The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Thursday November 30, 2023 (NIV)

Daniel 7

Daniel’s Vision of Four Beasts

Earlier, during the first year of King Belshazzar’s reign in Babylon,[a] Daniel had a dream and saw visions as he lay in his bed. He wrote down the dream, and this is what he saw.

In my vision that night, I, Daniel, saw a great storm churning the surface of a great sea, with strong winds blowing from every direction. Then four huge beasts came up out of the water, each different from the others.

The first beast was like a lion with eagles’ wings. As I watched, its wings were pulled off, and it was left standing with its two hind feet on the ground, like a human being. And it was given a human mind.

Then I saw a second beast, and it looked like a bear. It was rearing up on one side, and it had three ribs in its mouth between its teeth. And I heard a voice saying to it, “Get up! Devour the flesh of many people!”

Then the third of these strange beasts appeared, and it looked like a leopard. It had four bird’s wings on its back, and it had four heads. Great authority was given to this beast.

Then in my vision that night, I saw a fourth beast—terrifying, dreadful, and very strong. It devoured and crushed its victims with huge iron teeth and trampled their remains beneath its feet. It was different from any of the other beasts, and it had ten horns.

As I was looking at the horns, suddenly another small horn appeared among them. Three of the first horns were torn out by the roots to make room for it. This little horn had eyes like human eyes and a mouth that was boasting arrogantly.

I watched as thrones were put in place
and the Ancient One[b] sat down to judge.
His clothing was as white as snow,
his hair like purest wool.
He sat on a fiery throne
with wheels of blazing fire,
10 and a river of fire was pouring out,
flowing from his presence.
Millions of angels ministered to him;
many millions stood to attend him.
Then the court began its session,
and the books were opened.

11 I continued to watch because I could hear the little horn’s boastful speech. I kept watching until the fourth beast was killed and its body was destroyed by fire. 12 The other three beasts had their authority taken from them, but they were allowed to live a while longer.[c]

13 As my vision continued that night, I saw someone like a son of man[d] coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient One and was led into his presence. 14 He was given authority, honor, and sovereignty over all the nations of the world, so that people of every race and nation and language would obey him. His rule is eternal—it will never end. His kingdom will never be destroyed.

The Vision Is Explained

15 I, Daniel, was troubled by all I had seen, and my visions terrified me. 16 So I approached one of those standing beside the throne and asked him what it all meant. He explained it to me like this: 17 “These four huge beasts represent four kingdoms that will arise from the earth. 18 But in the end, the holy people of the Most High will be given the kingdom, and they will rule forever and ever.”

19 Then I wanted to know the true meaning of the fourth beast, the one so different from the others and so terrifying. It had devoured and crushed its victims with iron teeth and bronze claws, trampling their remains beneath its feet. 20 I also asked about the ten horns on the fourth beast’s head and the little horn that came up afterward and destroyed three of the other horns. This horn had seemed greater than the others, and it had human eyes and a mouth that was boasting arrogantly. 21 As I watched, this horn was waging war against God’s holy people and was defeating them, 22 until the Ancient One—the Most High—came and judged in favor of his holy people. Then the time arrived for the holy people to take over the kingdom.

23 Then he said to me, “This fourth beast is the fourth world power that will rule the earth. It will be different from all the others. It will devour the whole world, trampling and crushing everything in its path. 24 Its ten horns are ten kings who will rule that empire. Then another king will arise, different from the other ten, who will subdue three of them. 25 He will defy the Most High and oppress the holy people of the Most High. He will try to change their sacred festivals and laws, and they will be placed under his control for a time, times, and half a time.

26 “But then the court will pass judgment, and all his power will be taken away and completely destroyed. 27 Then the sovereignty, power, and greatness of all the kingdoms under heaven will be given to the holy people of the Most High. His kingdom will last forever, and all rulers will serve and obey him.”

28 That was the end of the vision. I, Daniel, was terrified by my thoughts and my face was pale with fear, but I kept these things to myself.


  1. 7:1 The first year of Belshazzar’s reign (who was co-regent with his father, Nabonidus) was 556 B.c. (or perhaps as late as 553 B.c.).
  2. 7:9 Aramaic an Ancient of Days; also in 7:13, 22.
  3. 7:12 Aramaic for a season and a time.
  4. 7:13 Or like a Son of Man.
New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

1 John 1


We proclaim to you the one who existed from the beginning,[a] whom we have heard and seen. We saw him with our own eyes and touched him with our own hands. He is the Word of life. This one who is life itself was revealed to us, and we have seen him. And now we testify and proclaim to you that he is the one who is eternal life. He was with the Father, and then he was revealed to us. We proclaim to you what we ourselves have actually seen and heard so that you may have fellowship with us. And our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son, Jesus Christ. We are writing these things so that you may fully share our joy.[b]

Living in the Light

This is the message we heard from Jesus[c] and now declare to you: God is light, and there is no darkness in him at all. So we are lying if we say we have fellowship with God but go on living in spiritual darkness; we are not practicing the truth. But if we are living in the light, as God is in the light, then we have fellowship with each other, and the blood of Jesus, his Son, cleanses us from all sin.

If we claim we have no sin, we are only fooling ourselves and not living in the truth. But if we confess our sins to him, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all wickedness. 10 If we claim we have not sinned, we are calling God a liar and showing that his word has no place in our hearts.


  1. 1:1 Greek What was from the beginning.
  2. 1:4 Or so that our joy may be complete; some manuscripts read your joy.
  3. 1:5 Greek from him.
New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

Psalm 119:153-176


153 Look upon my suffering and rescue me,
for I have not forgotten your instructions.
154 Argue my case; take my side!
Protect my life as you promised.
155 The wicked are far from rescue,
for they do not bother with your decrees.
156 Lord, how great is your mercy;
let me be revived by following your regulations.
157 Many persecute and trouble me,
yet I have not swerved from your laws.
158 Seeing these traitors makes me sick at heart,
because they care nothing for your word.
159 See how I love your commandments, Lord.
Give back my life because of your unfailing love.
160 The very essence of your words is truth;
all your just regulations will stand forever.


161 Powerful people harass me without cause,
but my heart trembles only at your word.
162 I rejoice in your word
like one who discovers a great treasure.
163 I hate and abhor all falsehood,
but I love your instructions.
164 I will praise you seven times a day
because all your regulations are just.
165 Those who love your instructions have great peace
and do not stumble.
166 I long for your rescue, Lord,
so I have obeyed your commands.
167 I have obeyed your laws,
for I love them very much.
168 Yes, I obey your commandments and laws
because you know everything I do.


169 O Lord, listen to my cry;
give me the discerning mind you promised.
170 Listen to my prayer;
rescue me as you promised.
171 Let praise flow from my lips,
for you have taught me your decrees.
172 Let my tongue sing about your word,
for all your commands are right.
173 Give me a helping hand,
for I have chosen to follow your commandments.
174 O Lord, I have longed for your rescue,
and your instructions are my delight.
175 Let me live so I can praise you,
and may your regulations help me.
176 I have wandered away like a lost sheep;
come and find me,
for I have not forgotten your commands.

New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

Proverbs 28:23-24

23 In the end, people appreciate honest criticism
far more than flattery.

24 Anyone who steals from his father and mother
and says, “What’s wrong with that?”
is no better than a murderer.

New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Wednesday November 29, 2023 (NIV)

Daniel 6

Daniel in the Lions’ Den

[a]Darius the Mede decided to divide the kingdom into 120 provinces, and he appointed a high officer to rule over each province. The king also chose Daniel and two others as administrators to supervise the high officers and protect the king’s interests. Daniel soon proved himself more capable than all the other administrators and high officers. Because of Daniel’s great ability, the king made plans to place him over the entire empire.

Then the other administrators and high officers began searching for some fault in the way Daniel was handling government affairs, but they couldn’t find anything to criticize or condemn. He was faithful, always responsible, and completely trustworthy. So they concluded, “Our only chance of finding grounds for accusing Daniel will be in connection with the rules of his religion.”

So the administrators and high officers went to the king and said, “Long live King Darius! We are all in agreement—we administrators, officials, high officers, advisers, and governors—that the king should make a law that will be strictly enforced. Give orders that for the next thirty days any person who prays to anyone, divine or human—except to you, Your Majesty—will be thrown into the den of lions. And now, Your Majesty, issue and sign this law so it cannot be changed, an official law of the Medes and Persians that cannot be revoked.” So King Darius signed the law.

10 But when Daniel learned that the law had been signed, he went home and knelt down as usual in his upstairs room, with its windows open toward Jerusalem. He prayed three times a day, just as he had always done, giving thanks to his God. 11 Then the officials went together to Daniel’s house and found him praying and asking for God’s help. 12 So they went straight to the king and reminded him about his law. “Did you not sign a law that for the next thirty days any person who prays to anyone, divine or human—except to you, Your Majesty—will be thrown into the den of lions?”

“Yes,” the king replied, “that decision stands; it is an official law of the Medes and Persians that cannot be revoked.”

13 Then they told the king, “That man Daniel, one of the captives from Judah, is ignoring you and your law. He still prays to his God three times a day.”

14 Hearing this, the king was deeply troubled, and he tried to think of a way to save Daniel. He spent the rest of the day looking for a way to get Daniel out of this predicament.

15 In the evening the men went together to the king and said, “Your Majesty, you know that according to the law of the Medes and the Persians, no law that the king signs can be changed.”

16 So at last the king gave orders for Daniel to be arrested and thrown into the den of lions. The king said to him, “May your God, whom you serve so faithfully, rescue you.”

