Israel Defeats a Northern Coalition
11 When King Jabin of Hazor heard the news about Israel’s victories,[a] he organized a coalition, including[b] King Jobab of Madon, the king of Shimron, the king of Acshaph, 2 and the northern kings who ruled in[c] the hill country, in the rift valley south of Kinnereth,[d] in the foothills, and on the heights of Dor to the west. 3 Canaanites came[e] from the east and west; Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, and Jebusites from the hill country; and Hivites from below Hermon in the area[f] of Mizpah. 4 These kings came out with their armies; they were as numerous as the sand on the seashore and had a large number of horses and chariots.[g] 5 All these kings gathered and joined forces[h] at the Waters of Merom to fight Israel.
6 The Lord told Joshua, “Don’t be afraid of them, for about this time tomorrow I will cause all of them to lie dead before Israel. You must hamstring their horses and burn[i] their chariots.” 7 Joshua and his whole army caught them by surprise at the Waters of Merom and attacked them.[j] 8 The Lord handed them over to Israel, and they struck them down and chased them all the way to Greater Sidon, Misrephoth Maim,[k] and the Mizpah Valley to the east. They struck them down until no survivors remained. 9 Joshua did to them as the Lord had commanded him; he hamstrung their horses and burned[l] their chariots.
10 At that time Joshua turned, captured Hazor, and struck down its king with the sword, for Hazor was at that time[m] the leader of all these kingdoms. 11 They annihilated everyone who lived there with the sword[n]—no one who breathed remained—and burned[o] Hazor.
12 Joshua captured all these royal cities and all their kings and annihilated them with the sword,[p] as Moses the Lord’s servant had commanded. 13 But Israel did not burn any of the cities located on mounds[q] except for Hazor; it was the only one Joshua burned. 14 The Israelites plundered all the goods of these cities and the cattle, but they totally destroyed all the people[r] and allowed no one who breathed to live. 15 Moses the Lord’s servant passed on the Lord’s commands to Joshua, and Joshua did as he was told. He did not ignore any of the commands the Lord had given Moses.[s]
A Summary of Israel’s Victories
16 Joshua conquered the whole land,[t] including the hill country, all the Negev,[u] all the land of Goshen, the foothills,[v] the rift valley,[w] the hill country of Israel and its foothills, 17 from Mount Halak up to Seir, as far as Baal Gad in the Lebanon Valley below Mount Hermon. He captured all their kings and executed them.[x] 18 Joshua campaigned against[y] these kings for quite some time.[z] 19 No city made peace with the Israelites (except the Hivites living in Gibeon);[aa] they had to conquer all of them,[ab] 20 for the Lord determined to make them obstinate so they would attack Israel. He wanted Israel to annihilate them without mercy, as he had instructed Moses.[ac]
21 At that time Joshua attacked and eliminated the Anakites from the hill country[ad]—from Hebron, Debir, Anab, and all the hill country of Judah and Israel.[ae] Joshua annihilated them and their cities. 22 No Anakites were left in Israelite territory, though some remained in Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod. 23 Joshua conquered[af] the whole land, just as the Lord had promised Moses,[ag] and he assigned Israel their tribal portions.[ah] Then the land was free of war.
12 Now these are the kings of the land whom the Israelites defeated and drove from their land[ai] on the east side of the Jordan,[aj] from the Arnon Valley to Mount Hermon, including all the eastern rift valley:[ak]
2 King Sihon of the Amorites who lived[al] in Heshbon and ruled from Aroer (on the edge of the Arnon Valley)—including the city in the middle of the valley[am] and half of Gilead—all the way to the Jabbok Valley bordering Ammonite territory. 3 His kingdom included[an] the eastern rift valley from the Sea of Kinnereth[ao] to the sea of the rift valley (the Salt Sea),[ap] including the route to Beth Jeshimoth and the area southward below the slopes of Pisgah.[aq]
4 The territory of King Og of Bashan, one of the few remaining Rephaites,[ar] who lived[as] in Ashtaroth and Edrei 5 and ruled over Mount Hermon, Salecah, all Bashan to the border of the Geshurites and Maacathites, and half of Gilead as far as the border of King Sihon of Heshbon.
6 Moses the Lord’s servant and the Israelites defeated them and Moses the Lord’s servant assigned their land[at] to Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh.
