tn The verb is aorist, though it looks at a future event, another rhetorical touch to communicate certainty of the effect of faith.
  60. Luke 17:7 tn Grk “Who among you, having a slave…would say to him.”
  61. Luke 17:7 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 7:2.
  62. Luke 17:7 tn Grk “and recline at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away. See BDAG 70 s.v. ἀναπίπτω 1.
  63. Luke 17:8 tn The question includes a Greek particle, οὐχί (ouchi), that expects a positive reply. The slave is expected to prepare a meal before eating himself.
  64. Luke 17:8 tn Grk “he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  65. Luke 17:8 tn Grk “and gird yourself” (with an apron or towel, in preparation for service).
  66. Luke 17:8 tn BDAG 423 s.v. ἕως 2.b, “to denote contemporaneousness as long as, while…w. subjunctive…Lk 17:8.”
  67. Luke 17:8 tn Grk “after these things.”
  68. Luke 17:9 tn Grk “did what was commanded.”
  69. Luke 17:9 tn The Greek construction anticipates a negative reply which is indicated in the translation by the ‘tag’ at the end, “will he?” Thanks are not required.
  70. Luke 17:10 tn Some translations describe the slaves as “worthless” (NRSV) or “unworthy” (NASB, NIV) but that is not Jesus’ point. These disciples have not done anything deserving special commendation or praise (L&N 33.361), but only what would normally be expected of a slave in such a situation (thus the translation “we have only done what was our duty”).
  71. Luke 17:10 tn Or “we have only done what we were supposed to do.”
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Psalm 83

Psalm 83[a]

A song, a psalm of Asaph.

83 O God, do not be silent.
Do not ignore us.[b] Do not be inactive, O God.
For look, your enemies are making a commotion;
those who hate you are hostile.[c]
They carefully plot[d] against your people,
and make plans to harm[e] the ones you cherish.[f]
They say, “Come on, let’s annihilate them so they are no longer a nation.[g]
Then the name of Israel will be remembered no more.”
Yes,[h] they devise a unified strategy;[i]
they form an alliance[j] against you.
It includes[k] the tents of Edom and the Ishmaelites,
Moab and the Hagrites,[l]
Gebal,[m] Ammon, and Amalek,
Philistia and the inhabitants of Tyre.
Even Assyria has allied with them,
lending its strength to the descendants of Lot.[n] (Selah)
Do to them as you did to Midian[o]
as you did to Sisera and Jabin at the Kishon River.[p]
10 They were destroyed at Endor;[q]
their corpses were like manure[r] on the ground.
11 Make their nobles like Oreb and Zeeb,[s]
and all their rulers like Zebah and Zalmunna,[t]
12 who said,[u] “Let’s take over[v] the pastures of God.”
13 O my God, make them like dead thistles,[w]
like dead weeds blown away by[x] the wind.
14 Like the fire that burns down the forest,
or the flames that consume the mountainsides,[y]
15 chase them with your gale winds,
and terrify[z] them with your windstorm.
16 Cover[aa] their faces with shame,
so they might seek[ab] you,[ac] O Lord.
17 May they be humiliated and continually terrified.[ad]
May they die in shame.[ae]
18 Then they will know[af] that you alone are the Lord,[ag]
the Most High[ah] over all the earth.

Footnotes:

  1. Psalm 83:1 sn Psalm 83. The psalmist asks God to deliver Israel from the attacks of foreign nations. Recalling how God defeated Israel’s enemies in the days of Deborah and Gideon, he prays that the hostile nations would be humiliated.
  2. Psalm 83:1 tn Heb “do not be deaf.”
  3. Psalm 83:2 tn Heb “lift up [their] head[s].” The phrase “lift up [the] head” here means “to threaten; to be hostile,” as in Judg 8:28.
  4. Psalm 83:3 tn Heb “they make crafty a plot.”
  5. Psalm 83:3 tn Heb “and consult together against.”
  6. Psalm 83:3 tn The passive participle of the Hebrew verb צָפַן (tsafan, “to hide”) is used here in the sense of “treasured; cherished.”
  7. Psalm 83:4 tn Heb “we will cause them to disappear from [being] a nation.”
  8. Psalm 83:5 tn Or “for.”
  9. Psalm 83:5 tn Heb “they consult [with] a heart together.”
  10. Psalm 83:5 tn Heb “cut a covenant.”
  11. Psalm 83:6 tn The words “it includes” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
  12. Psalm 83:6 sn The Hagrites are also mentioned in 1 Chr 5:10, 19-20.
  13. Psalm 83:7 sn Some identify Gebal with the Phoenician coastal city of Byblos (see Ezek 27:9, where the name is spelled differently), though others locate this site south of the Dead Sea (see BDB 148 s.v. גְּבַל; HALOT 174 s.v. גְּבַל).
  14. Psalm 83:8 tn Heb “they are an arm for the sons of Lot.” The “arm” is here a symbol of military might.sn The descendants of Lot were the Moabites and Ammonites.
  15. Psalm 83:9 tn Heb “do to them like Midian.”
  16. Psalm 83:9 sn The psalmist alludes here to Gideon’s victory over the Midianites (see Judg 7-8) and to Barak’s victory over Jabin’s army, which was led by his general Sisera (Judg 4-5).
  17. Psalm 83:10 sn Endor is not mentioned in the accounts of Gideon’s or Barak’s victories, but both battles took place in the general vicinity of the town. (See Y. Aharoni and M. Avi-Yonah, The Macmillan Bible Atlas, 46, 54.) Because Sisera and Jabin are mentioned in v. 9b, many understand them to be the subject of the verbs in v. 10, though they relate v. 10 to Gideon’s victory, which is referred to in v. 9a, 11. (See, for example, Y. Aharoni, The Land of the Bible, 263.)
  18. Psalm 83:10 tn Heb “they were manure.” In addition to this passage, corpses are compared to manure in 2 Kgs 9:37; Jer 8:2; 9:21; 16:4; 25:33.
  19. Psalm 83:11 sn Oreb and Zeeb were the generals of the Midianite army that was defeated by Gideon. The Ephraimites captured and executed both of them and sent their heads to Gideon (Judg 7:24-25).
  20. Psalm 83:11 sn Zebah and Zalmunna were the Midianite kings. Gideon captured them and executed them (Judg 8:1-21).
  21. Psalm 83:12 tn The translation assumes that “Zebah and Zalmunna” are the antecedents of the relative pronoun (“who [said]”). Another option is to take “their nobles…all their rulers” as the antecedent and to translate, “those who say.”
  22. Psalm 83:12 tn Heb “let’s take possession for ourselves.”
  23. Psalm 83:13 tn Or “tumbleweed.” The Hebrew noun גַּלְגַּל (galgal) refers to a “wheel” or, metaphorically, to a whirling wind (see Ps 77:18). If taken in the latter sense here, one could understand the term as a metonymical reference to dust blown by a whirlwind (cf. NRSV “like whirling dust”). However, HALOT 190 s.v. II גַּלְגַּל understands the noun as a homonym referring to a “dead thistle” here and in Isa 17:13. The parallel line, which refers to קַשׁ (qash, “chaff”), favors this interpretation.
  24. Psalm 83:13 tn Heb “before.”
  25. Psalm 83:14 sn The imagery of fire and flames suggests unrelenting, destructive judgment.
  26. Psalm 83:15 tn The two imperfect verbal forms in v. 15 express the psalmist’s wish or prayer.
  27. Psalm 83:16 tn Heb “fill.”
  28. Psalm 83:16 tn After the preceding imperative, the prefixed verbal form with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose or result (“then they will seek”).
  29. Psalm 83:16 tn Heb “your name,” which stands here for God’s person.
  30. Psalm 83:17 tn Heb “and may they be terrified to perpetuity.” The Hebrew expression עֲדֵי־עַד (ʿade ʿad, “to perpetuity”) can mean “forevermore” (see Pss 92:7; 132:12, 14), but here it may be used hyperbolically, for the psalmist asks that the experience of judgment might lead the nations to recognize (v. 18) and even to seek (v. 16) God.
  31. Psalm 83:17 tn Heb “may they be ashamed and perish.” The four prefixed verbal forms in this verse are understood as jussives. The psalmist concludes his prayer with an imprecation, calling severe judgment down on his enemies. The strong language of the imprecation seems to run contrary to the positive outcome of divine judgment envisioned in v. 16b. Perhaps the language of v. 17 is overstated for effect. Another option is that v. 16b expresses an ideal, while the strong imprecation of vv. 17-18 anticipates reality. It would be nice if the defeated nations actually pursued a relationship with God, but if judgment does not bring them to that point, the psalmist asks that they be annihilated so that they might at least be forced to acknowledge God’s power.
  32. Psalm 83:18 tn After the preceding jussives (v. 17), the prefixed verbal form with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose (“so that they may know”) or result.
  33. Psalm 83:18 tn Heb “that you, your name [is] the Lord, you alone.”
  34. Psalm 83:18 sn The divine title “Most High” (עֶלְיוֹן ʿelyon) pictures God as the exalted ruler of the universe who vindicates the innocent and judges the wicked. See especially Pss 7:17; 9:2; 18:13; 21:7; 47:2.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Proverbs 13:4

The appetite[a] of the sluggard[b] craves[c] but gets nothing,
but the desire of the diligent will be abundantly satisfied.[d]

Footnotes:

  1. Proverbs 13:4 tn The noun נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, traditionally “soul”) has a broad range of meanings, and here denotes “appetite” (e.g., Ps 17:9; Prov 23:3; Eccl 2:24; Isa 5:14; Hab 2:5; BDB 660 s.v. 5.c) or “desire” (e.g., Deut 12:20; Prov 19:8; 21:10; BDB 660 s.v. 6.a).
  2. Proverbs 13:4 sn The contrast is between the “soul (= appetite) of the sluggard” (נַפְשׁוֹ עָצֵל, nafsho ʿatsel) and the “soul (= desire) of the diligent” (נֶפֶשׁ חָרֻצִים, nefesh kharutsim)—what they each long for.
  3. Proverbs 13:4 tn The Hitpael verb means “to lust after; to crave.” A related verb is used in the Decalogue’s prohibition against coveting (Exod 20:17; Deut 5:21).
  4. Proverbs 13:4 tn Heb “will be made fat” (cf. KJV, NASB); NRSV “is richly supplied.”
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Tuesday April 13, 2021 (NIV)

Joshua 7:16-9:2

16 Bright and early the next morning Joshua made Israel approach in tribal order,[a] and the tribe of Judah was selected. 17 He then made the clans of Judah approach, and the clan of the Zerahites was selected. He made the clan of the Zerahites approach, and Zabdi[b] was selected.[c] 18 He then made Zabdi’s[d] family approach man by man[e] and Achan son of Carmi, son of Zabdi, son of Zerah, from the tribe of Judah, was selected. 19 So Joshua said to Achan, “My son, honor[f] the Lord God of Israel and give him praise! Tell me what you did; don’t hide anything from me.” 20 Achan told Joshua, “It is true. I have sinned against the Lord God of Israel in this way:[g] 21 I saw among the goods we seized a nice robe from Babylon,[h] 200 silver pieces,[i] and a bar of gold weighing 50 shekels. I wanted them, so I took them. They are hidden in the ground right in the middle of my tent, with the silver underneath.”