17 A stone was brought and placed over the mouth of the den. The king sealed the stone with his own royal seal and the seals of his nobles, so that no one could rescue Daniel. 18 Then the king returned to his palace and spent the night fasting. He refused his usual entertainment and couldn’t sleep at all that night.

19 Very early the next morning, the king got up and hurried out to the lions’ den. 20 When he got there, he called out in anguish, “Daniel, servant of the living God! Was your God, whom you serve so faithfully, able to rescue you from the lions?”

21 Daniel answered, “Long live the king! 22 My God sent his angel to shut the lions’ mouths so that they would not hurt me, for I have been found innocent in his sight. And I have not wronged you, Your Majesty.”

23 The king was overjoyed and ordered that Daniel be lifted from the den. Not a scratch was found on him, for he had trusted in his God.

24 Then the king gave orders to arrest the men who had maliciously accused Daniel. He had them thrown into the lions’ den, along with their wives and children. The lions leaped on them and tore them apart before they even hit the floor of the den.

25 Then King Darius sent this message to the people of every race and nation and language throughout the world:

“Peace and prosperity to you!

26 “I decree that everyone throughout my kingdom should tremble with fear before the God of Daniel.

For he is the living God,
and he will endure forever.
His kingdom will never be destroyed,
and his rule will never end.
27 He rescues and saves his people;
he performs miraculous signs and wonders
in the heavens and on earth.
He has rescued Daniel
from the power of the lions.”

28 So Daniel prospered during the reign of Darius and the reign of Cyrus the Persian.[b]


  1. 6:1 Verses 6:1-28 are numbered 6:2-29 in Aramaic text.
  2. 6:28 Or of Darius, that is, the reign of Cyrus the Persian.
New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

2 Peter 3

The Day of the Lord Is Coming

This is my second letter to you, dear friends, and in both of them I have tried to stimulate your wholesome thinking and refresh your memory. I want you to remember what the holy prophets said long ago and what our Lord and Savior commanded through your apostles.

Most importantly, I want to remind you that in the last days scoffers will come, mocking the truth and following their own desires. They will say, “What happened to the promise that Jesus is coming again? From before the times of our ancestors, everything has remained the same since the world was first created.”

They deliberately forget that God made the heavens long ago by the word of his command, and he brought the earth out from the water and surrounded it with water. Then he used the water to destroy the ancient world with a mighty flood. And by the same word, the present heavens and earth have been stored up for fire. They are being kept for the day of judgment, when ungodly people will be destroyed.

But you must not forget this one thing, dear friends: A day is like a thousand years to the Lord, and a thousand years is like a day. The Lord isn’t really being slow about his promise, as some people think. No, he is being patient for your sake. He does not want anyone to be destroyed, but wants everyone to repent. 10 But the day of the Lord will come as unexpectedly as a thief. Then the heavens will pass away with a terrible noise, and the very elements themselves will disappear in fire, and the earth and everything on it will be found to deserve judgment.[a]

11 Since everything around us is going to be destroyed like this, what holy and godly lives you should live, 12 looking forward to the day of God and hurrying it along. On that day, he will set the heavens on fire, and the elements will melt away in the flames. 13 But we are looking forward to the new heavens and new earth he has promised, a world filled with God’s righteousness.

14 And so, dear friends, while you are waiting for these things to happen, make every effort to be found living peaceful lives that are pure and blameless in his sight.

15 And remember, our Lord’s patience gives people time to be saved. This is what our beloved brother Paul also wrote to you with the wisdom God gave him— 16 speaking of these things in all of his letters. Some of his comments are hard to understand, and those who are ignorant and unstable have twisted his letters to mean something quite different, just as they do with other parts of Scripture. And this will result in their destruction.

Peter’s Final Words

17 You already know these things, dear friends. So be on guard; then you will not be carried away by the errors of these wicked people and lose your own secure footing. 18 Rather, you must grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.

All glory to him, both now and forever! Amen.


  1. 3:10 Other manuscripts read will be burned up; one early manuscript reads will be found destroyed.
New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

Psalm 119:129-152


129 Your laws are wonderful.
No wonder I obey them!
130 The teaching of your word gives light,
so even the simple can understand.
131 I pant with expectation,
longing for your commands.
132 Come and show me your mercy,
as you do for all who love your name.
133 Guide my steps by your word,
so I will not be overcome by evil.
134 Ransom me from the oppression of evil people;
then I can obey your commandments.
135 Look upon me with love;
teach me your decrees.
136 Rivers of tears gush from my eyes
because people disobey your instructions.


137 O Lord, you are righteous,
and your regulations are fair.
138 Your laws are perfect
and completely trustworthy.
139 I am overwhelmed with indignation,
for my enemies have disregarded your words.
140 Your promises have been thoroughly tested;
that is why I love them so much.
141 I am insignificant and despised,
but I don’t forget your commandments.
142 Your justice is eternal,
and your instructions are perfectly true.
143 As pressure and stress bear down on me,
I find joy in your commands.
144 Your laws are always right;
help me to understand them so I may live.


145 I pray with all my heart; answer me, Lord!
I will obey your decrees.
146 I cry out to you; rescue me,
that I may obey your laws.
147 I rise early, before the sun is up;
I cry out for help and put my hope in your words.
148 I stay awake through the night,
thinking about your promise.
149 In your faithful love, O Lord, hear my cry;
let me be revived by following your regulations.
150 Lawless people are coming to attack me;
they live far from your instructions.
151 But you are near, O Lord,
and all your commands are true.
152 I have known from my earliest days
that your laws will last forever.

New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

Proverbs 28:21-22

21 Showing partiality is never good,
yet some will do wrong for a mere piece of bread.

22 Greedy people try to get rich quick
but don’t realize they’re headed for poverty.

New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

11/28/2023 DAB Transcript

Daniel 5:1-31, 2 Peter 2:1-22, Psalm 119:113-128, Proverbs 28:19-20

Today is the 28th day of November, welcome to the Daily Audio Bible. I’m Brian, it’s great to be here with you today as we continue forward on our voyage through the Bible. And continue our voyage through the holiday season, as we approach the landing of this year. We’re out in front of that, that’s our destiny. But we’re not there yet, we are back in the book of Daniel at this point in the Old Testament, and our next step forward leads us to Daniel chapter 5 today.


Okay so, in Second Peter today, we watched Peter sort of go off against these false teachers. And these were people who had come to faith and maybe even come to prominence in the faith but were falling away from the essentials of the Gospel and they were leading others to do the same. And it wasn’t just like doctrinal or like theology matters. These people were using the gifts to exploit the weak. And Peter said it like this, they will be paid back with harm for the harm they have done. Their idea of pleasure is to carouse in broad daylight. They are blots and blemishes, reveling in their pleasures while they feast with you, with eyes full of adultery. They never stop sinning. They seduce the unstable. They are experts in greed and accursed brood. So, that’s pretty direct and Peter’s pretty inflamed about it. We need to understand something here because false teachers are getting labeled everywhere, all of the time in this modern day and age of the Internet and this kind of stuff. So, we have these kind of labels all over the place and the false teacher that Peter’s talking about aren’t people who are wrestling with their faith in pursuit of Jesus and binding revelation and understanding. Like, wrestling with our faith struggling and growing and reaching, reaching and reaching for God, that’s part of our Christian tradition. Peter’s distinction is, is that the false teachers here are intentionally and maliciously deceiving God’s people for personal gain. They know what they’re doing. And Peter’s upset about it. And this is what he has to say about it. If they have escaped the corruption of the world by knowing our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ and are again entangled in it, and are overcome, they are worse off at the end than they were at the beginning. It would’ve been better for them not to have known the way of righteousness, than to have known it and then to turn their backs on the sacred command that was passed on to them. Of them, the Proverbs are true. A dog returns to its vomit and a sow that is washed, returns to her wallowing in the mud. So, Peter’s speaking forcefully against false teachers who lead people into sin and people who know the truth and fall away into sin. And in that context, he quotes from the book of Proverbs something very poignant, a powerful image. A dog returning to its vomit. I don’t know if you’ve ever seen that before. If you’re a dog person, you probably have. I’ve had dogs most of my life and I’m familiar with this concept and its gross. It’s disgusting. Right, and it’s even more disgusting when they let it cool off and then go back and chop it. It’s disgusting, a dog returning to its vomit and eating it. Let’s consider the starkness of what’s being said here. What sewage are we returning to because we’ve been deceived into believing that it’s something that is good and desires for us, when we know better. What kind of crap are we eating here. And what influences do we have over those around us that we might invite them into the same vomit to eat it with us. This is the opportunity that the Bible always brings us, a chance to look in the mirror and say what am I doing. What is going on here, Jesus? I surrender. These are tough questions. Why would we choose crap over the banquet God has prepared for us? Let’s invite the Holy Spirit into this because as the Scriptures told us today, we are a slave to whatever controls us.


And so, Holy Spirit come. There are so many entanglements, so many hooks in us, pulling us in so many directions and most of them are unnecessary. Some of them just drag us down for so long, we need to be free, we need to stop returning to our own vomit and repeating and repeating and repeating the same thing. Holy Spirit come, there is no freedom without You. We cannot set ourselves free. All we can do is collaborate with You and obey You. So, come, lead us into freedom we ask, in the name of Jesus. Amen.