7 These are the kings of the land whom Joshua and the Israelites defeated on the west side of the Jordan, from Baal Gad in the Lebanon Valley to Mount Halak up to Seir. Joshua assigned this territory to the Israelite tribes,[au] 8 including the hill country, the foothills,[av] the rift valley,[aw] the slopes,[ax] the wilderness, and the Negev[ay]—the land of[az] the Hittites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites:
9 the king of Jericho (one),
the king of Ai—located near Bethel—(one),
10 the king of Jerusalem (one),
the king of Hebron (one),
11 the king of Jarmuth (one),
the king of Lachish (one),
12 the king of Eglon (one),
the king of Gezer (one),
13 the king of Debir (one),
the king of Geder (one),
14 the king of Hormah (one),
the king of Arad (one),
15 the king of Libnah (one),
the king of Adullam (one),
16 the king of Makkedah (one),
the king of Bethel (one),
17 the king of Tappuah (one),
the king of Hepher (one),
18 the king of Aphek (one),
the king of Lasharon (one),
19 the king of Madon (one),
the king of Hazor (one),
20 the king of Shimron Meron (one),
the king of Acshaph (one),
21 the king of Taanach (one),
the king of Megiddo (one),
22 the king of Kedesh (one),
the king of Jokneam near Carmel (one),
23 the king of Dor—near Naphath Dor—(one),
the king of Goyim—near Gilgal—(one),
24 the king of Tirzah (one),
a total of thirty-one kings.
- Joshua 11:1 tn The words “about Israel’s victories” are not in the Hebrew text but have been supplied for clarity.
- Joshua 11:1 tn Heb “he sent to.”
- Joshua 11:2 tn Heb “and to the kings who [are] from the north in.”
- Joshua 11:2 tn Heb “Chinneroth,” a city and plain located in the territory of Naphtali in Galilee (BDB 490 s.v. כִּנֶּרֶת, כִּנֲרוֹת).sn Kinnereth was a city in Galilee located near the Sea of Galilee (Deut 3:17). The surrounding region also became known by this name (1 Kgs 15:20; cf. Matt 14:34), and eventually even the lake itself (Josh 12:3; cf. Luke 5:1). The “rift valley south of” Galilee probably refers to the northern part of the Jordan Valley from the lake to where the Jezreel Valley joins the rift valley. Dor is nearly due west from that point.
- Joshua 11:3 tn The verb “came” is supplied in the translation (see v. 4).
- Joshua 11:3 tn Or “land.”
- Joshua 11:4 tn Heb “They and all their camps with them came out, a people as numerous as the sand which is on the edge of the sea in multitude, and [with] horses and chariots very numerous.”
- Joshua 11:5 tn Heb “and came and camped together.”
- Joshua 11:6 tn Heb “burn with fire”; the words “with fire” are redundant in English and have not been included in the translation.
- Joshua 11:7 tn Heb “Joshua and all the people of war with him came upon them at the Waters of Merom suddenly and fell upon them.”
- Joshua 11:8 tn The meaning of the Hebrew name “Misrephoth Maim” is perhaps “lime-kilns by the water” (see HALOT 641 s.v. מִשְׂרָפוֹת).
- Joshua 11:9 tn Heb “burned with fire”; the words “with fire” are redundant in English and have not been included in the translation.
- Joshua 11:10 tn Or “formerly.”
- Joshua 11:11 tn Heb “and they struck down all life which was in it with the edge of the sword, annihilating.”
- Joshua 11:11 tn Heb “burned with fire”; the words “with fire” are redundant in English and have not been included in the translation.
- Joshua 11:12 tn Heb “and he struck them down with the edge of the sword, he annihilated them.”
- Joshua 11:13 tn Heb “standing on their mounds.”
- Joshua 11:14 tn Heb “but all the people they struck down with the edge of the sword until they destroyed them.”
- Joshua 11:15 tn Heb “As the Lord commanded Moses his servant, so Moses commanded Joshua, and Joshua acted accordingly; he did not turn aside a thing from all which the Lord commanded Moses.”
- Joshua 11:16 tn Heb “Joshua took all this land.”
- Joshua 11:16 sn The Negev is an area south of the Judean hill country and west of the rift valley. As a geographic feature it is an arid depression extending south to the Gulf of Aqabah, but the biblical reference is probably to the northern part of this region.
- Joshua 11:16 sn The foothills (שְׁפֵלָה, “shephelah”) refer to the transition region between the Judean hill country and the Mediterranean coastal plain.
- Joshua 11:16 sn As a geographic feature, the rift valley (עֲרָבָה, ʿaravah) extends from Galilee to the Gulf of Aqaba. The reference here is probably to the Jordan Valley and the wider part of the rift valley below the Dead Sea.
- Joshua 11:17 tn Heb “and struck them down and killed them.”