22 Joshua sent messengers who ran to the tent. The things were hidden right in his tent, with the silver underneath.[j] 23 They took it all from the middle of the tent, brought it to Joshua and all the Israelites, and placed[k] it before the Lord. 24 Then Joshua and all Israel took Achan, son of Zerah, along with the silver, the robe, the bar of gold, his sons, daughters, oxen, donkeys, sheep, tent, and all that belonged to him and brought them up to the Valley of Disaster.[l] 25 Joshua said, “Why have you brought disaster on[m] us? The Lord will bring disaster on you today!” All Israel stoned him to death. (They also stoned and burned the others.)[n] 26 Then they erected over him a large pile of stones (it remains to this very day[o]) and the Lord’s anger subsided. So that place is called the Valley of Disaster to this very day.

Israel Conquers Ai

The Lord told Joshua, “Don’t be afraid and don’t panic![p] Take the whole army with you and march against Ai![q] See, I am handing over to you[r] the king of Ai, along with his people, city, and land. Do to Ai and its king what you did to Jericho and its king, except you may plunder its goods and cattle. Set an ambush behind the city.”

Joshua and the whole army marched against Ai.[s] Joshua selected 30,000 brave warriors and sent them out at night. He ordered them, “Look, set an ambush behind the city. Don’t go very far from the city; all of you be ready! I and all the troops[t] who are with me will approach the city. When they come out to fight us like before, we will retreat from them. They will attack[u] us until we have lured them from the city, for they will say, ‘They are retreating from us like before.’ We will retreat from them. Then you rise up from your hiding place[v] and seize[w] the city. The Lord your God will hand it over to you. When you capture the city, set it[x] on fire in keeping with the Lord’s message. See, I have given you orders.”[y] Joshua sent them away and they went to their hiding place[z] west of Ai, between Bethel and Ai.[aa] Joshua spent that night with the army.[ab]

10 Bright and early the next morning Joshua gathered[ac] the army,[ad] and he and the leaders[ae] of Israel marched[af] at the head of it[ag] to Ai. 11 All the troops that were with him marched up and drew near the city.[ah] They camped north of Ai on the other side of the valley.[ai] 12 He took 5,000 men and set an ambush west of the city between Bethel and Ai. 13 The army was in position—the main army north of the city and the rear guard west of the city. That night Joshua went into[aj] the middle of the valley.

14 When the king of Ai and all his people saw Israel, they rushed to get up early. Then the king and the men of the city went out to meet Israel in battle, at the meeting place near the rift valley.[ak] But he did not realize an ambush was waiting for him behind the city.[al] 15 Joshua and all Israel pretended to be defeated by them, and they retreated along the way to the wilderness. 16 All the reinforcements[am] in Ai[an] were ordered[ao] to chase them; they chased Joshua and were lured away from the city. 17 No men were left in Ai or Bethel;[ap] they all went out after Israel.[aq] They left the city wide open and chased Israel.

18 The Lord told Joshua, “Hold out toward Ai the curved sword[ar] in your hand, for I am handing the city[as] over to you.” So Joshua held out toward Ai the curved sword in his hand. 19 When he held out his hand, the men waiting in ambush rose up quickly from their place and attacked.[at] They entered the city, captured it, and immediately set it on fire. 20 When the men of Ai turned around, they saw[au] the smoke from the city ascending into the sky and were so shocked they were unable to flee in any direction.[av] In the meantime the men who were retreating to the wilderness turned against their pursuers. 21 When Joshua and all Israel saw that the men in ambush had captured the city and that the city was going up in smoke,[aw] they turned around and struck down the men of Ai. 22 At the same time the men who had taken the city came out to fight, and the men of Ai were trapped in the middle.[ax] The Israelites struck them down, leaving no survivors or refugees. 23 But they captured the king of Ai alive and brought him to Joshua.

24 When Israel had finished killing all the men[ay] of Ai who had chased them toward the wilderness[az] (they all fell by the sword),[ba] all Israel returned to Ai and put the sword to it. 25 So 12,000 men and women died[bb] that day, including all the men of Ai. 26 Joshua kept holding out his curved sword until Israel had annihilated all who lived in Ai.[bc] 27 But Israel did plunder the cattle and the goods of the city, in keeping with the Lord’s orders[bd] to Joshua. 28 Joshua burned Ai and made it a permanently uninhabited mound (it remains that way to this very day).[be] 29 He hung the king of Ai on a tree, leaving him exposed until evening.[bf] At sunset Joshua ordered that his corpse be taken down from the tree.[bg] They threw it down at the entrance of the city gate and erected over it a large pile of stones (it remains to this very day).[bh]

Covenant Renewal

30 Then Joshua built an altar for the Lord God of Israel on Mount Ebal, 31 just as Moses the Lord’s servant had commanded the Israelites. As described in the law scroll of Moses, it was made with uncut stones untouched by an iron tool.[bi] On it they offered burnt sacrifices to the Lord and sacrificed tokens of peace.[bj] 32 There, in the presence of the Israelites, Joshua inscribed on the stones a duplicate of the law written by Moses.[bk] 33 All the people,[bl] rulers,[bm] leaders, and judges were standing on either side of the ark, in front of the Levitical priests who carried the ark of the covenant of the Lord. Both resident foreigners and native Israelites were there.[bn] Half the people stood in front of Mount Gerizim and the other half in front of Mount Ebal, as Moses the Lord’s servant had previously instructed them to do for the formal blessing ceremony.[bo] 34 Then[bp] Joshua read aloud all the words of the law, including the blessings and the curses, just as they are written in the law scroll. 35 Joshua read aloud every commandment Moses had given[bq] before the whole assembly of Israel, including the women, children, and resident foreigners who lived among them.[br]

The Gibeonites Deceive Israel

When the news reached all the kings on the west side of the Jordan[bs]—in the hill country, the foothills,[bt] and all along the Mediterranean coast[bu] as far as[bv] Lebanon (including the Hittites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites)— they formed an alliance to fight against Joshua and Israel.[bw]

Footnotes:

  1. Joshua 7:16 tn Heb “by tribes.”
  2. Joshua 7:17 tn See the note on “Zabdi” in Jos 7:1.
  3. Joshua 7:17 tn Heb “and he selected Zabdi.” The Lord is the apparent subject. The LXX supports reading a passive (Niphal) form here, as does the immediate context.
  4. Joshua 7:18 tn Heb “his”; the referent (Zabdi) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  5. Joshua 7:18 tn Heb “by men.”
  6. Joshua 7:19 tn Heb “give glory to.”
  7. Joshua 7:20 tn Heb “like this and like this I did.”
  8. Joshua 7:21 tn Heb “Shinar,” a reference to Babylon (cf. Gen 10:10; 11:2; 14:1). Many modern translations retain the Hebrew name “Shinar” (cf. NEB, NRSV) but some use the more familiar “Babylon” (cf. NIV, NLT).
  9. Joshua 7:21 tn Heb “shekels.”
  10. Joshua 7:22 tn Heb “Look, [it was] hidden in his tent, and the silver was beneath it.”
  11. Joshua 7:23 tn Heb “poured out,” probably referring to the way the silver pieces poured out of their container.
  12. Joshua 7:24 tn Or “Trouble” The name is “Achor” in Hebrew, which means “disaster” or “trouble” (also in v. 26).
  13. Joshua 7:25 tn Or “trouble on.” The word is “achor” in Hebrew (also in the following clause).
  14. Joshua 7:25 tc Heb “and they burned them with fire and they stoned them with stones.” These words are somewhat parenthetical in nature and are omitted in the LXX; they may represent a later scribal addition.
  15. Joshua 7:26 tc Heb “to this day.” The phrase “to this day” is omitted in the LXX and may represent a later scribal addition.
  16. Joshua 8:1 tn Or perhaps “and don’t get discouraged!”
  17. Joshua 8:1 tn Heb “Take with you all the people of war and arise, go up against Ai!”
  18. Joshua 8:1 tn Heb “I have given into our hand.” The verbal form, a perfect, is probably best understood as a perfect of certitude, indicating the certainty of the action.
  19. Joshua 8:3 tn “And Joshua and all the people of war arose to go up [against] Ai.”
  20. Joshua 8:5 tn Heb “the people.”
  21. Joshua 8:6 tn Heb “come out after.”
  22. Joshua 8:7 tn Heb “from the ambush.”
  23. Joshua 8:7 tn Heb “take possession of.”
  24. Joshua 8:8 tn Heb “the city.”
  25. Joshua 8:8 tn Heb “I have commanded you.”
  26. Joshua 8:9 tn Or “the place of ambush.”
  27. Joshua 8:9 tn Heb “and they stayed between Bethel and Ai, west of Ai.”
  28. Joshua 8:9 tn Heb “in the midst of the people.”
  29. Joshua 8:10 tn Or “summoned, mustered.”
  30. Joshua 8:10 tn Heb “the people.”
  31. Joshua 8:10 tn Or “elders.”
  32. Joshua 8:10 tn Heb “went up.”
  33. Joshua 8:10 tn Heb “them” (referring to “the people” in the previous clause, which requires a plural pronoun). Since the translation used “army” in the previous clause, a singular pronoun (“it”) is required in English.
  34. Joshua 8:11 tn Heb “All the people of war who were with him went up and approached and came opposite the city.”
  35. Joshua 8:11 tn Heb “and the valley [was] between them and Ai.”
  36. Joshua 8:13 tn Some Hebrew mss read, “spent the night in.”
  37. Joshua 8:14 sn This probably refers to the hill country at the edge of the rift valley between Ai and Jericho. This part of the battle was probably engaged where Israel would have come up to the hill country out of the rift valley from Jericho, an ascent of about 4000 feet (with ups and downs) over ten miles.
  38. Joshua 8:14 tn Heb “did not know that an ambush for him was behind the city.”
  39. Joshua 8:16 tn Heb “All the people.”
  40. Joshua 8:16 tc Some textual witnesses read “the city.”
  41. Joshua 8:16 tn Or “were summoned”; or “were mustered.”
  42. Joshua 8:17 tc The LXX omits the words “or Bethel.”
  43. Joshua 8:17 tn Heb “who did not go out after Israel.”
  44. Joshua 8:18 tn Traditionally “spear,” but see HALOT 472 s.v. כִּידוֹן, which argues based upon evidence from the Dead Sea Scrolls that this term refers to a curved sword of some type; note the definition “scimitar” given there.
  45. Joshua 8:18 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the city of Ai) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  46. Joshua 8:19 tn Heb “and ran.”
  47. Joshua 8:20 tn Heb “and they saw, and look.” The Hebrew term הִנֵּה (hinneh, “look”) draws attention to the scene and invites the audience to view the events from the perspective of the men of Ai.
  48. Joshua 8:20 tn Heb “and there was not in them hands to flee here or there.” The Hebrew term יָדַיִם (yadayim, “hands”) is idiomatic for “strength.”
  49. Joshua 8:21 tn Heb “and that the smoke of the city ascended.”
  50. Joshua 8:22 tn Heb “and these went out from the city to meet them and they were for Israel in the middle, some on this side, and others on the other side.”
  51. Joshua 8:24 tn Heb “residents.”
  52. Joshua 8:24 tn Heb “in the field, in the wilderness in which they chased them.”
  53. Joshua 8:24 tc Heb “and all of them fell by the edge of the sword until they were destroyed.” The LXX omits the words, “and all of them fell by the edge of the sword.” They may represent a later scribal addition.
  54. Joshua 8:25 tn Heb “fell.”
  55. Joshua 8:26 tn Heb “Joshua did not draw back his hand which held out the curved sword until he had annihilated all the residents of Ai.”
  56. Joshua 8:27 tn Heb “message, word.”
  57. Joshua 8:28 tn Heb “and made it a permanent mound, a desolation, to this day.”
  58. Joshua 8:29 tn Heb “on a tree until evening.” The words “leaving him exposed” are supplied in the translation for clarity.
  59. Joshua 8:29 sn For the legal background of this action, see Deut 21:22-23.
  60. Joshua 8:29 tn Heb “to this day.”
  61. Joshua 8:31 tn Heb “as it is written in the scroll of the law of Moses, an altar of whole stones on which no one had wielded iron.” The expression “whole stones” refers to stones in their natural condition, i.e., not carved or shaped artificially with tools (“wielded iron”).
  62. Joshua 8:31 tn Or “peace offerings.”
  63. Joshua 8:32 tn Heb “and he wrote there on the stones a duplicate of the law of Moses which he wrote before the sons of Israel.”
  64. Joshua 8:33 tn Heb “All Israel.”
  65. Joshua 8:33 tn Or “elders.”
  66. Joshua 8:33 tn Heb “like the resident foreigner, like the citizen.” The language is idiomatic, meaning that both groups were treated the same, at least in this instance.
  67. Joshua 8:33 tn Heb “as Moses, the Lord’s servant, commanded to bless the people, Israel, formerly.”sn Moses’ earlier instructions are found in Deut 11:29.
  68. Joshua 8:34 tn Or “afterward.”
  69. Joshua 8:35 tn Heb “There was not a word from all which Moses commanded that Joshua did not read aloud.”
  70. Joshua 8:35 tn Heb “walked in their midst.”
  71. Joshua 9:1 tn Heb “When all the kings who were beyond the Jordan heard.”
  72. Joshua 9:1 tn The foothills (שְׁפֵלָה, shephelah) are the transition region between the hill country and the coastal plains.
  73. Joshua 9:1 tn Heb “all the coast of the Great Sea.” The “Great Sea” was the typical designation for the Mediterranean Sea.
  74. Joshua 9:1 tn Heb “in front of.”
  75. Joshua 9:2 tn Heb “they gathered together to fight against Joshua and Israel [with] one mouth.”
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Luke 16:1-18

The Parable of the Clever Steward

16 Jesus[a] also said to the disciples, “There was a rich man who was informed of accusations[b] that his manager[c] was wasting[d] his assets. So[e] he called the manager[f] in and said to him, ‘What is this I hear about you?[g] Turn in the account of your administration,[h] because you can no longer be my manager.’ Then[i] the manager said to himself, ‘What should I do, since my master is taking my position[j] away from me? I’m not strong enough to dig,[k] and I’m too ashamed[l] to beg. I know[m] what to do so that when I am put out of management, people will welcome me into their homes.’[n] So[o] he contacted[p] his master’s debtors one by one. He asked the first, ‘How much do you owe my master?’ The man[q] replied, ‘100 measures[r] of olive oil.’ The manager[s] said to him, ‘Take your bill, sit down quickly, and write fifty.’[t] Then he said to another, ‘And how much do you owe?’ The second man[u] replied, ‘100 measures[v] of wheat.’ The manager[w] said to him, ‘Take your bill, and write 80.’[x] The[y] master commended the dishonest[z] manager because he acted shrewdly.[aa] For the people[ab] of this world are more shrewd in dealing with their contemporaries[ac] than the people[ad] of light. And I tell you, make friends for yourselves by how you use worldly wealth,[ae] so that when it runs out you will be welcomed[af] into the eternal homes.[ag]

10 “The one who is faithful in a very little[ah] is also faithful in much, and the one who is dishonest in a very little is also dishonest in much. 11 If then you haven’t been trustworthy[ai] in handling worldly wealth,[aj] who will entrust you with the true riches?[ak] 12 And if you haven’t been trustworthy[al] with someone else’s property,[am] who will give you your own[an] ? 13 No servant can serve two masters, for either he will hate[ao] the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise[ap] the other. You cannot serve God and money.”[aq]

More Warnings about the Pharisees

14 The Pharisees[ar] (who loved money) heard all this and ridiculed[as] him. 15 But[at] Jesus[au] said to them, “You are the ones who justify yourselves in men’s eyes,[av] but God knows your hearts. For what is highly prized[aw] among men is utterly detestable[ax] in God’s sight.

16 “The law and the prophets were in force[ay] until John;[az] since then,[ba] the good news of the kingdom of God[bb] has been proclaimed, and everyone is urged to enter it.[bc] 17 But it is easier for heaven and earth to pass away than for one tiny stroke of a letter[bd] in the law to become void.[be]

18 “Everyone who divorces his wife and marries[bf] someone else commits adultery, and the one who marries a woman divorced from her husband commits adultery.

Footnotes:

  1. Luke 16:1 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  2. Luke 16:1 tn These are not formal legal charges, but reports from friends, acquaintances, etc.; Grk “A certain man was rich who had a manager, and this one was reported to him as wasting his property.”
  3. Luke 16:1 sn His manager was the steward in charge of managing the house. He could have been a slave trained for the role.
  4. Luke 16:1 tn Or “squandering.” This verb is graphic; it means to scatter (L&N 57.151).
  5. Luke 16:2 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the reports the man received about his manager.
  6. Luke 16:2 tn Grk “him”; the referent (the manager) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  7. Luke 16:2 sn Although phrased as a question, the charges were believed by the owner, as his dismissal of the manager implies.
  8. Luke 16:2 tn Or “stewardship”; the Greek word οἰκονομία (oikonomia) is cognate with the noun for the manager (οἰκονόμος, oikonomos).
  9. Luke 16:3 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events in the parable.
  10. Luke 16:3 tn Grk “the stewardship,” “the management.”
  11. Luke 16:3 tn Here “dig” could refer (1) to excavation (“dig ditches,” L&N 19.55) or (2) to agricultural labor (“work the soil,” L&N 43.3). In either case this was labor performed by the uneducated, so it would be an insult as a job for a manager.
  12. Luke 16:3 tn Grk “I do not have strength to dig; I am ashamed to beg.”sn To beg would represent a real lowering of status for the manager, because many of those whom he had formerly collected debts from, he would now be forced to beg from.
  13. Luke 16:4 tn This is a dramatic use of the aorist and the verse is left unconnected to the previous verse by asyndeton, giving the impression of a sudden realization.
  14. Luke 16:4 sn Thinking ahead, the manager develops a plan to make people think kindly of him (welcome me into their homes).
  15. Luke 16:5 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the manager’s decision.
  16. Luke 16:5 tn Grk “summoning.” The participle προσκαλεσάμενος (proskalesamenos) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  17. Luke 16:6 tn Grk “He”; the referent (the first debtor) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  18. Luke 16:6 sn A measure (sometimes translated “bath”) was just over 8 gallons (about 30 liters). This is a large debt—about 875 gallons (3000 liters) of olive oil, worth 1000 denarii, over three year’s pay for a daily worker.
  19. Luke 16:6 tn Grk “He”; the referent (the manager) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated for stylistic reasons.
  20. Luke 16:6 sn The bill was halved (sit down quickly, and write fifty). What was the steward doing? This is debated. 1) Did he simply lower the price? 2) Did he remove interest from the debt? 3) Did he remove his own commission? It is hard to be sure. Either of the latter two options is more likely. The goal was clear: The manager would be seen in a favorable light for bringing a deflationary trend to prices.
  21. Luke 16:7 tn Grk “He”; the referent (the second debtor) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated for stylistic reasons.
  22. Luke 16:7 sn The 100 measures here was 100 cors. A cor was a Hebrew dry measure for grain, flour, etc., of between 10-12 bushels (about 390 liters). This was a huge amount of wheat, representing the yield of about 100 acres, a debt of between 2500-3000 denarii.
  23. Luke 16:7 tn Grk “He”; the referent (the manager) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  24. Luke 16:7 sn The percentage of reduction may not be as great because of the change in material.
  25. Luke 16:8 tn Grk “And the.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  26. Luke 16:8 sn Is the manager dishonest because of what he just did? Or is it a reference to what he had done earlier, described in v. 1? This is a difficult question, but it seems unlikely that the master, having fired the man for prior dishonesty, would now commend those same actions. It would also be unusual for Jesus to make that point of the story the example. Thus it is more likely the reference to dishonesty goes back to the earliest events, while the commendation is for the cleverness of the former manager reflected in vv. 5-7.
  27. Luke 16:8 sn Where this parable ends is debated: Does it conclude with v. 7, after v. 8a, after v. 8b, or after v. 9? Verse 8a looks as if it is still part of the story, with its clear reference to the manager, while 8b looks like Jesus’ application, since its remarks are more general. So it is most likely the parable stops after v. 8a.
  28. Luke 16:8 tn Grk “sons” (an idiom).
  29. Luke 16:8 tn Grk “with their own generation.”
  30. Luke 16:8 tn Grk “sons.” Here the phrase “sons of light” is a reference to the righteous. The point is that those of the world often think ahead about consequences better than the righteous do.
  31. Luke 16:9 tn Grk “unrighteous mammon.” Mammon is the Aramaic term for wealth or possessions. The point is not that money is inherently evil, but that it is often misused so that it is a means of evil; see 1 Tim 6:6-10, 17-19. The call is to be generous and kind in its use. Zacchaeus becomes the example of this in Luke’s Gospel (19:1-10).
  32. Luke 16:9 tn Grk “they may welcome you.”
  33. Luke 16:9 tn Grk “eternal tents” (as dwelling places).
  34. Luke 16:10 sn The point of the statement faithful in a very little is that character is shown in how little things are treated.
  35. Luke 16:11 tn Or “faithful.”
  36. Luke 16:11 tn Grk “the unrighteous mammon.” See the note on the phrase “worldly wealth” in v. 9.
  37. Luke 16:11 sn Entrust you with the true riches is a reference to future service for God. The idea is like 1 Cor 9:11, except there the imagery is reversed.
  38. Luke 16:12 tn Or “faithful.”
  39. Luke 16:12 tn Grk “have not been faithful with what is another’s.”
  40. Luke 16:12 tn Grk “what is your own.”
  41. Luke 16:13 sn The contrast between hate and love here is rhetorical. The point is that one will choose the favorite if a choice has to be made.
  42. Luke 16:13 tn Or “and treat [the other] with contempt.”
  43. Luke 16:13 tn Grk “God and mammon.” This is the same word (μαμωνᾶς, mamōnas; often merely transliterated as “mammon”) translated “worldly wealth” in vv. 9, 11.sn The term money is used to translate mammon, the Aramaic term for wealth or possessions. The point is not that money is inherently evil, but that it is often misused so that it is a means of evil; see 1 Tim 6:6-10, 17-19. Here “money” is personified as a potential master and thus competes with God for the loyalty of the disciple. The passage is ultimately not a condemnation of wealth (there is no call here for absolute poverty) but a call for unqualified discipleship. God must be first, not money or possessions.
  44. Luke 16:14 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.
  45. Luke 16:14 tn A figurative extension of the literal meaning “to turn one’s nose up at someone”; here “ridicule, sneer at, show contempt for” (L&N 33.409).
  46. Luke 16:15 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
  47. Luke 16:15 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  48. Luke 16:15 tn Grk “before men.” The contrast is between outward appearance (“in people’s eyes”) and inward reality (“God knows your hearts”). Here the Greek term ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos) is used twice in a generic sense, referring to both men and women, but “men” has been retained in the text to provide a strong verbal contrast with “God” in the second half of the verse.
  49. Luke 16:15 tn Or “exalted.” This refers to the pride that often comes with money and position.
  50. Luke 16:15 tn Or “is an abomination,” “is abhorrent” (L&N 25.187).
  51. Luke 16:16 tn There is no verb in the Greek text; one must be supplied. Some translations (NASB, NIV) supply “proclaimed” based on the parallelism with the proclamation of the kingdom. The transitional nature of this verse, however, seems to call for something more like “in effect” (NRSV) or, as used here, “in force.” Further, Greek generally can omit one of two kinds of verbs—either the equative verb or one that is already mentioned in the preceding context (ExSyn 39).
  52. Luke 16:16 sn John refers to John the Baptist.
  53. Luke 16:16 sn Until John; since then. This verse indicates a shift in era, from law to kingdom.
  54. Luke 16:16 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus’ teaching. The nature of the kingdom of God in the NT and in Jesus’ teaching has long been debated by interpreters and scholars, with discussion primarily centering around the nature of the kingdom (earthly, heavenly, or both) and the kingdom’s arrival (present, future, or both). An additional major issue concerns the relationship between the kingdom of God and the person and work of Jesus himself. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.
  55. Luke 16:16 tn Many translations have “entereth violently into it” (ASV) or “is forcing his way into it” (NASB, NIV). This is not true of everyone. It is better to read the verb βιάζεται here as passive rather than middle, and in a softened sense of “be urged.” See Gen 33:11; Judg 13:15-16; 19:7; 2 Sam 3:25, 27 in the LXX. This fits the context well because it agrees with Jesus’ attempt to persuade his opponents to respond morally. For further discussion and details, see D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1352-53. For a summary of the lexical options see BDAG 175 s.v. βιάζω. Differences in the context suggest a different meaning for the same term in Matt 11:12.
  56. Luke 16:17 tn Or “one small part of a letter” (L&N 33.37).
  57. Luke 16:17 tn Grk “to fall”; that is, “to drop out of the text.” Jesus’ point may be that the law is going to reach its goal without fail, in that the era of the promised kingdom comes.
  58. Luke 16:18 sn The examples of marriage and divorce show that the ethical standards of the new era are still faithful to promises made in the presence of God. To contribute to the breakup of a marriage, which involved a vow before God, is to commit adultery. This works whether one gets a divorce or marries a person who is divorced, thus finalizing the breakup of the marriage. Jesus’ point concerns the need for fidelity and ethical integrity in the new era.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Psalm 82

Psalm 82[a]

A psalm of Asaph.

82 God stands in[b] the assembly of El;[c]
in the midst of the gods[d] he renders judgment.[e]
He says,[f] “How long will you make unjust legal decisions
and show favoritism to the wicked?[g] (Selah)
Defend the cause of the poor and the fatherless.[h]
Vindicate the oppressed and suffering.
Rescue the poor and needy.
Deliver them from the power[i] of the wicked.
They[j] neither know nor understand.
They stumble around[k] in the dark,
while all the foundations of the earth crumble.[l]
I thought,[m] ‘You are gods;
all of you are sons of the Most High.’[n]
Yet you will die like mortals;[o]
you will fall like all the other rulers.”[p]
Rise up, O God, and execute judgment on the earth!
For you own[q] all the nations.

Footnotes:

  1. Psalm 82:1 sn Psalm 82. The psalmist pictures God standing in the “assembly of El” where he accuses the “gods” of failing to promote justice on earth. God pronounces sentence upon them, announcing that they will die like men. Having witnessed the scene, the psalmist then asks God to establish his just rule over the earth.
  2. Psalm 82:1 tn Or “presides over.”
  3. Psalm 82:1 tn The phrase עֲדַת אֵל (ʿadat ʾel, “assembly of El”) appears only here in the OT. (1) Some understand “El” to refer to God himself. In this case he is pictured presiding over his own heavenly assembly. (2) Others take אֵל as a superlative here (“God stands in the great assembly”), as in Pss 36:6 and 80:10. (3) The present translation assumes this is a reference to the Canaanite high god El, who presided over the Canaanite divine assembly. (See Isa 14:13, where El’s assembly is called “the stars of El.”) In the Ugaritic myths the phrase ʿdt ʾilm refers to the “assembly of the gods,” who congregate in King Kirtu’s house, where Baal asks El to bless Kirtu’s house (see G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 91). If the Canaanite divine assembly is referred to here in Ps 82:1, then the psalm must be understood as a bold polemic against Canaanite religion. Israel’s God invades El’s assembly, denounces its gods as failing to uphold justice, and announces their coming demise. For an interpretation of the psalm along these lines, see W. VanGemeren, “Psalms,” EBC 5:533-36.
  4. Psalm 82:1 sn The present translation assumes that the Hebrew term אֱלֹהִים (ʾelohim, “gods”) here refers to the pagan gods who supposedly comprise El’s assembly according to Canaanite religion. Those who reject the polemical view of the psalm prefer to see the referent as human judges or rulers (אֱלֹהִים sometimes refers to officials appointed by God, see Exod 21:6; 22:8-9; Ps 45:6) or as angelic beings (אֱלֹהִים sometimes refers to angelic beings, see Gen 3:5; Ps 8:5).
  5. Psalm 82:1 sn The picture of God rendering judgment among the gods clearly depicts his sovereign authority as universal king (see v. 8, where the psalmist boldly affirms this truth).
  6. Psalm 82:2 tn The words “he says” are supplied in the translation to indicate that the following speech is God’s judicial decision (see v. 1).
  7. Psalm 82:2 tn Heb “and the face of the wicked lift up.”
  8. Psalm 82:3 tn The Hebrew noun יָתוֹם (yatom) refers to one who has lost his father (not necessarily his mother, see Ps 109:9). Because they were so vulnerable and were frequently exploited, fatherless children are often mentioned as epitomizing the oppressed (see Pss 10:14; 68:5; 94:6; 146:9; as well as Job 6:27; 22:9; 24:3, 9; 29:12; 31:17, 21).
  9. Psalm 82:4 tn Heb “hand.”
  10. Psalm 82:5 sn Having addressed the defendants, God now speaks to those who are observing the trial, referring to the gods in the third person.
  11. Psalm 82:5 tn Heb “walk.” The Hitpael stem indicates iterative action, picturing these ignorant “judges” as stumbling around in the darkness.
  12. Psalm 82:5 sn These gods, though responsible for justice, neglect their duty. Their self-imposed ignorance (which the psalmist compares to stumbling around in the dark) results in widespread injustice, which threatens the social order of the world (the meaning of the phrase all the foundations of the earth crumble).
  13. Psalm 82:6 tn Heb “said.”
  14. Psalm 82:6 sn Normally in the OT the title Most High belongs to the God of Israel, but in this context, where the mythological overtones are so strong, it probably refers to the Canaanite high god El (see v. 1, as well as Isa 14:13).
  15. Psalm 82:7 tn Heb “men.” The point in the context is mortality, however, not maleness.sn You will die like mortals. For the concept of a god losing immortality and dying, see Isa 14:12-15, which alludes to a pagan myth in which the petty god “Shining One, son of the Dawn,” is hurled into Sheol for his hubris.
  16. Psalm 82:7 tn Heb “like one of the rulers.” The comparison does not necessarily imply that they are not rulers. The expression “like one of” can sometimes mean “as one of” (Gen 49:16; Obad 11) or “as any other of” (Judg 16:7, 11).
  17. Psalm 82:8 tn The translation assumes that the Qal of נָחַל (nakhal) here means “to own; to possess,” and that the imperfect emphasizes a general truth. Another option is to translate the verb as future, “for you will take possession of all the nations” (cf. NIV “all the nations are your inheritance”).
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Proverbs 13:2-3