Announcements: is home base, that’s the website and that’s where you find out what’s going on around here. Obviously, it’s Christmas time. It’s hard to miss the fact that it’s Christmas time. Everything is full of lights and blinking and so, we are about ready to do our annual Daily Audio Bible Christmas party. Our Daily Audio Bible Family Christmas that we do each year. So, here’s the deal, for the next about 10 days, it’s your opportunity to call in your Christmas and holiday wishes to the community here. And you can do that by using the numbers that we have and the Hotline. Now, typically these are obviously for prayer requests and encouragements. You can also for the next few days, call in your Christmas greetings and we will get those and assemble them together and make our annual Christmas party. And Jill and I will get together and we’ll have a fireside chat, and we’ll talk about where we’ve been and where we’re going. And things like maybe our word for next year, and just have some time together. And then we’ll hear from each other. I love literally getting a cup of hot cocoa and listening to this. It makes me cry every year, just, just the family. The family that we’ve become on a journey like this. Showing up for each other every day like this. It just matters a little doesn’t it. It’s like, it’s good to have this, it’s good to have each other. It’s good to be together. So, you can call in your holiday greetings now on the Hotline or at 877-942-4253.

And also, Christmas time around The Daily Audio Bible this year is centered around what’s coming next year. The 2.0 Daily Audio Bible app, brand-new from the ground up, will be landing sometime in 2024. And so, for this year, we’re not doing a Christmas box. We’ve pressed up all the different music, all the stuff that you hear underneath the Daily Audio Bible. And some other things. We’ve pressed up all the music from the Daily Audio Bible onto five different vinyl album packages. And vinyl has made such a resurgence that it’s, it’s a way to hold your music again. And I remember them from when I was a kid, and I loved it then, and it’s come back in. It’s a way to hold a commemorative piece of the Global Campfire and have that near and dear while sowing into what’s coming for us as a community here in the new year. So, we have pressed up the Sleep album, songs for sleep. The Promised Land album soundtrack from the Promised Land films. We’ve repressed Songs of the Heart, and that’s got all new packaging, brand-new packaging. Family Christmas and Christmas Time, Max’s album that came out last year and was really a big surprise. Everybody loved it. And so, that’s on vinyl as well. So, you can get those in the Daily Audio Bible Shop. Just look for the Christmas section and you can find them there.

And we love you and thank you profoundly for your partnership, as we push forward into what’s coming next. And if you want to partner with the Daily Audio Bible. Obviously, you can do that at If you’re using the app, you can press the Give button in the upper right-hand corner or the mailing address is P.O. Box 1996 Springhill, Tennessee 37174.

And as always, if you have a prayer request or encouragement, you can hit the button, the red button up at the top, you’ll see it. It looks like a Hotline. You can press that or you can dial 877-942-4253.

And that’s it for today, I’m Brian, I love you, let’s all run away from that vomit, let’s get as far away from that as we can. I’ll be waiting for you here tomorrow.

Prayer and Encouragements:

I just heard the prayer request from Eyes of a Dove. Sweet sister, I just pray that the Lord would just wrap you in His wings and give you comfort and give you peace at this time. Lord, I just ask that You would, whatever is going on in her body, Lord, I pray that You would just heal it. In Jesus name. And Lord, that she would be able to just go on with her weekend as she waits but she would be at peace knowing that You are there and that You are working in her behalf. I just pray this in Your mighty name. Amen.

Hi DABers, this is Kristen, aka Christ in Me. And I am calling in to pray for the prayer warriors. I’ve seen attacks on the prayer warriors. I’ve felt attacks on myself. And I would just pray that the enemy would not be able to prevail in these situations, Lord. I pray that You would put a hedge of protection around each of the prayer warriors. Lord, keep them safe from the enemy, from his arrows, Lord. That we would be able to concentrate on You, Lord. And that we would be able to continue to pray, Lord. And do Your will, in Jesus name, that we could be mighty warriors for You, Lord. So, that we could do Your will, Lord. And I just pray Your arms around us, Your wings around us. Give us peace and comfort and that we would not fear. And that we would be strong, we would stay strong for You, Lord. And we would continue on this path of being warriors for You, Lord. And we just thank You, Lord, that You’ve chosen us and that You are using us and that I just pray that You would continue to strengthen us in Your will. In Jesus mighty name. Amen.

Hello Daily Audio Bible family, it’s Doctor John from Jordan, New York. I come to you with urgent prayer request for my dad. He went into the hospital on, yesterday, with coughing and wheezing and ended up basically with a respiratory arrest. And ended up on a ventilator, which actually, he did not want. They didn’t have his living will. So, my sister came in, was able to get the vent withdrawn and the medication stopped. But by that time they had stabilized him. He’s still unconscious. And stabilized, having some respiratory issues. They’d also given him antibiotics, which he had not wanted. And cause he really is ready to join my mom in heaven. So, if you could pray for my dad. Honestly, I would prefer for him to pass and to have comfort and be kept comfortable. They are giving him medicines to keep him comfortable. And that we would have peace as a family with this process. We went through it with mom. It was 4 days and we prefer it not for dad, to be there for four days, waiting to pass. So, please keep our family in your prayers. I love you guys. I appreciate you. Take care. Doctor John from Jordan, New York.

Good morning Daily Audio Bible family. This is John O’par, calling in from South Sudan, except that today I’m actually in Uganda. I’m going to Compala this morning to submit my application for Visa at UK visa. Anyway, it’s been a while that I have called in. But I’ve been following with the community, praying along, thanking God for the praise reports. And also noting that the many members of this family are going through so much struggle. But I, as usual, I just want you to know, that we are on the winning side. We are on the winning side, regardless of what is happening in your life. The Lord is with you. I want to thank God for Ben and China, who have their new newborn. I can’t remember the name right now. I also want to thank God for the Hardin Family, the entire Hardin Family. And the DAB technical team for the amazing things that are happening. May God bless every one of you. May you continue this race because we have won. In Jesus name. Amen.

The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Tuesday November 28, 2023 (NIV)

Daniel 5

The Writing on the Wall

Many years later King Belshazzar gave a great feast for 1,000 of his nobles, and he drank wine with them. While Belshazzar was drinking the wine, he gave orders to bring in the gold and silver cups that his predecessor,[a] Nebuchadnezzar, had taken from the Temple in Jerusalem. He wanted to drink from them with his nobles, his wives, and his concubines. So they brought these gold cups taken from the Temple, the house of God in Jerusalem, and the king and his nobles, his wives, and his concubines drank from them. While they drank from them they praised their idols made of gold, silver, bronze, iron, wood, and stone.

Suddenly, they saw the fingers of a human hand writing on the plaster wall of the king’s palace, near the lampstand. The king himself saw the hand as it wrote, and his face turned pale with fright. His knees knocked together in fear and his legs gave way beneath him.

The king shouted for the enchanters, astrologers,[b] and fortune-tellers to be brought before him. He said to these wise men of Babylon, “Whoever can read this writing and tell me what it means will be dressed in purple robes of royal honor and will have a gold chain placed around his neck. He will become the third highest ruler in the kingdom!”

But when all the king’s wise men had come in, none of them could read the writing or tell him what it meant. So the king grew even more alarmed, and his face turned pale. His nobles, too, were shaken.

10 But when the queen mother heard what was happening, she hurried to the banquet hall. She said to Belshazzar, “Long live the king! Don’t be so pale and frightened. 11 There is a man in your kingdom who has within him the spirit of the holy gods. During Nebuchadnezzar’s reign, this man was found to have insight, understanding, and wisdom like that of the gods. Your predecessor, the king—your predecessor King Nebuchadnezzar—made him chief over all the magicians, enchanters, astrologers, and fortune-tellers of Babylon. 12 This man Daniel, whom the king named Belteshazzar, has exceptional ability and is filled with divine knowledge and understanding. He can interpret dreams, explain riddles, and solve difficult problems. Call for Daniel, and he will tell you what the writing means.”

Daniel Explains the Writing

13 So Daniel was brought in before the king. The king asked him, “Are you Daniel, one of the exiles brought from Judah by my predecessor, King Nebuchadnezzar? 14 I have heard that you have the spirit of the gods within you and that you are filled with insight, understanding, and wisdom. 15 My wise men and enchanters have tried to read the words on the wall and tell me their meaning, but they cannot do it. 16 I am told that you can give interpretations and solve difficult problems. If you can read these words and tell me their meaning, you will be clothed in purple robes of royal honor, and you will have a gold chain placed around your neck. You will become the third highest ruler in the kingdom.”

17 Daniel answered the king, “Keep your gifts or give them to someone else, but I will tell you what the writing means. 18 Your Majesty, the Most High God gave sovereignty, majesty, glory, and honor to your predecessor, Nebuchadnezzar. 19 He made him so great that people of all races and nations and languages trembled before him in fear. He killed those he wanted to kill and spared those he wanted to spare. He honored those he wanted to honor and disgraced those he wanted to disgrace. 20 But when his heart and mind were puffed up with arrogance, he was brought down from his royal throne and stripped of his glory. 21 He was driven from human society. He was given the mind of a wild animal, and he lived among the wild donkeys. He ate grass like a cow, and he was drenched with the dew of heaven, until he learned that the Most High God rules over the kingdoms of the world and appoints anyone he desires to rule over them.

22 “You are his successor,[c] O Belshazzar, and you knew all this, yet you have not humbled yourself. 23 For you have proudly defied the Lord of heaven and have had these cups from his Temple brought before you. You and your nobles and your wives and concubines have been drinking wine from them while praising gods of silver, gold, bronze, iron, wood, and stone—gods that neither see nor hear nor know anything at all. But you have not honored the God who gives you the breath of life and controls your destiny! 24 So God has sent this hand to write this message.

25 “This is the message that was written: Mene, mene, tekel, and Parsin. 26 This is what these words mean:

Mene means ‘numbered’—God has numbered the days of your reign and has brought it to an end.
27 Tekel means ‘weighed’—you have been weighed on the balances and have not measured up.
28 Parsin[d] means ‘divided’—your kingdom has been divided and given to the Medes and Persians.”