- Joshua 11:18 tn Heb “made war with.”
- Joshua 11:18 tn Heb “for many days.”
- Joshua 11:19 tn The LXX omits this parenthetical note, which may represent a later scribal addition.
- Joshua 11:19 tn Heb “the whole they took in battle.”
- Joshua 11:20 tn Heb “for from the Lord it was to harden their heart[s] to meet for the battle with Israel, in order to annihilate them, so that they would receive no mercy, in order annihilate them, as the Lord commanded Moses.”
- Joshua 11:21 tn Heb “went and cut off the Anakites from the hill country.”
- Joshua 11:21 tn Heb “and from all the hill country of Israel.”
- Joshua 11:23 tn Heb “took.”
- Joshua 11:23 tn Heb “according to all which the Lord said to Moses.” The translation assumes this refers to the promise of the land (see 1:3). Another possibility is that it refers to the Lord’s instructions, in which case the phrase could be translated, “just as the Lord had instructed Moses” (so NLT; cf. also NIV “had directed Moses”).
- Joshua 11:23 tn Heb “and Joshua gave it for an inheritance to Israel according to their allotted portions by their tribes.”
- Joshua 12:1 tn Heb “and took possession of their land.”
- Joshua 12:1 tn Heb “beyond the Jordan, toward the rising of the sun.”
- Joshua 12:1 sn The rift valley is a geographic feature that extends from Mt. Hermon to the Gulf of Aqaba and includes the Sea of Galilee, the Jordan River, and the Dead Sea. The section described here extends from the border of Moab, the Arnon which runs into the middle of the Dead Sea, northward up the entire Jordan valley and beyond Galilee to Mt. Hermon at the border of Lebanon.
- Joshua 12:2 tn Or perhaps, “reigned.”
- Joshua 12:2 tc The MT reads here “and the middle of the valley,” but the reading “the city in the middle of valley” can be reconstructed on the basis of Josh 13:9, 16.
- Joshua 12:3 tn The words “his kingdom included” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
- Joshua 12:3 sn The Sea of Kinnereth is another name for the Sea of Galilee. See the note on the word “Kinnereth” in 11:2.
- Joshua 12:3 sn The Salt Sea is another name for the Dead Sea.
- Joshua 12:3 sn The slopes of Pisgah lie east of the northern tip of the Dead Sea.
- Joshua 12:4 tn Heb “from the remnant of the Rephaites.”sn The Rephaites were apparently an extremely tall ethnic group. See Deut 2:10-11, 20; 3:11.
- Joshua 12:4 tn Or perhaps “who reigned.”
- Joshua 12:6 tn Heb “gave it for a possession.”
- Joshua 12:7 tn Heb “Joshua gave it to the tribes of Israel as a possession according to their allotted portions.”
- Joshua 12:8 sn The foothills (שְׁפֵלָה, shephelah) are the transition region between the Judean hill country and the Mediterranean coastal plain. These are areas of eocene limestone with a distinct pattern of erosion, soil, and vegetation cover.
- Joshua 12:8 sn The rift valley (עֲרָבָה, ʿaravah) is a geographic feature extending from Galilee to the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. Here it probably refers to the Jordan valley and an area extending south of the Dead Sea by the Negev.
- Joshua 12:8 sn The slopes (אֲשֵׁדוֹת, ʾashedot) refer to the ascent from the rift valley up to the hill country and to the flatlands (or wilderness) south of the hill country.
- Joshua 12:8 sn The Negev is the area of central southern Judah, south of the hill country and west of the rift valley. As a geographic feature it is a depression extending south to the Gulf of Aqaba, but the biblical reference is probably to the northern portion of the region.