From the fruit of his speech[a] a person eats good things,[b]
but the treacherous[c] desire[d] the fruit of violence.[e]
The one who guards his words[f] guards his life;
whoever is talkative[g] will come to ruin.[h]

Footnotes:

  1. Proverbs 13:2 tn Heb “lips” (so NIV); KJV “mouth.” The term “lips” is a metonymy of cause for what the lips produce: speech.
  2. Proverbs 13:2 tn Heb “he eats [what is] good.”
  3. Proverbs 13:2 tn Heb “the desire of the treacherous.” The verb בָּגַד (bagad), here a participle, means “to act treacherously, with duplicity, or to betray.”
  4. Proverbs 13:2 tn The noun נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, traditionally “soul”) has a broad range of meanings, and here denotes “appetite” (e.g., Ps 17:9; Prov 23:3; Eccl 2:24; Isa 5:14; Hab 2:5; BDB 660 s.v. 5.c) or (2) “desire” (e.g., Deut 12:20; Prov 13:4; 19:8; 21:10; BDB 660 s.v. 6.a).
  5. Proverbs 13:2 tn Heb “violence.” The phrase “the fruit of” does not appear in the Hebrew but is implied by the parallelism. The term “violence” is probably a metonymy of cause: “violence” represents what violence gains—ill-gotten gains resulting from violent crime. The wicked desire what does not belong to them.tc The LXX reads “the souls of the wicked perish untimely.” The MT makes sense as it stands.
  6. Proverbs 13:3 tn Heb “mouth” (so KJV, NAB). The term פֶּה (peh, “mouth”) functions as a metonymy of cause for speech.
  7. Proverbs 13:3 tn Heb “opens wide his lips.” This is an idiom meaning “to be talkative” (BDB 832 s.v. פָּשַׂק Qal). Cf. NIV “speaks rashly”; TEV “a careless talker”; CEV “talk too much.”
  8. Proverbs 13:3 tn Heb “ruin belongs to him.”sn Tight control over what one says prevents trouble (e.g., Prov 10:10; 17:28; Jas 3:1-12; Sir 28:25). Amenemope advises to “sleep a night before speaking” (5:15; ANET 422, n. 10). The old Arab proverb is appropriate: “Take heed that your tongue does not cut your throat” (O. Zockler, Proverbs, 134).
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Monday April 12, 2021 (NIV)

Joshua 5:1-7:15

When all the Amorite kings on the west side of the Jordan and all the Canaanite kings along the seacoast heard how the Lord had dried up the water of the Jordan before the Israelites while they[a] crossed, they lost their courage and could not even breathe for fear of the Israelites.[b]

A New Generation is Circumcised

At that time the Lord told Joshua, “Make flint knives and circumcise the Israelites once again.”[c] So Joshua made flint knives and circumcised the Israelites at the Hill of the Foreskins.[d] This is why Joshua had to circumcise them: All the men old enough to fight when they left Egypt died on the journey through the wilderness after they left Egypt.[e] Now[f] all the men[g] who left were circumcised, but all the sons[h] born on the journey through the wilderness after they left Egypt were uncircumcised. Indeed, for forty years the Israelites traveled through the wilderness until all the men old enough to fight when they left Egypt, the ones who had disobeyed the Lord, died off.[i] For the Lord had sworn a solemn oath to them that he would not let them see the land he had sworn by oath to their ancestors to give them,[j] a land rich in[k] milk and honey. He replaced them with their sons,[l] whom Joshua circumcised. They were uncircumcised; their fathers had not circumcised them along the way. When all the men[m] had been circumcised, they stayed there in the camp until they had healed. The Lord said to Joshua, “Today I have taken away[n] the disgrace[o] of Egypt from you.” So that place is called Gilgal[p] even to this day.

10 So the Israelites camped in Gilgal and celebrated the Passover in the evening of the fourteenth day of the month in the rift valley plains of Jericho.[q] 11 They ate some of the produce of the land the day after the Passover, including unleavened bread and roasted grain.[r] 12 The manna stopped appearing the day they ate[s] some of the produce of the land; the Israelites never ate manna again.[t] They ate from the produce of the land of Canaan that year.

Israel Conquers Jericho

13 When Joshua was near[u] Jericho, he looked up and saw a man standing in front of him holding a drawn sword.[v] Joshua approached him and asked him, “Are you on our side or allied with our enemies?”[w] 14 He answered,[x] “Truly I am the commander of the Lord’s army.[y] Now I have arrived!”[z] Joshua bowed down with his face to the ground[aa] and asked, “What does my master want to say to his servant?” 15 The commander of the Lord’s army answered Joshua, “Remove your sandals from your feet, because the place where you stand is holy.” Joshua did so.

Now Jericho was shut tightly[ab] because of the Israelites. No one was allowed to leave or enter.[ac] The Lord told Joshua, “See, I am about to defeat Jericho for you,[ad] along with its king and its warriors. Have all the warriors march around the city one time;[ae] do this for six days. Have seven priests carry seven rams’ horns[af] in front of the ark. On the seventh day march around the city seven times, while the priests blow the horns. When you hear the signal from the ram’s horn,[ag] have the whole army give a loud battle cry.[ah] Then the city wall will collapse,[ai] and the warriors should charge straight ahead.”[aj]

So Joshua son of Nun summoned the priests and instructed them, “Pick up the ark of the covenant, and seven priests must carry seven rams’ horns in front of the ark of the Lord.” And he told[ak] the army,[al] “Move ahead[am] and march around the city, with armed troops going ahead of the ark of the Lord.”

When Joshua gave the army its orders,[an] the seven priests carrying the seven rams’ horns before the Lord moved ahead and blew the horns as the ark of the covenant of the Lord followed behind. Armed troops marched ahead of the priests blowing the horns, while the rear guard followed along behind the ark blowing rams’ horns. 10 Now Joshua had instructed the army,[ao] “Do not give a battle cry[ap] or raise your voices; say nothing[aq] until the day I tell you, ‘Give the battle cry.’[ar] Then give the battle cry!”[as] 11 So Joshua made sure they marched the ark of the Lord around the city one time.[at] Then they went back to the camp and spent the night there.[au]

12 Bright and early the next morning Joshua had the priests pick up the ark of the Lord.[av] 13 The seven priests carrying the seven rams’ horns before the ark of the Lord marched along blowing their horns. Armed troops marched ahead of them, while the rear guard followed along behind the ark of the Lord blowing rams’ horns. 14 They marched around the city one time on the second day, then returned to the camp. They did this six days in all.

15 On the seventh day they were up at the crack of dawn[aw] and marched around the city as before—only this time they marched around it seven times.[ax] 16 The seventh time around, the priests blew the rams’ horns, and Joshua told the army,[ay] “Give the battle cry,[az] for the Lord is handing the city over to you![ba] 17 The city and all that is in it must be set apart for the Lord;[bb] only Rahab the prostitute and all who are with her in her house will live, because she hid the spies[bc] we sent. 18 But be careful when you are setting apart the riches for God. If you take any of it, then you will make the Israelite camp subject to annihilation and cause a disaster.[bd] 19 All the silver and gold, as well as bronze and iron items, belong to the Lord.[be] They must go into the Lord’s treasury.”

20 The rams’ horns sounded,[bf] and when the army[bg] heard the signal,[bh] they gave a loud battle cry.[bi] The wall collapsed,[bj] and the warriors charged straight ahead into the city and captured it.[bk] 21 They annihilated with the sword everything that breathed in the city,[bl] including men and women, young and old, as well as cattle, sheep, and donkeys. 22 Joshua told the two men who had spied on the land, “Enter the prostitute’s house[bm] and bring out the woman and all who belong to her as you promised her.”[bn] 23 So the young spies went and brought out Rahab, her father, mother, brothers, and all who belonged to her. They brought out her whole family and took them to a place outside[bo] the Israelite camp. 24 But they burned[bp] the city and all that was in it, except for the silver, gold, and bronze and iron items they put in the treasury of the Lord’s house.[bq] 25 Yet Joshua spared[br] Rahab the prostitute, her father’s family,[bs] and all who belonged to her. She lives in Israel[bt] to this very day because she hid the messengers Joshua sent to spy on Jericho. 26 At that time Joshua made this solemn declaration:[bu] “The man who attempts to rebuild[bv] this city of Jericho[bw] will stand condemned before the Lord.[bx] He will lose his firstborn son when he lays its foundations and his youngest son when he erects its gates!”[by] 27 The Lord was with Joshua and he became famous throughout the land.[bz]

Achan Sins and is Punished

But the Israelites disobeyed the command about the city’s riches.[ca] Achan son of Carmi, son of Zabdi,[cb] son of Zerah, from the tribe of Judah, stole some of the riches.[cc] The Lord was furious with the Israelites.[cd]

Joshua sent men from Jericho to Ai (which is located near Beth Aven, east of Bethel) and instructed them, “Go up and spy on the land.” So the men went up and spied on Ai. They returned and reported to Joshua,[ce] “Don’t send the whole army.[cf] About two or three thousand men are adequate to defeat Ai.[cg] Don’t tire out the whole army, for Ai is small.”[ch]

So about 3,000 men went up, but they fled from the men of Ai. The men of Ai killed about thirty-six of them and chased them from in front of the city gate all the way to the fissures[ci] and defeated them on the steep slope.[cj] The people’s[ck] courage melted away like water.[cl]

Joshua tore his clothes;[cm] he and the leaders[cn] of Israel lay face down on the ground before the ark of the Lord until evening[co] and threw dirt on their heads.[cp] Joshua prayed,[cq] “O, Sovereign Lord! Why did you bring these people across the Jordan to hand us over to the Amorites so they could destroy us? If only we had been satisfied to live on the other side of the Jordan! O Lord, what can I say now that Israel has retreated[cr] before its enemies? When the Canaanites and all who live in the land hear about this, they will turn against us and destroy the very memory of us[cs] from the earth. What will you do to protect your great reputation?”[ct]

10 The Lord responded[cu] to Joshua, “Get up! Why are you lying there face down?[cv] 11 Israel has sinned; they have violated my covenantal commandment![cw] They have taken some of the riches;[cx] they have stolen them and deceitfully put them among their own possessions.[cy] 12 The Israelites are unable to stand before their enemies; they retreat because they have become subject to annihilation.[cz] I will no longer be with you,[da] unless you destroy what has contaminated you.[db] 13 Get up! Ritually consecrate the people and tell them this: ‘Ritually consecrate yourselves for tomorrow, because this is what the Lord God of Israel has said, “You are contaminated,[dc] O Israel! You will not be able to stand before your enemies until you remove what is contaminating you.”[dd] 14 In the morning you must approach in tribal order.[de] The tribe the Lord selects[df] must approach by clans. The clan the Lord selects must approach by families.[dg] The family the Lord selects must approach man by man.[dh] 15 The one caught with the riches[di] must be burned up[dj] along with all who belong to him, because he violated the Lord’s covenant and did such a disgraceful thing in Israel.’”