29 Then at Belshazzar’s command, Daniel was dressed in purple robes, a gold chain was hung around his neck, and he was proclaimed the third highest ruler in the kingdom.

30 That very night Belshazzar, the Babylonian[e] king, was killed.[f]

31 [g]And Darius the Mede took over the kingdom at the age of sixty-two.


  1. 5:2 Aramaic father; also in 5:11, 13, 18.
  2. 5:7 Or Chaldeans; also in 5:11.
  3. 5:22 Aramaic son.
  4. 5:28 Aramaic Peres, the singular of Parsin.
  5. 5:30a Or Chaldean.
  6. 5:30b The Persians and Medes conquered Babylon in October 539 B.c.
  7. 5:31 Verse 5:31 is numbered 6:1 in Aramaic text.
New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

2 Peter 2

The Danger of False Teachers

But there were also false prophets in Israel, just as there will be false teachers among you. They will cleverly teach destructive heresies and even deny the Master who bought them. In this way, they will bring sudden destruction on themselves. Many will follow their evil teaching and shameful immorality. And because of these teachers, the way of truth will be slandered. In their greed they will make up clever lies to get hold of your money. But God condemned them long ago, and their destruction will not be delayed.

For God did not spare even the angels who sinned. He threw them into hell,[a] in gloomy pits of darkness,[b] where they are being held until the day of judgment. And God did not spare the ancient world—except for Noah and the seven others in his family. Noah warned the world of God’s righteous judgment. So God protected Noah when he destroyed the world of ungodly people with a vast flood. Later, God condemned the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah and turned them into heaps of ashes. He made them an example of what will happen to ungodly people. But God also rescued Lot out of Sodom because he was a righteous man who was sick of the shameful immorality of the wicked people around him. Yes, Lot was a righteous man who was tormented in his soul by the wickedness he saw and heard day after day. So you see, the Lord knows how to rescue godly people from their trials, even while keeping the wicked under punishment until the day of final judgment. 10 He is especially hard on those who follow their own twisted sexual desire, and who despise authority.

These people are proud and arrogant, daring even to scoff at supernatural beings[c] without so much as trembling. 11 But the angels, who are far greater in power and strength, do not dare to bring from the Lord[d] a charge of blasphemy against those supernatural beings.

12 These false teachers are like unthinking animals, creatures of instinct, born to be caught and destroyed. They scoff at things they do not understand, and like animals, they will be destroyed. 13 Their destruction is their reward for the harm they have done. They love to indulge in evil pleasures in broad daylight. They are a disgrace and a stain among you. They delight in deception[e] even as they eat with you in your fellowship meals. 14 They commit adultery with their eyes, and their desire for sin is never satisfied. They lure unstable people into sin, and they are well trained in greed. They live under God’s curse. 15 They have wandered off the right road and followed the footsteps of Balaam son of Beor,[f] who loved to earn money by doing wrong. 16 But Balaam was stopped from his mad course when his donkey rebuked him with a human voice.

17 These people are as useless as dried-up springs or as mist blown away by the wind. They are doomed to blackest darkness. 18 They brag about themselves with empty, foolish boasting. With an appeal to twisted sexual desires, they lure back into sin those who have barely escaped from a lifestyle of deception. 19 They promise freedom, but they themselves are slaves of sin and corruption. For you are a slave to whatever controls you. 20 And when people escape from the wickedness of the world by knowing our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ and then get tangled up and enslaved by sin again, they are worse off than before. 21 It would be better if they had never known the way to righteousness than to know it and then reject the command they were given to live a holy life. 22 They prove the truth of this proverb: “A dog returns to its vomit.”[g] And another says, “A washed pig returns to the mud.”


  1. 2:4a Greek Tartarus.
  2. 2:4b Some manuscripts read in chains of gloom.
  3. 2:10 Greek at glorious ones, which are probably evil angels.
  4. 2:11 Other manuscripts read to the Lord; still others do not include this phrase at all.
  5. 2:13 Some manuscripts read in fellowship meals.
  6. 2:15 Some manuscripts read Bosor.
  7. 2:22 Prov 26:11.
New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

Psalm 119:113-128


113 I hate those with divided loyalties,
but I love your instructions.
114 You are my refuge and my shield;
your word is my source of hope.
115 Get out of my life, you evil-minded people,
for I intend to obey the commands of my God.
116 Lord, sustain me as you promised, that I may live!
Do not let my hope be crushed.
117 Sustain me, and I will be rescued;
then I will meditate continually on your decrees.
118 But you have rejected all who stray from your decrees.
They are only fooling themselves.
119 You skim off the wicked of the earth like scum;
no wonder I love to obey your laws!
120 I tremble in fear of you;
I stand in awe of your regulations.


121 Don’t leave me to the mercy of my enemies,
for I have done what is just and right.
122 Please guarantee a blessing for me.
Don’t let the arrogant oppress me!
123 My eyes strain to see your rescue,
to see the truth of your promise fulfilled.
124 I am your servant; deal with me in unfailing love,
and teach me your decrees.
125 Give discernment to me, your servant;
then I will understand your laws.
126 Lord, it is time for you to act,
for these evil people have violated your instructions.
127 Truly, I love your commands
more than gold, even the finest gold.
128 Each of your commandments is right.
That is why I hate every false way.

New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

Proverbs 28:19-20

19 A hard worker has plenty of food,
but a person who chases fantasies ends up in poverty.

20 The trustworthy person will get a rich reward,
but a person who wants quick riches will get into trouble.

New Living Translation (NLT)

Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Monday November 27, 2023 (NIV)

Daniel 4

(3:31)[a] King Nebuchadnezzar, to all peoples, nations, and language groups that live in all the land: “Peace and prosperity![b] I am delighted to tell you about the signs and wonders that the most high God has done for me.

“How great are his signs!

How mighty are his wonders!
His kingdom will last forever,[c]
and his authority continues from one generation to the next.”

Nebuchadnezzar Dreams of a Tree Chopped Down

(4:1)[d] I, Nebuchadnezzar, was relaxing in my home,[e] living luxuriously[f] in my palace. I saw a dream that[g] frightened me badly. The things I imagined while lying on my bed—these visions of my mind—were terrifying me. So I issued an order[h] for all the wise men of Babylon to be brought[i] before me so that they could make known to me the interpretation of the dream. When the magicians, astrologers, wise men, and diviners entered, I recounted the dream for them. But they were unable to make known its interpretation to me. Later Daniel entered (whose name is Belteshazzar after the name of my god,[j] and in whom there is a spirit of the holy gods). I recounted the dream for him as well, saying, “Belteshazzar, chief of the magicians, in whom I know there to be a spirit of the holy gods and whom no mystery baffles, consider[k] my dream that I saw and set forth its interpretation! 10 Here are the visions of my mind[l] while I was on my bed.

“While I was watching,
there was a tree in the middle of the land.[m]
It was enormously tall.[n]
11 The tree grew large and strong.
Its top reached far into the sky;
it could be seen[o] from the borders of all the land.[p]
12 Its foliage was attractive and its fruit plentiful;
on it there was food enough for all.
Under it the wild animals[q] used to seek shade,
and in its branches the birds of the sky used to nest.
All creatures[r] used to feed themselves from it.
13 While I was watching in my mind’s visions[s] on my bed,

a holy sentinel[t] came down from heaven.
14 He called out loudly[u] as follows:[v]
‘Chop down the tree and lop off its branches!
Strip off its foliage
and scatter its fruit!
Let the animals flee from under it
and the birds from its branches.
15 But leave its taproot[w] in the ground,
with a band of iron and bronze around it[x]
surrounded by the grass of the field.
Let it become damp with the dew of the sky,
and let it live with[y] the animals in the grass of the land.
16 Let his mind[z] be altered from that of a human being,
and let an animal’s mind be given to him,
and let seven periods of time[aa] go by for[ab] him.
17 This announcement is by the decree of the sentinels;
this decision is by the pronouncement of the holy ones,
so that[ac] those who are alive may understand
that the Most High has authority over human kingdoms,[ad]
and he bestows them on whomever he wishes.
He establishes over them even the lowliest of human beings.’

18 “This is the dream that I, King Nebuchadnezzar, saw. Now you, Belteshazzar, declare its[ae] interpretation, for none of the wise men in[af] my kingdom are able to make known to me the interpretation. But you can do so, for a spirit of the holy gods is in you.”