- Joshua 12:8 tn The words “the land of” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
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The Grateful Leper
11 Now on[a] the way to Jerusalem,[b] Jesus[c] was passing along[d] between Samaria and Galilee. 12 As[e] he was entering[f] a village, ten men with leprosy[g] met him. They[h] stood at a distance, 13 raised their voices and said, “Jesus, Master, have mercy[i] on us.” 14 When[j] he saw them he said, “Go[k] and show yourselves to the priests.”[l] And[m] as they went along, they were cleansed. 15 Then one of them, when he saw he was healed, turned back, praising[n] God with a loud voice. 16 He[o] fell with his face to the ground[p] at Jesus’ feet and thanked him.[q] (Now[r] he was a Samaritan.)[s] 17 Then[t] Jesus said,[u] “Were[v] not ten cleansed? Where are the other[w] nine? 18 Was no one found to turn back and give praise to God except this foreigner?”[x] 19 Then[y] he said to the man,[z] “Get up and go your way. Your faith has made you well.”[aa]
The Coming of the Kingdom
20 Now at one point[ab] the Pharisees[ac] asked Jesus[ad] when the kingdom of God[ae] was coming, so he answered, “The kingdom of God is not coming with signs[af] to be observed, 21 nor will they say, ‘Look, here it is!’ or ‘There!’ For indeed, the kingdom of God is[ag] in your midst.”[ah]
The Coming of the Son of Man
22 Then[ai] he said to the disciples, “The days are coming when you will desire to see one of the days[aj] of the Son of Man, and you will not see it. 23 Then people[ak] will say to you, ‘Look, there he is!’[al] or ‘Look, here he is!’ Do not go out or chase after them.[am] 24 For just like the lightning flashes[an] and lights up the sky from one side to the other, so will the Son of Man be in his day.[ao] 25 But first he must[ap] suffer many things and be rejected by this generation. 26 Just[aq] as it was[ar] in the days of Noah,[as] so too it will be in the days of the Son of Man. 27 People[at] were eating,[au] they were drinking, they were marrying, they were being given in marriage—right up to the day Noah entered the ark. Then[av] the flood came and destroyed them all.[aw] 28 Likewise, just as it was[ax] in the days of Lot, people[ay] were eating, drinking, buying, selling, planting, building; 29 but on the day Lot went out from Sodom, fire and sulfur rained down from heaven and destroyed them all.[az] 30 It will be the same on the day the Son of Man is revealed. 31 On that day, anyone who is on the roof,[ba] with his goods in the house, must not come down[bb] to take them away, and likewise the person in the field must not turn back. 32 Remember Lot’s wife![bc] 33 Whoever tries to keep[bd] his life[be] will lose it,[bf] but whoever loses his life will preserve it. 34 I tell you, in that night there will be two people in one bed; one will be taken and the other left.[bg] 35 There will be two women grinding grain together;[bh] one will be taken and the other left.”[bi]
37 Then[bj] the disciples[bk] said[bl] to him, “Where,[bm] Lord?” He replied to them, “Where the dead body[bn] is, there the vultures[bo] will gather.”[bp]
- Luke 17:11 tn Grk “Now it happened that on.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
- Luke 17:11 sn This is another travel note about Jesus going to Jerusalem in Luke 9:51-19:48, the so-called “Jerusalem journey” section of Luke’s Gospel. It is not a straight line journey, because to travel along the Galilean and Samaritan border is to go east or west, not south to Jerusalem.
- Luke 17:11 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 17:11 tn Or “was traveling about.”
- Luke 17:12 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 17:12 tn The participle εἰσερχομένου (eiserchomenou) is taken temporally.
- Luke 17:12 sn The ten men with leprosy would have been unable to approach Jesus (Lev 13:45-46; Num 5:2-3). A leper was totally ostracized from society until he was declared cured (Lev 13:45-46). For more on the condition, see the note on lepers in Luke 4:27.
- Luke 17:12 tn Grk “leprosy, who.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun was replaced with a personal pronoun and a new sentence started at this point in the translation.
- Luke 17:13 sn “Have mercy on us” is a request to heal them (Luke 18:38-39; 16:24; Matt 9:27; 15:22; 17:15; 20:31-32; Mark 10:47-49).
- Luke 17:14 tn Καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 17:14 tn The participle πορευθέντες (poreuthentes) is a good example of an adverbial participle of attendant circumstance. As such, it picks up the force of an imperative from the verb to which it is related (ExSyn 640-45).
- Luke 17:14 sn These are the instructions of what to do with a healing (Lev 13:19; 14:1-11; Luke 5:14).
- Luke 17:14 tn Grk “And it happened that as.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
- Luke 17:15 tn Grk “glorifying God.”
- Luke 17:16 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 17:16 tn Grk “he fell on his face” (an idiom for complete prostration).
- Luke 17:16 sn And thanked him. This action recognized God’s healing work through Jesus.
- Luke 17:16 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of a parenthetical comment.
- Luke 17:16 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author. The comment that the man was a Samaritan means that to most Jews of Jesus’ day he would have been despised as a half-breed and a heretic. The note adds a touch of irony to the account (v. 18).
- Luke 17:17 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Luke 17:17 tn Grk “Jesus answering said”; this is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified in the translation.
- Luke 17:17 tn The Greek construction used here (οὐχί, ouchi) expects a positive reply.