Footnotes:

  1. Joshua 5:1 tc Another textual tradition has, “while we crossed.”
  2. Joshua 5:1 tn Heb “their heart[s] melted and there was no longer in them breath (or perhaps “spirit”) because of the sons of Israel.”
  3. Joshua 5:2 tn Heb “return, circumcise the sons of Israel a second time.” The Hebrew term שׁוּב (shuv, “return”) is used here in an adverbial sense to indicate the repetition of an action.
  4. Joshua 5:3 tn Or “Gibeath Haaraloth.” This name means “Hill of the Foreskins.” Many modern translations simply give the Hebrew name, although an explanatory note giving the meaning of the name is often included.sn The name given to the place, Hill of the Foreskins was an obvious reminder of this important event.
  5. Joshua 5:4 tn Heb “All the people who went out from Egypt, the males, all the men of war, died in the wilderness in the way when they went out from Egypt.”
  6. Joshua 5:5 tn Or “indeed.”
  7. Joshua 5:5 tn Heb “people.”
  8. Joshua 5:5 tn Heb “all the people.”
  9. Joshua 5:6 tn Heb “all the nation, the men of war who went out from Egypt, who did not listen to the voice of the Lord, came to an end.”
  10. Joshua 5:6 tn Some Hebrew mss, as well as the Syriac version, support this reading. Most ancient witnesses read “us.”
  11. Joshua 5:6 tn Heb “flowing with.”sn The word picture a land rich in milk and honey depicts the land as containing many grazing areas (which would produce milk) and flowering plants (which would support the bees that produced honey).
  12. Joshua 5:7 tn Heb “their sons he raised up in their place.”
  13. Joshua 5:8 tn Heb “nation.”
  14. Joshua 5:9 tn Heb “rolled away.”
  15. Joshua 5:9 sn One might take the disgrace of Egypt as a reference to their uncircumcised condition (see Gen 34:14), but the generation that left Egypt was circumcised (see v. 5). It more likely refers to the disgrace they experienced in Egyptian slavery. When this new generation reached the promised land and renewed their covenantal commitment to the Lord by submitting to the rite of circumcision, the Lord’s deliverance of his people from slavery, which had begun with the plagues and the crossing of the Red Sea, reached its climax. See T. C. Butler, Joshua (WBC), 59.
  16. Joshua 5:9 sn The name Gilgal sounds like the Hebrew verb “roll away” (גַּלַל, galal).
  17. Joshua 5:10 sn This is the area of the rift valley basin in the vicinity of Jericho (see the note at Josh 4:13).
  18. Joshua 5:11 tn The Hebrew text adds, “on this same day.” This is somewhat redundant in English and has not been translated.
  19. Joshua 5:12 tn Heb “the day after, when they ate.” The present translation assumes this means the day after the Passover, though it is possible it refers to the day after they began eating the land’s produce.
  20. Joshua 5:12 tn Heb “and the sons of Israel had no more manna.”
  21. Joshua 5:13 tn Heb “in.”
  22. Joshua 5:13 tn Heb “he lifted up his eyes and looked. And look, a man was standing in front of him, and his sword was drawn in his hand.” The verb הִנֵּה (hinneh, “look”) invites the reader to view the scene through Joshua’s eyes. By calling the stranger “a man,” the author reflects Joshua’s perspective. The text shortly reveals his true identity (vv. 14-15).
  23. Joshua 5:13 tn Heb “Are you for us or for our enemies?”
  24. Joshua 5:14 tc Heb “He said, “Neither.” An alternative reading is לוֹ (lo, “[He said] to him”; cf. NEB). This reading is supported by many Hebrew mss, as well as the LXX and Syriac versions. The traditional reading of the MT (לֹא, loʾ, “no, neither”) is probably the product of aural confusion (the two variant readings sound the same in Hebrew). Although followed by a number of modern translations (cf. NIV, NRSV), this reading is problematic, for the commander of the Lord’s army would hardly have declared himself neutral.
  25. Joshua 5:14 sn The Lord’s heavenly army, like an earthly army, has a commander who leads the troops. For the phrase שַׂר־צְבָא (sar tsevaʾ, “army commander”) in the human sphere, see among many other references Gen 21:22, 32; 26:26; Judg 4:2, 7; 1 Sam 12:9.
  26. Joshua 5:14 sn The commander’s appearance seems to be for Joshua’s encouragement. Joshua could now lead Israel into battle knowing that the Lord’s invisible army would ensure victory.
  27. Joshua 5:14 tn Heb “Joshua fell on his face to the ground and bowed down.”
  28. Joshua 6:1 tn Heb “was shutting and shut up.” HALOT 743 s.v. I סגר paraphrases, “blocking [any way of access] and blocked [against any who would leave].”
  29. Joshua 6:1 tn Heb “there was no one going out and there was no one coming in.”
  30. Joshua 6:2 tn Heb “I have given into your hand Jericho.” The Hebrew verb נָתַתִּי (natatti, “I have given”) is probably best understood as a perfect of certitude, indicating the certainty of the action. The Hebrew pronominal suffix “your” is singular, being addressed to Joshua as the leader and representative of the nation. To convey to the modern reader what is about to happen and who is doing it, the translation “I am about to defeat Jericho for you” has been used.
  31. Joshua 6:3 tn Heb “and go around the city, all [you] men of war, encircling the city one time.” The Hebrew verb וְסַבֹּתֶם (vesabbotem, “and go around”) is plural, being addressed to the whole army.
  32. Joshua 6:4 tn Heb “rams’ horns, trumpets.”
  33. Joshua 6:5 tn Heb “and it will be at the sounding of the horn, the ram’s horn, when you hear the sound of the ram’s horn.” The text of Josh 6:5 seems to be unduly repetitive, so for the sake of English style and readability, it is best to streamline the text here. The reading in the Hebrew looks like a conflation of variant readings, with the second (“when you hear the sound of the ram’s horn”) being an interpolation that assimilates the text to verse 20 (“when the army heard the sound of the horn”). Note that the words “when you hear the sound of the ram’s horn” do not appear in the LXX of verse 5.
  34. Joshua 6:5 tn Heb “all the people will shout with a loud shout.”
  35. Joshua 6:5 tn Heb “fall in its place.”
  36. Joshua 6:5 tn Heb “and the people will go up, each man straight ahead.”
  37. Joshua 6:7 tn An alternative reading is “and they said.” In this case the subject is indefinite and the verb should be translated as passive, “[the army] was told.”
  38. Joshua 6:7 tn Heb “the people.”
  39. Joshua 6:7 tn Heb “pass by.”
  40. Joshua 6:8 tn Heb “when Joshua spoke to the people.”
  41. Joshua 6:10 tn Heb “the people.”
  42. Joshua 6:10 tn Or “the shout.”
  43. Joshua 6:10 tn Heb “do not let a word come out of your mouths.”
  44. Joshua 6:10 tn Or “the shout.”
  45. Joshua 6:10 tn Or “the shout.”
  46. Joshua 6:11 tn Heb “and he made the ark of the Lord go around the city, encircling one time.”
  47. Joshua 6:11 tn Heb “and they entered the camp and spent the night in the camp.”
  48. Joshua 6:12 tn Heb “Joshua rose early in the morning and the priests picked up the ark of the Lord.”
  49. Joshua 6:15 tn Heb “On the seventh day they rose early, when the dawn ascended.”
  50. Joshua 6:15 tn Heb “and they went around the city according to this manner seven times, only on that day they went around the city seven times.”
  51. Joshua 6:16 tn Heb “the people.”
  52. Joshua 6:16 tn Or “the shout.”
  53. Joshua 6:16 tn Heb “for the Lord has given to you the city.” The verbal form is a perfect, probably indicating certitude here.
  54. Joshua 6:17 tn Or “dedicated to the Lord.”sn To make the city set apart for the Lord would involve annihilating all the people and animals and placing its riches in the Lord’s treasury (vv. 19, 21, 24).
  55. Joshua 6:17 tn Heb “messengers.”
  56. Joshua 6:18 tn Heb “Only you keep [away] from what is set apart [to God] so that you might not, as you are setting [it] apart, take some of what is set apart [to God] and turn the camp of Israel into what is set apart [to destruction by God] and bring trouble on it.”
  57. Joshua 6:19 tn Heb “it is holy to the Lord.”
  58. Joshua 6:20 tc Heb “and the people shouted and they blew the rams’ horns.” The initial statement (“and the people shouted”) seems premature, since the verse goes on to explain that the battle cry followed the blowing of the horns. The statement has probably been accidentally duplicated from what follows. It is omitted in the LXX.
  59. Joshua 6:20 tn Heb “the people.”
  60. Joshua 6:20 tn Heb “the sound of the horn.”
  61. Joshua 6:20 tn Heb “they shouted with a loud shout.”
  62. Joshua 6:20 tn Heb “fell in its place.”
  63. Joshua 6:20 tn Heb “and the people went up into the city, each one straight ahead, and they captured the city.”
  64. Joshua 6:21 tn Heb “all which was in the city.”
  65. Joshua 6:22 tn Heb “the house of the woman, the prostitute.”
  66. Joshua 6:22 tn Heb “and bring out from there the woman and all who belong to her as you swore on oath to her.”
  67. Joshua 6:23 tn Or “placed them outside.”
  68. Joshua 6:24 tn The Hebrew text adds “with fire.”
  69. Joshua 6:24 tn Heb “the treasury of the house of the Lord.” Technically the Lord did not have a “house” yet, so perhaps this refers to the tabernacle using later terminology.
  70. Joshua 6:25 tn Heb “kept alive.”
  71. Joshua 6:25 tn Heb the house of her father.”
  72. Joshua 6:25 tn Or “among the Israelites”; Heb “in the midst of Israel.”
  73. Joshua 6:26 tn Normally the Hiphil of שָׁבַע (shavaʿ) has a causative sense (“make [someone] take an oath”; see Josh 2:17, 20), but here (see also Josh 23:7) no object is stated or implied. If Joshua is calling divine judgment down upon the one who attempts to rebuild Jericho, then “make a solemn appeal [to God as judge]” or “pronounce a curse” would be an appropriate translation. However, the tone seems stronger. Joshua appears to be announcing the certain punishment of the violator. 1 Kgs 16:34, which records the fulfillment of Joshua’s prediction, supports this. Casting Joshua in a prophetic role, it refers to Joshua’s statement as the “word of the Lord” spoken through Joshua.
  74. Joshua 6:26 tn Heb “rises up and builds.”
  75. Joshua 6:26 tc The LXX omits “Jericho.” It is probably a scribal addition.
  76. Joshua 6:26 tn The Hebrew phrase אָרוּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה (ʾarur lifne yehvah, “cursed [i.e., condemned] before the Lord”) also occurs in 1 Sam 26:19.
  77. Joshua 6:26 tn Heb “With his firstborn he will lay its foundations and with his youngest he will erect its gates.” The Hebrew verb יַצִּיב (yatsiv, “he will erect”) is imperfect, not jussive, suggesting Joshua’s statement is a prediction, not an imprecation.
  78. Joshua 6:27 tn Heb “and the report about him was in all the land.” The Hebrew term אֶרֶץ (ʾerets, “land”) may also be translated “earth.”
  79. Joshua 7:1 tn Heb “But the sons of Israel were unfaithful with unfaithfulness concerning what was set apart [to the Lord].”
  80. Joshua 7:1 tn 1 Chr 2:6 lists a “Zimri” (but no Zabdi) as one of the five sons of Zerah (cf. also Josh 7:17, 18).
  81. Joshua 7:1 tn Heb “took from what was set apart [to the Lord].”
  82. Joshua 7:1 tn Heb “the anger of the Lord burned against the sons of Israel.”sn This incident illustrates well the principle of corporate solidarity and corporate guilt. The sin of one man brought the Lord’s anger down upon the entire nation.
  83. Joshua 7:3 tn Heb “and they returned to Joshua and said to him.”
  84. Joshua 7:3 tn Heb “Don’t let all the people go up.”
  85. Joshua 7:3 tn Heb “Let about two thousand men or about three thousand men go up to defeat Ai.”
  86. Joshua 7:3 tn Heb “all the people for they are small.”
  87. Joshua 7:5 tn The meaning and correct translation of the Hebrew word שְׁבָרִים (shevarim) is uncertain. The translation “fissures” is based on usage of the plural form of the noun in Ps 60:4 HT (60:2 ET), where it appears to refer to cracks in the earth caused by an earthquake. Perhaps deep ravines or gorges are in view, or the word is a proper noun (“all the way to Shebarim”).
  88. Joshua 7:5 sn The precise geographical location of the Israelite defeat at this “steep slope” is uncertain.
  89. Joshua 7:5 tn Or “army’s.”
  90. Joshua 7:5 tn Heb “and the heart of the people melted and became water.”
  91. Joshua 7:6 sn Tearing one’s clothes was an outward expression of extreme sorrow (see Gen 37:34; 44:13).
  92. Joshua 7:6 tn Or “elders.”
  93. Joshua 7:6 tn Heb “and fell on his face to the ground before the ark of the Lord until evening, he and the elders of Israel.”
  94. Joshua 7:6 sn Throwing dirt on one’s head was an outward expression of extreme sorrow (see Lam 2:10; Ezek 27:30).
  95. Joshua 7:7 tn Heb “said.”
  96. Joshua 7:8 tn Heb “turned [the] back.”
  97. Joshua 7:9 tn Heb “and cut off our name.”
  98. Joshua 7:9 tn Heb “What will you do for your great name?”
  99. Joshua 7:10 tn Heb “said.”
  100. Joshua 7:10 tn Heb “Why are you falling on your face?”
  101. Joshua 7:11 tn Heb “They have violated my covenant which I commanded them.”
  102. Joshua 7:11 tn Heb “what was set apart [to the Lord].”
  103. Joshua 7:11 tn Heb “and also they have stolen, and also they have lied, and also they have placed [them] among their items.”
  104. Joshua 7:12 tn Heb “they turn [the] back before their enemies because they are set apart [to destruction by the Lord].”
  105. Joshua 7:12 tn The second person pronoun is plural in Hebrew, indicating these words are addressed to the entire nation.
  106. Joshua 7:12 tn Heb “what is set apart [to destruction by the Lord] from your midst.”
  107. Joshua 7:13 tn Heb “what is set apart [to destruction by the Lord] [is] in your midst.”
  108. Joshua 7:13 tn Heb “remove what is set apart [i.e., to destruction by the Lord] from your midst.”
  109. Joshua 7:14 tn Heb “by your tribes.”
  110. Joshua 7:14 tn Heb “takes forcefully, seizes.”
  111. Joshua 7:14 tn Heb “houses.”
  112. Joshua 7:14 tn Heb “by men.”
  113. Joshua 7:15 tn Heb “with what was set apart [to the Lord].”
  114. Joshua 7:15 tn Heb “burned with fire.”
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Luke 15