Daniel Interprets Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream

19 Then Daniel (whose name is also Belteshazzar) was upset for a brief time;[ag] his thoughts were alarming him. The king said, “Belteshazzar, don’t let the dream and its interpretation alarm you.” But Belteshazzar replied, “Sir,[ah] if only the dream were for your enemies and its interpretation applied to your adversaries! 20 The tree that you saw that grew large and strong, whose top reached to the sky, and that could be seen[ai] in all the land, 21 whose foliage was attractive and its fruit plentiful, and from which there was food available for all, under whose branches wild animals[aj] used to live, and in whose branches birds of the sky used to nest— 22 it is you,[ak] O king! For you have become great and strong. Your greatness is such that it reaches to heaven, and your authority to the ends of the earth. 23 As for the king seeing a holy sentinel coming down from heaven and saying, ‘Chop down the tree and destroy it, but leave its taproot in the ground, with a band of iron and bronze around it, surrounded by the grass of the field. Let it become damp with the dew of the sky, and let it live with the wild animals, until seven periods of time go by for him’— 24 this is the interpretation, O king. It is the decision of the Most High that this has happened to my lord the king. 25 You will be driven[al] from human society,[am] and you will live[an] with the wild animals. You will be fed[ao] grass like oxen,[ap] and you will become damp with the dew of the sky. Seven periods of time will pass by for you, before[aq] you understand that the Most High is ruler over human kingdoms and gives them to whomever he wishes. 26 They said to leave the taproot of the tree, for your kingdom will be restored to you when you come to understand that heaven[ar] rules. 27 Therefore, O king, may my advice be pleasing to you. Break away from your sins by doing what is right, and from your iniquities by showing mercy to the poor. Perhaps your prosperity will be prolonged.”[as]

28 Now all this happened[at] to King Nebuchadnezzar. 29 After twelve months, he happened to be walking around on the battlements[au] of the royal palace of Babylon. 30 The king uttered these words: “Is this not the great Babylon that I have built for a royal residence[av] by my own mighty strength[aw] and for my majestic honor?” 31 While these words were still on the king’s lips,[ax] a voice came down from heaven: “It is hereby announced to you,[ay] King Nebuchadnezzar, that your kingdom has been removed from you! 32 You will be driven from human society, and you will live with the wild animals. You will be fed grass like oxen, and seven periods of time will pass by for you before[az] you understand that the Most High is ruler over human kingdoms and gives them to whomever he wishes.”

33 Now in that very moment[ba] this pronouncement about[bb] Nebuchadnezzar came true.[bc] He was driven from human society, he ate grass like oxen, and his body became damp with the dew of the sky, until his hair became long like an eagle’s feathers, and his nails like a bird’s claws.[bd]

34 But at the end of the appointed time[be] I, Nebuchadnezzar, looked up[bf] toward heaven, and my sanity returned to me.

I extolled the Most High,

and I praised and glorified the one who lives forever.
For his authority is an everlasting authority,
and his kingdom extends from one generation to the next.
35 All the inhabitants of the earth are regarded as nothing.[bg]
He does as he wishes with the army of heaven
and with those who inhabit the earth.
No one slaps[bh] his hand
and says to him, ‘What have you done?’

36 At that time my sanity returned to me. I was restored[bi] to the honor of my kingdom, and my splendor returned to me. My ministers and my nobles were seeking me out, and I was reinstated[bj] over my kingdom. I became even greater than before. 37 Now I, Nebuchadnezzar, praise and exalt and glorify the King of heaven, for all his deeds are right and his ways are just. He is able to bring down those who live[bk] in pride.


  1. Daniel 4:1 sn Beginning with 4:1, the verse numbers through 4:37 in the English Bible differ from the verse numbers in the Aramaic text (BHS), with 4:1 ET = 3:31 AT, 4:2 ET = 3:32 AT, 4:3 ET = 3:33 AT, 4:4 ET = 4:1 AT, etc., through 4:37 ET = 4:34 AT. Thus Dan 3:31-33 of the Aramaic text appears as Dan 4:1-3 in the English Bible, and the corresponding verses of ch. 4 differ accordingly. In spite of the division of the Aramaic text, a good case can be made that 3:31-33 AT (= 4:1-3 ET) is actually the introduction to ch. 4.
  2. Daniel 4:1 tn Aram “May your peace increase!”
  3. Daniel 4:3 tn Aram “His kingdom is an everlasting kingdom.”
  4. Daniel 4:4 sn This verse marks the beginning of chap. 4 in the Aramaic text of Daniel (see the note on 4:1). The Greek OT (LXX) has the following addition: “In the eighteenth year of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign he said.” This date would suggest a link to the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 b.c. In general, the LXX of chapters 4-6 is very different from the MT, so much so that the following notes will call attention only to selected readings. In Daniel 4 the LXX lacks sizable portions of material in the MT (e.g., vv. 3-6, 31-32), includes sizable portions of material not in the MT (e.g., v. 14a, parts of vv. 16, 28), has a different order of some material (e.g., v. 8 after v. 9), and in some instances is vastly different from the MT (e.g., vv. 30, 34). Whether these differences are due to an excessively paraphrastic translation technique adopted for these chapters in the LXX, or are due to differences in the underlying Vorlage of the LXX, is a disputed matter. The latter seems more likely. There is a growing trend in modern scholarship to take the LXX of chapters 4-6 much more seriously than was the case in most earlier text-critical studies that considered this issue.
  5. Daniel 4:4 tn Aram “my house.”
  6. Daniel 4:4 tn Aram “happy.”
  7. Daniel 4:5 tn Aram “and it.”
  8. Daniel 4:6 tn Aram “from me there was placed a decree.”
  9. Daniel 4:6 tn The Aramaic infinitive here is active.
  10. Daniel 4:8 sn This explanation of the meaning of the name Belteshazzar may be more of a paronomasia than a strict etymology. See the note at 1:7. The king's god was Marduk, who was called Bel (“Lord”).
  11. Daniel 4:9 tc The present translation assumes the reading חֲזִי (khazi, “consider”) rather than the MT חֶזְוֵי (khezve, “visions”). The MT implies that the king required Daniel to disclose both the dream and its interpretation, as in chapter 2. But in the following verses Nebuchadnezzar recounts his dream, while Daniel presents only its interpretation.
  12. Daniel 4:10 tc The LXX lacks the first two words (Aram “the visions of my head”) of the Aramaic text.
  13. Daniel 4:10 tn Instead of “in the middle of the land,” some English versions render this phrase “a tree at the center of the earth” (NRSV); NAB, CEV “of the world”; NLT “in the middle of the earth.” The Hebrew phrase can have either meaning.
  14. Daniel 4:10 tn Aram “its height was great.”
  15. Daniel 4:11 tn Aram “its sight,” as also v. 17.
  16. Daniel 4:11 tn Or “to the end of all the earth” (so KJV, ASV); NCV, CEV “from anywhere on earth.”
  17. Daniel 4:12 tn Aram “the beasts of the field.”
  18. Daniel 4:12 tn Aram “all flesh.”
  19. Daniel 4:13 tn Aram “the visions of my head.”
  20. Daniel 4:13 tn Aram “a watcher and a holy one.” The expression is a hendiadys, as also in v. 23. This “watcher” is apparently an angel. The Greek OT (LXX) in fact has ἄγγελος (angelos, “angel”) here. Theodotion simply transliterates the Aramaic word (ʿir). The term is sometimes rendered “sentinel” (NAB) or “messenger” (NIV, NLT).
  21. Daniel 4:14 tn Aram “in strength.”
  22. Daniel 4:14 tn Aram “and thus he was saying.”
  23. Daniel 4:15 tn Aram “the stock of its root,” as also in v. 23. The implication here is that although the tree is chopped down, it is not killed. Its life-giving root is spared. The application to Nebuchadnezzar is obvious.
  24. Daniel 4:15 sn The function of the band of iron and bronze is not entirely clear, but it may have had to do with preventing the splitting or further deterioration of the portion of the tree that was left after being chopped down. By application it would then refer to the preservation of Nebuchadnezzar’s life during the time of his insanity.
  25. Daniel 4:15 tn Aram “its lot be.”
  26. Daniel 4:16 tn Aram “its heart.” The metaphor of the tree begins to fade here and the reality behind the symbol (the king) begins to emerge.
  27. Daniel 4:16 sn The seven periods of time probably refer to seven years.
  28. Daniel 4:16 tn Aram “over” (also in vv. 23, 25, 32).
  29. Daniel 4:17 tc The present translation follows an underlying reading of עַל־דִּבְרַת (ʿal divrat, “so that”) rather than MT עַד־דִּבְרַת (ʿad divrat, “until”).
  30. Daniel 4:17 tn Aram “the kingdom of man”; NASB “the realm of mankind”; NCV “every kingdom on earth.”
  31. Daniel 4:18 tc The present translation, as also in the next verse, reads פִּשְׁרֵהּ (pishreh, “its interpretation”) with the Qere and many medieval Hebrew mss; the Kethib is פִּשְׁרָא (pishraʾ, “the interpretation”).
  32. Daniel 4:18 tn Aram “of.”
  33. Daniel 4:19 tn Aram “about one hour.” The expression refers idiomatically to a brief period of time of undetermined length.
  34. Daniel 4:19 tn Aram “my lord.”
  35. Daniel 4:20 tn Aram “its sight.”
  36. Daniel 4:21 tn Aram “the beasts of the field” (also in vv. 23, 25, 32).
  37. Daniel 4:22 sn Much of modern scholarship views this chapter as a distortion of traditions that were originally associated with Nabonidus rather than with Nebuchadnezzar. A Qumran text, the Prayer of Nabonidus, is often cited for parallels to these events.
  38. Daniel 4:25 tn The Aramaic indefinite active plural is used here like the English passive, as also in vv. 28, 29, and 32.
  39. Daniel 4:25 tn Aram “from mankind,” as also in v. 32.
  40. Daniel 4:25 tn Aram “your dwelling will be,” as also in v. 32.
  41. Daniel 4:25 tn Or perhaps: “be made to eat.”
  42. Daniel 4:25 sn Nebuchadnezzar’s insanity has features that are associated with the mental disorder boanthropy, in which the person so afflicted imagines himself to be an ox or a similar animal and behaves accordingly.
  43. Daniel 4:25 tn Aram “until.”
  44. Daniel 4:26 sn The reference to heaven here is a circumlocution for God. There was a tendency in Jewish contexts to avoid direct reference to God. Compare the expression “kingdom of heaven” in the NT and such statements as: “I have sinned against heaven and in your sight” (Luke 15:21).
  45. Daniel 4:27 tn Aram “if there may be a lengthening to your prosperity.”
  46. Daniel 4:28 tn Aram “reached.”
  47. Daniel 4:29 tn The word “battlements” is not in the text but is supplied from context. Many English versions supply “roof” here (e.g., NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV); cf. NLT “on the flat roof.”
  48. Daniel 4:30 tn Aram “house.”
  49. Daniel 4:30 tn Aram “by the might of my strength.”
  50. Daniel 4:31 tn Aram “in the mouth of the king.”
  51. Daniel 4:31 tn Aram “to you they say.”
  52. Daniel 4:32 tn Aram “until.”
  53. Daniel 4:33 tn Aram “hour.”
  54. Daniel 4:33 tn Or “on.”
  55. Daniel 4:33 tn Aram “was fulfilled.”
  56. Daniel 4:33 tn The words “feathers” and “claws” are not present in the Aramaic text, but have been added in the translation for clarity.
  57. Daniel 4:34 tn Aram “days.”
  58. Daniel 4:34 tn Aram “lifted up my eyes.”
  59. Daniel 4:35 tc The present translation reads כְּלָא (kelaʾ), with many medieval Hebrew mss, rather than כְּלָה (kelah) of BHS.
  60. Daniel 4:35 tn Aram “strikes against.”
  61. Daniel 4:36 tc The translation reads הַדְרֵת (hadret, “I returned”) rather than the MT הַדְרִי (hadri, “my honor”); cf. Theodotion.
  62. Daniel 4:36 tc The translation reads הָתְקְנֵת (hotqenet, “I was established”) rather than the MT הָתְקְנַת (hotqenat, “it was established”). The MT could read: “And regarding my kingdom, it was established.”
  63. Daniel 4:37 tn Aram “walk.”
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. All rights reserved.