- Luke 17:17 tn The word “other” is implied in the context.
- Luke 17:18 sn Jesus’ point in calling the man a foreigner is that none of the other nine, who were presumably Israelites, responded with gratitude. Only the “outsiders” were listening and responding.
- Luke 17:19 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Luke 17:19 tn Grk “to him”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 17:19 tn Or “has delivered you”; Grk “has saved you.” The remark about faith suggests the benefit of trusting in Jesus’ ability to deliver. Apparently the Samaritan benefited from the healing in a way the other nine did not.
- Luke 17:20 tn The words “at one point” are supplied to indicate that the following incident is not necessarily in chronological sequence with the preceding event.
- Luke 17:20 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.
- Luke 17:20 tn Grk “having been asked by the Pharisees.” The passive construction has been translated as an active one in keeping with contemporary English style, and the direct object, Jesus, has been supplied from the context.
- Luke 17:20 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus’ teaching. The nature of the kingdom of God in the NT and in Jesus’ teaching has long been debated by interpreters and scholars, with discussion primarily centering around the nature of the kingdom (earthly, heavenly, or both) and the kingdom’s arrival (present, future, or both). An additional major issue concerns the relationship between the kingdom of God and the person and work of Jesus himself. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.
- Luke 17:20 tn Or “is not coming in a way that it can be closely watched” (L&N 24.48). Although there are differing interpretations of what this means, it probably refers to the cosmic signs often associated with the kingdom’s coming in the Jewish view (1 En. 91, 93; 2 Bar. 53–74). See D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1412-14, also H. Riesenfeld, TDNT 8:150.
- Luke 17:21 tn This is a present tense in the Greek text. In contrast to waiting and looking for the kingdom, it is now available.
- Luke 17:21 tn This is a far better translation than “in you.” Jesus would never tell the hostile Pharisees that the kingdom was inside them. The reference is to Jesus present in their midst. He brings the kingdom. Another possible translation would be “in your grasp.” For further discussion and options, see D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1414-19.
- Luke 17:22 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Luke 17:22 sn This is a reference to the days of the full manifestation of Jesus’ power in a fully established kingdom. The reference to “days” instead of “day” is unusual, appearing only here and in v. 26, but it may be motivated merely by parallelism with the “days” of Noah there and the “days of Lot” in v. 28.
- Luke 17:23 tn Grk “And they will say.” The plural in Greek is indefinite, referring to people in general. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Luke 17:23 tn The words “he is” here and in the following clause are understood and have been supplied from the context.
- Luke 17:23 sn Do not go out or chase after them. There will be no need to search for the Son of Man at his coming, though many will falsely claim its arrival.
- Luke 17:24 sn The Son of Man’s coming in power will be sudden and obvious like lightning. No one will need to point it out.
- Luke 17:24 tc Some very significant mss (P75 B D it sa) lack the words ἐν τῇ ἡμέρα αὐτοῦ (en tē hēmera autou, “in his day”), but the words are included in א A L W Θ Ψ ƒ1,13 M lat sy bo. On the one hand, the shorter reading is impressive because it has some of the best Alexandrian and Western witnesses in support; on the other hand, the expression ἐν τῇ ἡμέρα αὐτοῦ is unusual (found nowhere else in the NT), and may be considered the harder reading. A decision is difficult, but it is probably best to retain the words. NA28 rightly has the words in brackets, expressing doubt as to their authenticity.
- Luke 17:25 sn The Son of Man’s suffering and rejection by this generation is another “it is necessary” type of event in God’s plan (Luke 4:43; 24:7, 26, 44) and the fifth passion prediction in Luke’s account (9:22, 44; 12:50; 13:32-33; for the last, see 18:32-33).
- Luke 17:26 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 17:26 tn Or “as it happened.”
- Luke 17:26 sn Like the days of Noah, the time of the flood in Gen 6:5-8:22, the judgment will come as a surprise as people live their day to day lives.
- Luke 17:27 tn Grk “They.” The plural in Greek is indefinite, referring to people in general.
- Luke 17:27 tn These verbs (“eating…drinking…marrying…being given in marriage”) are all progressive imperfects, describing action in progress at that time.
- Luke 17:27 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Luke 17:27 sn Like that flood came and destroyed them all, the coming judgment associated with the Son of Man will condemn many.
- Luke 17:28 tn Or “as it happened.”
- Luke 17:28 tn Grk “they.” The plural in Greek is indefinite, referring to people in general.
- Luke 17:29 sn And destroyed them all. The coming of the Son of Man will be like the judgment on Sodom, one of the most immoral places of the OT (Gen 19:16-17; Deut 32:32-33; Isa 1:10).