The Parable of the Lost Sheep and Coin

15 Now all the tax collectors[a] and sinners were coming[b] to hear him. But[c] the Pharisees[d] and the experts in the law[e] were complaining,[f] “This man welcomes[g] sinners and eats with them.”

So[h] Jesus[i] told them[j] this parable:[k] “Which one[l] of you, if he has a hundred[m] sheep and loses one of them, would not leave the ninety-nine in the open pasture[n] and go look for[o] the one that is lost until he finds it?[p] Then[q] when he has found it, he places it on his shoulders, rejoicing. Returning[r] home, he calls together[s] his[t] friends and neighbors, telling them, ‘Rejoice with me, because I have found my sheep that was lost.’ I tell you, in the same way there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner[u] who repents than over ninety-nine righteous people[v] who have no need to repent.[w]

“Or what woman, if she has ten silver coins[x] and loses[y] one of them,[z] does not light a lamp, sweep[aa] the house, and search thoroughly until she finds it? Then[ab] when she has found it, she calls together her[ac] friends and neighbors, saying, ‘Rejoice[ad] with me, for I have found the coin[ae] that I had lost.’ 10 In the same way, I tell you, there is joy in the presence of God’s angels[af] over one sinner who repents.”

The Parable of the Compassionate Father

11 Then[ag] Jesus[ah] said, “A man had two sons. 12 The[ai] younger of them said to his[aj] father, ‘Father, give me the share of the estate[ak] that will belong[al] to me.’ So[am] he divided his[an] assets between them.[ao] 13 After[ap] a few days,[aq] the younger son gathered together all he had and left on a journey to a distant country, and there he squandered[ar] his wealth[as] with a wild lifestyle. 14 Then[at] after he had spent everything, a severe famine took place in that country, and he began to be in need. 15 So he went and worked for[au] one of the citizens of that country, who[av] sent him to his fields to feed pigs.[aw] 16 He[ax] was longing to eat[ay] the carob pods[az] the pigs were eating, but[ba] no one gave him anything. 17 But when he came to his senses[bb] he said, ‘How many of my father’s hired workers have food[bc] enough to spare, but here I am dying from hunger! 18 I will get up and go to my father and say to him, “Father, I have sinned[bd] against heaven[be] and against[bf] you. 19 I am no longer worthy to be called your son; treat me[bg] like one of your hired workers.”’ 20 So[bh] he got up and went to his father. But while he was still a long way from home[bi] his father saw him, and his heart went out to him;[bj] he ran and hugged[bk] his son[bl] and kissed him. 21 Then[bm] his son said to him, ‘Father, I have sinned against heaven[bn] and against you; I am no longer worthy to be called your son.’[bo] 22 But the father said to his slaves,[bp] ‘Hurry! Bring the best robe,[bq] and put it on him! Put a ring on his finger[br] and sandals[bs] on his feet! 23 Bring[bt] the fattened calf[bu] and kill it! Let us eat[bv] and celebrate, 24 because this son of mine was dead, and is alive again—he was lost and is found!’[bw] So[bx] they began to celebrate.