2 Peter 1


From Simeon[a] Peter,[b] a slave[c] and apostle of Jesus Christ, to those who through the righteousness of our God[d] and Savior,[e] Jesus Christ, have been granted[f] a faith just as precious[g] as ours. May grace and peace be lavished on you[h] as you grow[i] in the rich knowledge[j] of God and of Jesus our Lord![k]

Believers’ Salvation and the Work of God

I can pray this because his divine power[l] has bestowed on us everything necessary[m] for life and godliness through the rich knowledge[n] of the one who called[o] us by[p] his own glory and excellence. Through these things[q] he has bestowed on us his precious and most magnificent promises, so that by means of what was promised[r] you may become partakers of the divine nature,[s] after escaping[t] the worldly corruption that is produced by evil desire.[u] For this very reason,[v] make every effort[w] to add to your faith excellence,[x] to excellence, knowledge; to knowledge, self-control; to self-control, perseverance;[y] to perseverance, godliness; to godliness, brotherly affection; to brotherly affection, unselfish[z] love.[aa] For if[ab] these things are really yours[ac] and are continually increasing,[ad] they will keep you from becoming[ae] ineffective and unproductive in your pursuit of[af] knowing our Lord Jesus Christ more intimately.[ag] But[ah] concerning the one who lacks such things[ai]—he is blind. That is to say, he is[aj] nearsighted, since he has forgotten about the cleansing of his past sins. 10 Therefore, brothers and sisters,[ak] make every effort to be sure of your calling and election.[al] For by doing this[am] you will never[an] stumble into sin.[ao] 11 For thus an entrance into the eternal kingdom of our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ, will be richly provided for you.

Salvation Based on the Word of God

12 Therefore, I intend to remind you constantly[ap] of these things even though you know them and are well established in the truth that you now have. 13 Indeed, as long as I am in this tabernacle,[aq] I consider it right to stir you up by way of a reminder, 14 since I know that my tabernacle will soon be removed,[ar] because[as] our Lord Jesus Christ revealed this to me.[at] 15 Indeed, I will also make every effort that, after my departure, you have a testimony of these things.[au]

16 For we did not follow cleverly concocted fables when we made known to you the power and return[av] of our Lord Jesus Christ;[aw] no,[ax] we were[ay] eyewitnesses of his[az] grandeur.[ba] 17 For he received honor and glory from God the Father, when that[bb] voice was conveyed to him by the Majestic Glory: “This is my dear Son, in whom I am delighted.”[bc] 18 When this voice was conveyed from heaven, we ourselves[bd] heard it, for we were with him on the holy mountain.[be] 19 Moreover,[bf] we[bg] possess the prophetic word as an altogether reliable thing.[bh] You do well if you pay attention[bi] to this[bj] as you would[bk] to a light shining in a murky place, until the day dawns and the morning star[bl] rises in your hearts.[bm] 20 Above all, you do well if you recognize[bn] this:[bo] No prophecy of scripture ever comes about by the prophet’s own imagination,[bp] 21 for no prophecy was ever borne of human impulse; rather, men[bq] carried along by the Holy Spirit spoke from God.