- Luke 17:31 sn Most of the roofs in the NT were flat roofs made of pounded dirt, sometimes mixed with lime or stones, supported by heavy wooden beams. They generally had an easy means of access, either a sturdy wooden ladder or stone stairway, sometimes on the outside of the house.
- Luke 17:31 sn The swiftness and devastation of the judgment will require a swift escape. There is no time to come down from one’s roof and pick up anything from inside one’s home.
- Luke 17:32 sn An allusion to Gen 19:26. The warning about Lot’s wife is not to look back and long to be where one used to be. The world is being judged, and the person who delays or turns back will be destroyed.
- Luke 17:33 tn Or “tries to preserve”; Grk “seeks to gain.”
- Luke 17:33 tn Grk “soul.” See the discussion of this Greek term in the note on “life” in Luke 9:24.
- Luke 17:33 sn The Greek word translated life can refer to both earthly, physical life and inner, transcendent life (one’s “soul”). In the context, if a person is not willing to suffer the world’s rejection and persecution in order to follow Jesus but instead seeks to retain his physical life, then that person will lose both physical life and inner, transcendent life (at the judgment). On the other hand, the one who willingly gives up earthly, physical life to follow Jesus (“loses his life”) will ultimately preserve one’s “soul” (note that the parallel in John’s Gospel speaks of “guarding one’s ‘soul’ for eternal life” (John 12:25).
- Luke 17:34 sn There is debate among commentators and scholars over the phrase one will be taken and the other left about whether one is taken for judgment or for salvation. If the imagery is patterned after the rescue of Noah from the flood and Lot from Sodom, as some suggest, the ones taken are the saved (as Noah and Lot were) and those left behind are judged. The imagery, however, is not directly tied to the identification of the two groups. Its primary purpose in context is to picture the sudden, surprising separation of the righteous and the judged (i.e., condemned) at the return of the Son of Man.
- Luke 17:35 tn Grk “at the same place.” According to L&N 46.16, this refers to a hand mill normally operated by two women.
- Luke 17:35 tc Several mss (D ƒ13  700 al lat sy) add (with several variations among these witnesses) 17:36 “There will be two in the field; one will be taken and the other left.” It is not well enough attested to be original. Further, it is an assimilation to the parallel in Matt 24:40, which marks the addition as secondary. The present translation follows NA28 in omitting the verse number, a procedure also followed by a number of other modern translations.
- Luke 17:37 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Luke 17:37 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the disciples, v. 22) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 17:37 tn Grk “answering, they said to him.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified in the translation.
- Luke 17:37 sn The question “Where, Lord?” means, “Where will the judgment take place?”
- Luke 17:37 tn Or “corpse.”
- Luke 17:37 tn The same Greek term can refer to “eagles” or “vultures” (L&N 4.42; BDAG 22 s.v. ἀετός), but in this context it must mean vultures, because the gruesome image is one of dead bodies being consumed by scavengers. sn Jesus’ answer is that when the judgment comes, the scenes of death will be obvious and so will the location of the judgment.
- Luke 17:37 tn Grk “will be gathered.” The passive construction has been translated as an active one in English.
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For the music director, according to the gittith style;[b] written by the Korahites, a psalm.
84 How lovely is the place where you live,[c]
O Lord of Heaven’s Armies![d]
2 I desperately want to be[e]
in the courts of the Lord’s temple.[f]
My heart and my entire being[g] shout for joy
to the living God.
3 Even the birds find a home there,
and the swallow[h] builds a nest,
where she can protect her young[i]
near your altars, O Lord of Heaven’s Armies,
my King and my God.
4 How blessed[j] are those who live in your temple
and praise you continually. (Selah)
5 How blessed are those who[k] find their strength in you,
and long to travel the roads that lead to your temple.[l]
6 As they pass through the Baca Valley,[m]
he provides a spring for them.[n]
The rain[o] even covers it with pools of water.[p]
7 They are sustained as they travel along;[q]
each one appears[r] before God in Zion.
8 O Lord God of Heaven’s Armies,[s]
hear my prayer.
Listen, O God of Jacob. (Selah)
9 O God, take notice of our shield.[t]
Show concern for your chosen king.[u]
10 Certainly[v] spending just one day in your temple courts is better
than spending a thousand elsewhere.[w]
I would rather stand at the entrance[x] to the temple of my God
than live[y] in the tents of the wicked.