25 “Now his older son was in the field. As[by] he came and approached the house, he heard music[bz] and dancing. 26 So[ca] he called one of the slaves[cb] and asked what was happening. 27 The slave replied,[cc] ‘Your brother has returned, and your father has killed the fattened calf[cd] because he got his son[ce] back safe and sound.’ 28 But the older son[cf] became angry[cg] and refused[ch] to go in. His father came out and appealed to him, 29 but he answered[ci] his father, ‘Look! These many years I have worked like a slave[cj] for you, and I never disobeyed your commands. Yet[ck] you never gave me even a goat[cl] so that I could celebrate with my friends! 30 But when this son of yours[cm] came back, who has devoured[cn] your assets with prostitutes,[co] you killed the fattened calf[cp] for him!’ 31 Then[cq] the father[cr] said to him, ‘Son, you are always with me, and everything that belongs to me is yours. 32 It was appropriate[cs] to celebrate and be glad, for your brother[ct] was dead, and is alive; he was lost and is found.’”[cu]

Footnotes:

  1. Luke 15:1 sn See the note on tax collectors in 3:12.
  2. Luke 15:1 tn Grk “were drawing near.”
  3. Luke 15:2 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
  4. Luke 15:2 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.
  5. Luke 15:2 tn Or “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.
  6. Luke 15:2 tn Or “grumbling”; Grk “were complaining, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  7. Luke 15:2 tn Or “accepts,” “receives.” This is not the first time this issue has been raised: Luke 5:27-32; 7:37-50.
  8. Luke 15:3 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that Jesus’ telling of the parable is in response to the complaints of the Pharisees and experts in the law.
  9. Luke 15:3 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  10. Luke 15:3 sn Them means at the minimum the parable is for the leadership, but probably also for those people Jesus accepted, but the leaders regarded as outcasts.
  11. Luke 15:3 tn Grk “parable, saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  12. Luke 15:4 tn Grk “What man.” The Greek word ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos) is used here in a somewhat generic sense.
  13. Luke 15:4 sn This individual with a hundred sheep is a shepherd of modest means, as flocks often had up to two hundred head of sheep.
  14. Luke 15:4 tn Or “desert,” but here such a translation might suggest neglect of the 99 sheep left behind.
  15. Luke 15:4 tn Grk “go after,” but in contemporary English the idiom “to look for” is used to express this.
  16. Luke 15:4 sn Until he finds it. The parable pictures God’s pursuit of the sinner. On the image of Jesus as the Good Shepherd, see John 10:1-18.
  17. Luke 15:5 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  18. Luke 15:6 tn Grk “And coming into his…” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  19. Luke 15:6 sn A touch of drama may be present, as the term calls together can mean a formal celebration (1 Kgs 1:9-10).
  20. Luke 15:6 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215). It occurs before “neighbors” as well (“his friends and his neighbors”) but has not been translated the second time because of English style.
  21. Luke 15:7 sn There will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents. The pursuit of the sinner is a priority in spite of the presence of others who are doing well (see also Luke 5:32; 19:10). The theme of repentance, a major Lukan theme, is again emphasized.
  22. Luke 15:7 tn Here δικαίοις (dikaiois) is an adjective functioning substantivally and has been translated “righteous people.”
  23. Luke 15:7 tn Or “who do not need to repent”; Grk “who do not have need of repentance.”
  24. Luke 15:8 sn This silver coin is a drachma, equal to a denarius, that is, a day’s pay for the average laborer.
  25. Luke 15:8 tn Grk “What woman who has ten silver coins, if she loses.” The initial participle ἔχουσα (echousa) has been translated as a finite verb parallel to ἀπολέσῃ (apolesē) in the conditional clause to improve the English style.
  26. Luke 15:8 tn Grk “one coin.”
  27. Luke 15:8 tn Grk “and sweep,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
  28. Luke 15:9 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  29. Luke 15:9 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).
  30. Luke 15:9 sn Rejoice. Besides the theme of pursuing the lost, the other theme of the parable is the joy of finding them.
  31. Luke 15:9 tn Grk “drachma.”
  32. Luke 15:10 sn The whole of heaven is said to rejoice. Joy in the presence of God’s angels is a way of referring to God’s joy as well without having to name him explicitly. Contemporary Judaism tended to refer to God indirectly where possible out of reverence or respect for the divine name.
  33. Luke 15:11 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  34. Luke 15:11 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  35. Luke 15:12 tn Grk “And the.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  36. Luke 15:12 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).
  37. Luke 15:12 tn L&N 57.19 notes that in nonbiblical contexts in which the word οὐσία (ousia) occurs, it refers to considerable possessions or wealth, thus “estate.”
  38. Luke 15:12 tn L&N 57.3, “to belong to or come to belong to, with the possible implication of by right or by inheritance.”
  39. Luke 15:12 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the father’s response to the younger son’s request.
  40. Luke 15:12 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).
  41. Luke 15:12 sn He divided his assets between them. There was advice against doing this in the OT Apocrypha (Sir 33:20). The younger son would get half of what the older son received (Deut 21:17).
  42. Luke 15:13 tn Grk “And after.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  43. Luke 15:13 tn Grk “after not many days.”
  44. Luke 15:13 tn Or “wasted.” This verb is graphic; it means to scatter (L&N 57.151).
  45. Luke 15:13 tn Or “estate” (the same word has been translated “estate” in v. 12).
  46. Luke 15:14 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the sequence of events in the parable. Greek style often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” but English style generally does not.
  47. Luke 15:15 tn Grk “joined himself to” (in this case an idiom for beginning to work for someone).
  48. Luke 15:15 tn Grk “and he.” Here the conjunction καί (kai) and the personal pronoun have been translated by a relative pronoun to improve the English style.
  49. Luke 15:15 sn To a Jew, being sent to the field to feed pigs would be an insult, since pigs were considered unclean animals (Lev 11:7).
  50. Luke 15:16 tn Grk “And he.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  51. Luke 15:16 tn Or “would gladly have eaten”; Grk “was longing to be filled with.”
  52. Luke 15:16 tn This term refers to the edible pods from a carob tree (BDAG 540 s.v. κεράτιον). They were bean-like in nature and were commonly used for fattening pigs, although they were also used for food by poor people (L&N 3.46).
  53. Luke 15:16 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
  54. Luke 15:17 tn Grk “came to himself” (an idiom).
  55. Luke 15:17 tn Grk “bread,” but used figuratively for food of any kind (L&N 5.1).
  56. Luke 15:18 sn In the confession “I have sinned” there is a recognition of wrong that pictures the penitent coming home and “being found.”
  57. Luke 15:18 sn The phrase against heaven is a circumlocution for God.
  58. Luke 15:18 tn According to BDAG 342 s.v. ἐνωπιον 4.a, “in relation to ἁμαρτάνειν ἐ. τινος sin against someone Lk 15:18, 21 (cp. Jdth 5:17; 1 Km 7:6; 20:1).”
  59. Luke 15:19 tn Or “make me.” Here is a sign of total humility.
  60. Luke 15:20 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the son’s decision to return home. Greek style often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” but English style generally does not.
  61. Luke 15:20 tn Grk “a long way off from [home].” The word “home” is implied (L&N 85.16).
  62. Luke 15:20 tn Or “felt great affection for him,” “felt great pity for him.”sn The major figure of the parable, the forgiving father, represents God the Father and his compassionate response. God is ready with open arms to welcome the sinner who comes back to him.
  63. Luke 15:20 tn Grk “he fell on his neck,” an idiom for showing special affection for someone by throwing one’s arms around them. The picture is of the father hanging on the son’s neck in welcome.
  64. Luke 15:20 tn Grk “him”; the referent (the son) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  65. Luke 15:21 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  66. Luke 15:21 sn The phrase against heaven is a circumlocution for God. 1st century Judaism tended to minimize use of the divine name out of reverence.
  67. Luke 15:21 sn The younger son launches into his confession just as he had planned. See vv. 18-19.
  68. Luke 15:22 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 7:2.
  69. Luke 15:22 sn With the instructions Hurry! Bring the best robe, there is a total acceptance of the younger son back into the home.
  70. Luke 15:22 tn Grk “hand,” but χείρ (cheir) can refer to either the whole hand or any relevant part of it (L&N 8.30).
  71. Luke 15:22 sn The need for sandals underlines the younger son’s previous destitution, because he was barefoot.
  72. Luke 15:23 tn Grk “And bring.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  73. Luke 15:23 tn Or “the prize calf” (L&N 65.8). See also L&N 44.2, “grain-fattened.” Such a calf was usually reserved for religious celebrations.
  74. Luke 15:23 tn The participle φαγόντες (phagontes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  75. Luke 15:24 sn This statement links the parable to the theme of 15:6, 9.
  76. Luke 15:24 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the father’s remarks in the preceding verses.
  77. Luke 15:25 tn Grk “And as.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  78. Luke 15:25 sn This would have been primarily instrumental music, but might include singing as well.
  79. Luke 15:26 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the older son hearing the noise of the celebration in progress.
  80. Luke 15:26 tn The Greek term here, παῖς (pais), describes a slave, possibly a household servant regarded with some affection (L&N 87.77).
  81. Luke 15:27 tn Grk “And he said to him.” Here δέ (de) has not been translated. The rest of the phrase has been simplified to “the slave replied,” with the referent (the slave) specified in the translation for clarity.
  82. Luke 15:27 tn See note on the phrase “fattened calf” in v. 23.
  83. Luke 15:27 tn Grk “him”; the referent (the younger son) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  84. Luke 15:28 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the older son, v. 25) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  85. Luke 15:28 tn The aorist verb ὠργίσθη (ōrgisthē) has been translated as an ingressive aorist, reflecting entry into a state or condition.
  86. Luke 15:28 sn Ironically the attitude of the older son has left him outside and without joy.
  87. Luke 15:29 tn Grk “but answering, he said.” This is somewhat redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “but he answered.”
  88. Luke 15:29 tn Or simply, “have served,” but in the emotional context of the older son’s outburst the translation given is closer to the point.
  89. Luke 15:29 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to bring out the contrast indicated by the context.
  90. Luke 15:29 sn You never gave me even a goat. The older son’s complaint was that the generous treatment of the younger son was not fair: “I can’t get even a little celebration with a basic food staple like a goat!”
  91. Luke 15:30 sn Note the younger son is not “my brother” but this son of yours (an expression with a distinctly pejorative nuance).
  92. Luke 15:30 sn This is another graphic description. The younger son’s consumption had been like a glutton. He had both figuratively and literally devoured the assets which were given to him.
  93. Luke 15:30 sn The charge concerning the prostitutes is unproven, but essentially the older brother accuses the father of committing an injustice by rewarding his younger son’s unrighteous behavior.
  94. Luke 15:30 sn See note on the phrase “fattened calf” in v. 23.
  95. Luke 15:31 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events in the parable.
  96. Luke 15:31 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the father) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  97. Luke 15:32 tn Or “necessary.”
  98. Luke 15:32 sn By referring to him as your brother, the father reminded the older brother that the younger brother was part of the family.
  99. Luke 15:32 sn The theme he was lost and is found is repeated from v. 24. The conclusion is open-ended. The reader is left to ponder with the older son (who pictures the scribes and Pharisees) what the response will be. The parable does not reveal the ultimate response of the older brother. Jesus argued that sinners should be pursued and received back warmly when they returned.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Psalm 81

Psalm 81[a]

For the music director, according to the gittith style;[b] by Asaph.

81 Shout for joy to God, our source of strength!
Shout out to the God of Jacob!
Sing[c] a song and play the tambourine,
the pleasant-sounding harp, and the ten-stringed instrument.
Sound the ram’s horn on the day of the new moon,[d]
and on the day of the full moon when our festival begins.[e]
For observing the fe