  1. 2 Peter 1:1 tc Several witnesses, a few of them very significant (P72 B Ψ 69 81 614 623 630 1241 1243 2464 al vg co), read Σίμων (Simōn, “Simon”) for Συμεών (Sumeōn, “Simeon”). However, this appears to be a motivated reading as it is the more common spelling. Συμεών occurs only here and in Acts 15:14 as a spelling for the apostle’s name. The reading Συμεών enjoys ample and widespread support among the mss, strongly suggesting its authenticity. Further, this Hebraic spelling is a subtle argument for the authenticity of this letter, since a forger would almost surely follow the normal spelling of the name (1 Peter begins only with “Peter” giving no help either way).
  2. 2 Peter 1:1 tn Grk “Simeon Peter.” The word “from” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied to indicate the sender of the letter.
  3. 2 Peter 1:1 tn Though δοῦλος (doulos) is normally translated “servant,” the word does not bear the connotation of a free individual serving another. BDAG notes that “‘servant’ for ‘slave’ is largely confined to Biblical transl. and early American times…in normal usage at the present time the two words are carefully distinguished” (BDAG 260 s.v.). At the same time, perhaps “servant” is apt in that the δοῦλος of Jesus Christ took on that role voluntarily, unlike a slave. One good translation is “bondservant” (sometimes found in the ASV for δοῦλος) in that it often indicates one who sells himself into slavery to another. But as this is archaic, few today understand its force. Also, many slaves in the Roman world became slaves through Rome’s subjugation of conquered nations, kidnapping, or by being born into slave households. sn Undoubtedly the background for the concept of being the Lord’s slave or servant is to be found in the Old Testament scriptures. For a Jew this concept did not connote drudgery, but honor and privilege. It was used of national Israel at times (Isa 43:10), but was especially associated with famous OT personalities, including such great men as Moses (Josh 14:7), David (Ps 89:3; cf. 2 Sam 7:5, 8) and Elijah (2 Kgs 10:10); all these men were “servants (or slaves) of the Lord.”
  4. 2 Peter 1:1 tc A few witnesses (א Ψ 442 vgmss syph sa) read κυρίου (kuriou, “Lord”) for θεοῦ (theou, “God”) in v. 1, perhaps due to confusion of letters (since both words were nomina sacra), or perhaps because “our God and Savior, Jesus Christ” is an unusual expression (though hardly because of theological objections to θεοῦ).
  5. 2 Peter 1:1 tn The terms “God and Savior” both refer to the same person, Jesus Christ. This is one of the clearest statements in the NT concerning the deity of Christ. The construction in Greek is known as the Granville Sharp rule, named after the English philanthropist-linguist who first clearly articulated the rule in 1798. Sharp pointed out that in the construction article-noun-καί-noun (where καί [kai] = “and”), when two nouns are singular, personal, and common (i.e., not proper names), they always had the same referent. Illustrations such as “the friend and brother,” “the God and Father,” etc. abound in the NT to prove Sharp’s point. In fact, the construction occurs elsewhere in 2 Peter, strongly suggesting that the author’s idiom was the same as the rest of the NT authors’ (cf., e.g., 1:11 [“the Lord and Savior”], 2:20 [“the Lord and Savior”]). The only issue is whether terms such as “God” and “Savior” could be considered common nouns as opposed to proper names. Sharp and others who followed (such as T. F. Middleton in his masterful The Doctrine of the Greek Article) demonstrated that a proper name in Greek was one that could not be pluralized. Since both “God” (θεός, theos) and “savior” (σωτήρ, sōtēr) were occasionally found in the plural, they did not constitute proper names, and hence, do fit Sharp’s rule. Although there have been 200 years of attempts to dislodge Sharp’s rule, all attempts have been futile. Sharp’s rule stands vindicated after all the dust has settled. For more information on the application of Sharp’s rule to 2 Pet 1:1, see ExSyn 272, 276-77, 290. See also Titus 2:13 and Jude 4.
  6. 2 Peter 1:1 tn The verb λαγχάνω (lanchanō) means “obtain by lot,” “receive.” A literal translation would put it in the active, but some of the richness of the term would thereby be lost. It is used in collocation with κλῆρος (klēros, “lot”) frequently enough in the LXX to suggest the connotation of reception of a gift, or in the least reception of something that one does not deserve. H. Hanse’s statement (TDNT 4:1) that “Even where there is no casting of lots, the attainment is not by one’s own effort or as a result of one’s own exertions, but is like ripe fruit falling into one’s lap” is apt for this passage. The author’s opening line is a reminder that our position in Christ is not due to merit, but grace.
  7. 2 Peter 1:1 tn Grk “equal in value/honor.”sn A faith just as precious. The author’s point is that the Gentile audience has been blessed with a salvation that is in no way inferior to that of the Jews.
  8. 2 Peter 1:2 tn Grk “May grace and peace be multiplied to you.”
  9. 2 Peter 1:2 tn The words “as you grow” are not in the Greek text, but seem to be implied.
  10. 2 Peter 1:2 tn The word ἐπίγνωσις (epignōsis) could simply mean knowledge, but J. B. Mayor (Jude and Second Peter, 171-74) has suggested that it is often a fuller knowledge, especially in reference to things pertaining to spiritual truth. R. Bauckham (Jude, 2 Peter [WBC], 169-70) argues that it refers to the knowledge of God that is borne of conversion, but this is probably saying too much and is asking questions of the author that are foreign to his way of thinking. The term is used in 1:2, 3, 8; 2:20 (the verb form occurs twice, both in 2:21). In every instance it evidently involves being in the inner circle of those who connect to God, though it does not necessarily imply such a direct and relational knowledge of God for each individual within that circle. An analogy would be Judas Iscariot: Even though he was a disciple of the Lord, he was not converted.
  11. 2 Peter 1:2 tn A comma properly belongs at the end of v. 2 instead of a period, since v. 3 is a continuation of the same sentence. With the optative in v. 2, the author has departed from Paul’s normal greeting (in which no verb is used), rendering the greeting a full-blown sentence. Nevertheless, this translation divides the verses up along thematic lines in spite of breaking up the sentence structure. For more explanation, see note on “power” in v. 3.
  12. 2 Peter 1:3 tn The verse in Greek starts out with ὡς (hōs) followed by a genitive absolute construction, dependent on the main verb in v. 2. Together, they form a subordinate causal clause. A more literal rendering would be “because his divine power…” The idea is that the basis or authority for the author’s prayer in v. 2 (that grace and peace would abound to the readers) was that God’s power was manifested in their midst. The author’s sentence structure is cumbersome even in Greek; hence, the translation has broken this up into two sentences.
  13. 2 Peter 1:3 tn The word “necessary” is not in the Greek, but is implied by the preposition πρός (pros).
  14. 2 Peter 1:3 tn See the note on “rich knowledge” in v. 2.
  15. 2 Peter 1:3 sn Called. The term καλέω (kaleō), used here in its participial form, in soteriological contexts when God is the subject, always carries the nuance of effectual calling. That is, the one who is called is not just invited to be saved—he is also and always saved (cf. Rom 8:30). Calling takes place at the moment of conversion, while election takes place in eternity past (cf. Eph 1:4).
  16. 2 Peter 1:3 tn The datives ἰδίᾳ δόξῃ καὶ ἀρετῇ (idia doxē kai aretē) could be taken either instrumentally (“by [means of] his own glory and excellence”) or advantage (“for [the benefit of] his own glory and excellence”). Both the connection with divine power and the textual variant found in several early and significant witnesses (διὰ δόξης καὶ ἀρετῆς in P72 B 0209vid) argues for an instrumental meaning. The instrumental notion is also affirmed by the meaning of ἀρετῇ (“excellence”) in contexts that speak of God’s attributes (BDAG 130 s.v. ἀρετή 2 in fact defines it as “manifestation of divine power” in this verse).
  17. 2 Peter 1:4 tn Verse 4 is in Greek a continuation of v. 3, “through which things.”sn The phrase these things refers to God’s glory and excellence.
  18. 2 Peter 1:4 tn Grk “through them.” The implication is that through inheriting and acting on these promises the believers will increasingly become partakers of the divine nature.
  19. 2 Peter 1:4 sn Although the author has borrowed the expression partakers of the divine nature from paganism, his meaning is clearly Christian. He does not mean apotheosis (man becoming a god) in the pagan sense, but rather that believers have an organic connection with God. Because of such a connection, God can truly be called our Father. Conceptually, this bears the same meaning as Paul’s “in Christ” formula. The author’s statement, though startling at first, is hardly different from Paul’s prayer for the Ephesians that they “may be filled up to all the fullness of God” (3:19).
  20. 2 Peter 1:4 tn The aorist participle ἀποφυγόντες (apophugontes) is often taken as attendant circumstance to the preceding verb γένησθε (genēsthe). As such, the sense is “that you might become partakers…and might escape…” However, it does not follow the contours of the vast majority of attendant circumstance participles (in which the participle precedes the main verb, among other things). Further, attendant circumstance participles are frequently confused with result participles (which do follow the verb). Many who take this as attendant circumstance are probably viewing it semantically as result (“that you might become partakers…and [thereby] escape…”). But this is next to impossible since the participle is aorist: Result participles are categorically present tense.
  21. 2 Peter 1:4 tn Grk “the corruption in the world (in/because of) lust.”
  22. 2 Peter 1:5 tn The Greek text begins with “and,” a typical The reason given is all the provisions God has made for the believer, mentioned in vv. 3-4.
  23. 2 Peter 1:5 tn The participle is either means (“by making every effort”) or attendant circumstance (“make every effort”). Although it fits the normal contours of attendant circumstance participles, the semantics are different. Normally, attendant circumstance is used of an action that is a necessary prelude to the action of the main verb. But “making every effort” is what energizes the main verb here. Hence it is best taken as means. However, for the sake of smoothness the translation has rendered it as a command with the main verb translated as an infinitive. This is in accord with English idiom.
  24. 2 Peter 1:5 tn Or “moral excellence,” “virtue”; this is the same word used in v. 3 (“the one who has called us by his own glory and excellence”).
  25. 2 Peter 1:6 tn Perhaps “steadfastness,” though that is somewhat archaic. A contemporary colloquial rendering would be “stick-to-it-iveness.”
  26. 2 Peter 1:7 sn The final virtue or character quality in this list is “love” (ἀγάπη, agapē). The word was not used exclusively of Christian or unselfish love in the NT (e.g., the cognate, ἀγαπάω [agapaō], is used in John 3:19 of the love of darkness), but in a list such as this in which ἀγάπη is obviously the crescendo, unselfish love is evidently in view. R. Bauckham (Jude, 2 Peter [WBC], 187) notes that as the crowning virtue, ἀγάπη encompasses all the previous virtues.
  27. 2 Peter 1:7 tn Each item in Greek begins with “and.” The conjunction is omitted for the sake of good English style, with no change in Add to your faith excellence…love. The list of virtues found in vv. 5-7 stands in tension to the promises given in vv. 2-4. What appears to be a synergism of effort or even a contradiction (God supplies the basis, the promises, the grace, the power, etc., while believers must also provide the faith, excellence, etc.) in reality encapsulates the mystery of sanctification. Each believer is responsible before God for his conduct and spiritual growth, yet that growth could not take place without God’s prior work and constant enabling. We must not neglect our responsibility, yet the enabling and the credit is God’s. Paul says the same thing: “Continue working out your salvation with humility and dependence, for the one bringing forth in you both the desire and the effort…is God” (Phil 2:12-13).
  28. 2 Peter 1:8 tn The participles are evidently conditional, as most translations render them.
  29. 2 Peter 1:8 tn The participle ὑπάρχοντα (huparchonta) is stronger than the verb εἰμί (eimi), usually implying a permanent state. Hence, the addition of “really” is implied.
  30. 2 Peter 1:8 sn Continually increasing. There are evidently degrees of ownership of these qualities, implying degrees of productivity in one’s intimacy with Christ. An idiomatic rendering of the first part of v. 8 would be “For if you can claim ownership of these virtues in progressively increasing amounts…”