11 For the Lord God is our sovereign protector.[z]
The Lord bestows favor[aa] and honor;
he withholds no good thing from those who have integrity.[ab]
12 O Lord of Heaven’s Armies,[ac]
how blessed are those who trust in you.[ad]
- Psalm 84:1 sn Psalm 84. The psalmist expresses his desire to be in God’s presence in the Jerusalem temple, for the Lord is the protector of his people.
- Psalm 84:1 tn The precise meaning of the Hebrew term הַגִּתִּית (haggittit) is uncertain; it probably refers to a musical style or instrument.
- Psalm 84:1 tn Or “your dwelling place[s].” The plural form of the noun may indicate degree or quality; this is the Lord’s special dwelling place (see Pss 43:3; 46:4; 132:5, 7).
- Psalm 84:1 tn Traditionally, “Lord of hosts.” The title draws attention to God’s sovereign position (see Ps 69:6).
- Psalm 84:2 tn Heb “my soul longs, it even pines for.”
- Psalm 84:2 tn Heb “the courts of the Lord” (see Ps 65:4).
- Psalm 84:2 tn Heb “my flesh,” which stands for his whole person and being.
- Psalm 84:3 tn The word translated “swallow” occurs only here and in Prov 26:2.
- Psalm 84:3 tn Heb “even a bird finds a home, and a swallow a nest for herself, [in] which she places her young.”sn The psalmist here romanticizes the temple as a place of refuge and safety. As he thinks of the birds nesting near its roof, he envisions them finding protection in God’s presence.
- Psalm 84:4 tn The Hebrew noun is an abstract plural. The word often refers metonymically to the happiness that God-given security and prosperity produce (see v. 12 and Pss 1:1; 2:12; 34:9; 41:1; 65:4; 89:15; 106:3; 112:1; 127:5; 128:1; 144:15).
- Psalm 84:5 tn Heb “[Oh] the happiness [of] the man.” Hebrew literature often assumes and reflects the male-oriented perspective of ancient Israelite society. The principle stated here was certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender or age. To facilitate modern application, we translate the gender and age specific “man” with the plural “those.” The individual referred to in v. 5a is representative of followers of God, as the use of plural forms in vv. 5b-7 indicates.
- Psalm 84:5 tn Heb “roads [are] in their heart[s].” The roads are here those that lead to Zion (see v. 7).
- Psalm 84:6 tn The translation assumes that the Hebrew phrase עֵמֶק הַבָּכָא (ʿemeq habbakhaʾ) is the name of an otherwise unknown arid valley through which pilgrims to Jerusalem passed. The term בָּכָא (bakhaʾ) may be the name of a particular type of plant or shrub that grew in this valley. O. Borowski (Agriculture in Iron Age Israel, 130) suggests it is the black mulberry. Some take the phrase as purely metaphorical and relate בָּכָא to the root בָּכָה (bakhah, “to weep”). In this case one might translate, “the valley of weeping” or “the valley of affliction.”
- Psalm 84:6 tc The MT reads “a spring they make it,” but this makes little sense. Many medieval Hebrew mss, as well as the LXX, understand God to be the subject and the valley to be the object, “he [God] makes it [the valley] [into] a spring.”
- Psalm 84:6 tn This rare word may refer to the early (or autumn) rains (see Joel 2:23).
- Psalm 84:6 tc The MT reads בְּרָכוֹת (berakhot, “blessings”) but the preceding reference to a “spring” favors an emendation to בְּרֵכוֹת (berekhot, “pools”).sn Pools of water. Because water is so necessary for life, it makes an apt symbol for divine favor and blessing. As the pilgrims traveled to Jerusalem, God provided for their physical needs and gave them a token of his favor and of the blessings awaiting them at the temple.
- Psalm 84:7 tn Heb “they go from strength to strength.” The phrase “from strength to strength” occurs only here in the OT. With a verb of motion, the expression “from [common noun] to [same common noun]” normally suggests movement from one point to another or through successive points (see Num 36:7; 1 Chr 16:20; 17:5; Ps 105:13; Jer 25:32). Ps 84:7 may be emphasizing that the pilgrims move successively from one “place of strength” to another as they travel toward Jerusalem. All along the way they find adequate provisions and renewed energy for the trip.
- Psalm 84:7 tn The psalmist returns to the singular (see v. 5a), which he uses in either a representative or distributive (“each one”) sense.
- Psalm 84:8 tn Heb “Lord, God, hosts.” One expects the construct form אֱלֹהֵי before צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot, “hosts”; see Ps 89:9) but יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים (yehvah ʾelohim) precedes צְבָאוֹת in Pss 59:5 and 80:4, 19 as well.
- Psalm 84:9 tn The phrase “our shield” refers metaphorically to the Davidic king, who, as God’s vice-regent, was the human protector of the people. Note the parallelism with “your anointed one” here and with “our king” in Ps 89:18.
- Psalm 84:9 tn Heb “look [on] the face of your anointed one.” The Hebrew phrase מְשִׁיחֶךָ (meshikhekha, “your anointed one”) refers here to the Davidic king (see Pss 2:2; 18:50; 20:6; 28:8; 89:38, 51; 132:10, 17).
- Psalm 84:10 tn Or “for.”
- Psalm 84:10 tn Heb “better is a day in your courts than a thousand [spent elsewhere].”
- Psalm 84:10 tn Heb “I choose being at the entrance of the house of my God over living in the tents of the wicked.” The verb סָפַף (safaf) appears only here in the OT; it is derived from the noun סַף (saf, “threshold”). Traditionally some have interpreted this as a reference to being a doorkeeper at the temple, though some understand it to mean “lie as a beggar at the entrance to the temple” (see HALOT 765 s.v. ספף).
- Psalm 84:10 tn The verb דּוּר (dur, “to live”) occurs only here in the OT.
- Psalm 84:11 tn Heb “[is] a sun and a shield.” The epithet “sun,” though rarely used of Israel’s God in the OT, was a well-attested royal title in the ancient Near East. For several examples from Ugaritic texts, the Amarna letters, and Assyrian royal inscriptions, see R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 131, n. 2.
- Psalm 84:11 tn Or “grace.”
- Psalm 84:11 tn Heb “he does not withhold good to those walking in integrity.”
- Psalm 84:12 tn Traditionally “Lord of hosts.”
- Psalm 84:12 tn Heb “[Oh] the happiness [of] the man [who] trusts in you.” Hebrew literature often assumes and reflects the male-oriented perspective of ancient Israelite society. The principle stated here is certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender or age. To facilitate modern application, we translate the gender and age specific “man” with the plural “those.” The individual referred to here is representative of all followers of God, as the use of the plural form in v. 12b indicates.
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5 The righteous person will reject[a] anything false,[b]
but the wicked person will act in shameful disgrace.[c]
6 Righteousness[d] guards the one who lives with integrity,[e]
but wickedness[f] overthrows the sinner.
- Proverbs 13:5 tn Heb “will hate.” The verb שָׂנֵא (saneʾ, “to hate”) can express a range of feelings of dislike or the implications of such. It can, then, have the connotation “to reject, spurn” (see NIDOTTE 1254 s.v.).
- Proverbs 13:5 tn Heb “a word of falsehood.” The genitive “falsehood” functions as an attributive genitive. The construct noun דְּבַר (devar) means either “word” or “thing.” Hence, the phrase means “a false word” or “a false thing.”
- Proverbs 13:5 tc The versions render this phrase variously: “is ashamed and without confidence” (LXX); “is ashamed and put to the blush” (Tg. Prov 13:5); “confounds and will be confounded” (Vulgate). The variety is due in part to confusion of בָּאַשׁ (baʾash, “to stink”) and בּוֹשׁ (bosh, “to be ashamed”). Cf. NASB “acts disgustingly and shamefully.”tn Heb “acts shamefully and disgracefully.” The verb בָּאַשׁ (baʾash) literally means “to cause a stink; to emit a stinking odor” (e.g., Exod 5:21; Eccl 10:1) and figuratively means “to act shamefully” (BDB 92 s.v.). The verb וְיַחְפִּיר (veyakhpir) means “to display shame.” Together, they can be treated as a verbal hendiadys: “to act in disgraceful shame,” or more colorfully “to make a shameful smell,” or as W. McKane has it, “spread the smell of scandal” (Proverbs [OTL], 460). W. G. Plaut says, “Unhappily, the bad odor adheres not only to the liar but also to the one about whom he lies—especially when the lie is a big one” (Proverbs, 152).
- Proverbs 13:6 sn Righteousness refers to that which conforms to law and order. One who behaves with integrity will be safe from consequences of sin.
- Proverbs 13:6 tn Heb “integrity of way.” The term דָּרֶךְ (darekh) is a genitive of specification: “integrity in respect to his way.” This means living above reproach in their course of life. Cf. NASB “whose way is blameless”; NAB “who walks honestly.”
- Proverbs 13:6 sn Righteousness and wickedness are personified in this proverb to make the point of security and insecurity for the two courses of life.
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