  31. 2 Peter 1:8 tn Grk “cause [you] not to become.”
  32. 2 Peter 1:8 tn Grk “unto,” “toward”; although it is possible to translate the preposition εἰς (eis) as simply “in.”
  33. 2 Peter 1:8 tn Grk “the [rich] knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ.” Verse 8 in Greek does not make a full stop (period), for v. 9 begins with a subordinate relative pronoun. Contemporary English convention requires a full stop in translation, however.
  34. 2 Peter 1:9 tn Grk “for.” The connection, though causal, is also adversative.
  35. 2 Peter 1:9 tn Grk “to the one for whom these things are not present.”
  36. 2 Peter 1:9 tn The words “that is to say, he is” are not in Greek. The word order is unusual. One might expect the author to have said “he is nearsighted and blind” (as the NIV has so construed it), but this is not the word order in Greek. Perhaps the author begins with a strong statement followed by a clarification, i.e., that being nearsighted in regard to these virtues is as good as being blind.
  37. 2 Peter 1:10 tn Grk “brothers,” but the Greek word may be used for “brothers and sisters” or “fellow Christians” as here (cf. BDAG 18 s.v. ἀδελφός 1., where considerable nonbiblical evidence for the plural ἀδελφοί [adelphoi] meaning “brothers and sisters” is cited).
  38. 2 Peter 1:10 tn Grk “make your calling and election sure.” sn Make sure of your calling and election. The author is not saying that virtue and holiness produce salvation, but that virtue and holiness are the evidence of salvation.
  39. 2 Peter 1:10 tn Grk “these things.”
  40. 2 Peter 1:10 tn In Greek οὐ μή (ou mē) followed by the subjunctive is normally the strongest way to negate an action. Coupled with πότε (pote, “ever”), the statement is even more emphatic. The author is offering sage advice on how to grow in grace.
  41. 2 Peter 1:10 tn The words “into sin” are not in the Greek text, but the Greek word πταίω (ptaiō) is used in soteriological contexts for more than a mere hesitation or stumbling. BDAG 894 s.v. 2 suggests that here it means “be ruined, be lost,” referring to loss of salvation, while also acknowledging that the meaning “to make a mistake, go astray, sin” is plausible in this context. Alternatively, the idea of πταίω here could be that of “suffer misfortune” (so K. L. Schmidt, TDNT 6:884), as a result of sinning.
  42. 2 Peter 1:12 tn Grk “always.”
  43. 2 Peter 1:13 tn Or “tent.” The author uses this as a metaphor for his physical The use of the term tabernacle for the human body is reminiscent both of John’s statements about Jesus (“he tabernacled among us” in John 1:14; “the temple of his body” in John 2:21) and Paul’s statements about believers (e.g., “you are God’s building” in 1 Cor 3:9; “you are God’s temple” in 1 Cor 3:16; “your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit” in 1 Cor 6:19; “holy temple” in Eph 2:21). It is precisely because the Shekinah glory has been transferred from the OT temple to the person of Jesus Christ and, because he inhabits believers, to them, that the author can speak this way. His life on earth, his physical existence, is a walking tabernacle, a manifestation of the glory of God.
  44. 2 Peter 1:14 tn Grk “since I know that the removal of my tabernacle is [coming] soon.”
  45. 2 Peter 1:14 tn Grk “just as.”
  46. 2 Peter 1:14 sn When the author says our Lord Jesus Christ revealed this to me, he is no doubt referring to the prophecy that is partially recorded in John 21:18-19.
  47. 2 Peter 1:15 sn There are various interpretations of v. 15. For example, the author could be saying simply, “I will make every effort that you remember these things.” But the collocation of σπουδάζω (spoudazō) with μνήνη (mnēnē) suggests a more specific image. R. Bauckham (Jude, 2 Peter [WBC], 201-2) is right when he notes that these two words together suggest a desire to write some sort of letter or testament. Most commentators recognize the difficulty in seeing the future verb σπουδάσω (spoudasō) as referring to 2 Peter itself (the present or aorist would have been expected, i.e., “I have made every effort,” or “I am making every effort”). Some have suggested that Mark’s Gospel is in view. The difficulty with this is threefold: (1) Mark is probably to be dated before 2 Peter, (2) early patristic testimony seems to imply that Peter was the unwitting source behind Mark’s Gospel; and (3) “these things” would seem to refer, in the least, to the prophecy about Peter’s death (absent in Mark). A more plausible suggestion might be that the author was thinking of the ending of John’s Gospel. This is possible because (1) John 21:18-19 is the only other place in the NT that refers to Peter’s death; indeed, it fleshes out the cryptic statement in v. 14 a bit more; (2) both 2 Peter and John were apparently written to Gentiles in and around Asia Minor; (3) both books were probably written after Paul’s death and perhaps even to Paul’s churches (cf. 2 Pet 3:1-2, 15-16); and (4) John 21 gives the appearance of being added to the end of a finished work. There is thus some possibility that this final chapter was added at the author’s request, in part to encourage Gentile Christians to face impending persecution, knowing that the martyrdom of even (Paul and) Peter was within the purview of God’s sovereignty. That 2 Pet 1:15 alludes to John 21 is of course by no means certain, but remains at least the most plausible of the suggestions put forth thus far.
  48. 2 Peter 1:16 tn Grk “coming.”
  49. 2 Peter 1:16 tn Grk “for we did not make known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ by following cleverly concocted fables.”
  50. 2 Peter 1:16 tn Grk “but, instead.”
  51. 2 Peter 1:16 tn Grk “became.”
  52. 2 Peter 1:16 tn Grk “that one’s.” That is, “eyewitnesses of the grandeur of that one.” The remote demonstrative pronoun is used perhaps to indicate esteem for Jesus. Along these lines it is interesting to note that “the Pythagoreans called their master after his death simply ἐκεῖνος” as a term of reverence and endearment (BDAG 302 s.v. ἐκεῖνος a.γ).
  53. 2 Peter 1:16 sn The term grandeur was used most frequently of God’s majesty. In the 1st century, it was occasionally used of the divine majesty of the emperor. 2 Pet 1:1 and 1:11 already include hints of a polemic against emperor-worship (in that “God and Savior” and “Lord and Savior” were used of the emperor).
  54. 2 Peter 1:17 tn Grk “such a.” The pronoun τοιᾶσδε (toiasde) most likely refers to what follows, connoting something of the uniqueness of the proclamation.
  55. 2 Peter 1:17 tn The verb εὐδόκησα (eudokēsa) in collocation with εἰς ὅν (eis hon) could either mean “in whom I am well-pleased, delighted” (in which case the preposition functions like ἐν [en]), or “on whom I have set my favor.”sn This is my beloved Son, in whom I am delighted alludes to the Transfiguration. However, the author’s version is markedly different from the synoptic accounts (in particular his introductory phrase, “when that voice was conveyed to him,” an unusual expression [perhaps used to avoid naming God directly as the one who spoke from heaven]). The most natural explanation for such differences is that he was unaware of the exact wording of the Gospels. This is, of course, easier to explain if 2 Peter is authentic than if it is a late document, written in the 2nd century.
  56. 2 Peter 1:18 tn The “we” in v. 18 is evidently exclusive, that is, it refers to Peter and the other apostles.
  57. 2 Peter 1:18 tn 2 Pet 1:17-18 comprise one sentence in Greek, with the main verb “heard” in v. 18. All else is temporally subordinate to that statement. Hence, more literally these verses read as follows: “For when he received honor and glory from God the Father, when that voice was conveyed to him by the Majestic Glory: ‘This is my beloved Son, in whom I am delighted,’ we ourselves heard this voice when it was conveyed from heaven, when we were with him on the holy mountain.”
  58. 2 Peter 1:19 tn Grk “and.” The use of καί (kai) is of course quite elastic. Only the context can determine if it is adversative, continuative, transitional, etc.
  59. 2 Peter 1:19 sn We in v. 19 is apparently an inclusive “we” (the author and his audience). Such shifts in the first person plural are quite common in epistolary literature (cf., e.g., 2 Cor 10-13, passim).
  60. 2 Peter 1:19 tn The comparative adjective βεβαιότερον (bebaioteron) is the complement to the object τὸν προφητικὸν λόγον (ton prophētikon logon). As such, the construction almost surely has the force “The prophetic word is (more certain/altogether certain)—and this is something that we all have.” Many scholars prefer to read the construction as saying “we have the prophetic word made more sure,” but such a nuance is unparalleled in object-complement constructions (when the construction has this force, ποιέω [poieō] is present [as in 2 Pet 1:10]). The meaning, as construed in the translation, is that the Bible (in this case, the OT) that these believers had in their hands was a thoroughly reliable guide. Whether it was more certain than was even Peter’s experience on the Mount of Transfiguration depends on whether the adjective should be taken as a true comparative (“more certain”) or as an elative (“very certain, altogether certain”). Some would categorically object to any experience functioning as a confirmation of the scriptures and hence would tend to give the adjective a comparative force. Yet the author labors to show that his gospel is trustworthy precisely because he was an eyewitness of this great event. Further, to say that the OT scriptures (the most likely meaning of “the prophetic word”) were more trustworthy an authority than an apostle’s own experience of Christ is both to misconstrue how prophecy took place in the OT (did not the prophets have visions or other experiences?) and to deny the final revelation of God in Christ (cf. Heb 1:2). In sum, since syntactically the meaning that “we have confirmed the prophetic word by our experience” is improbable, and since contextually the meaning that “we have something that is a more reliable authority than experience, namely, the Bible” is unlikely, we are left with the meaning “we have a very reliable authority, the Old Testament, as a witness to Christ’s return.” No comparison is thus explicitly made. This fits both the context and normal syntax quite well. The introductory καί (kai) suggests that the author is adding to his argument. He makes the statement that Christ will return, and backs it up with two points: (1) Peter himself (as well as the other apostles) was an eyewitness to the Transfiguration, which is a precursor to the Parousia; and (2) the Gentile believers, who were not on the Mount of Transfiguration, nevertheless have the Old Testament, a wholly reliable authority that also promises the return of Christ.
  61. 2 Peter 1:19 tn Grk “paying attention” (the adverbial participle is either conditional [“if you pay attention”] or instrumental [“by paying attention”]; though there is difference in translation, there is virtually no difference in application). On a lexical level, “pay attention to” (προσέχω [prosechō]) does not, in a context such as this, mean merely observe or notice, but follow, give heed to, obey.
  62. 2 Peter 1:19 tn “To this” is a relative pronoun in Greek. The second half of v. 19 is thus a relative clause. Literally it reads “to which you do well if you pay attention.”
  63. 2 Peter 1:19 tn Grk “as”; ὡς (hōs) clauses after imperatives or implied commands (as here) make a comparison of what should be true (imperative) to what is true (indicative). This is the case even when the verb of the ὡς clause is only implied. Cf. Matt 6:10 (“may your will be done on earth as [it is] in heaven”); 10:16 (“be wise as serpents [are], and be as gentle as doves [are]”); 22:39 (“love your neighbor as [you already do] love yourself”).
  64. 2 Peter 1:19 sn The reference to the morning star constitutes a double entendre. First, the term was normally used to refer to Venus. But the author of course has a metaphorical meaning in mind, as is obvious from the place where the morning star is to rise—“in your hearts.” Most commentators see an allusion to Num 24:17 (“a star shall rise out of Jacob”) in Peter’s words. Early Christian exegesis saw in that passage a prophecy about Christ’s coming. Hence, in this verse Peter tells his audience to heed the OT scriptures which predict the return of Christ, then alludes to one of the passages that does this very thing, all the while running the theme of light on a parallel track. In addition, it may be significant that Peter’s choice of terms here is not the same as is found in the LXX. He has used a Hellenistic word that was sometimes used of emperors and deities, perhaps as a further polemic against the paganism of his day.
  65. 2 Peter 1:19 sn The phrase in your hearts is sometimes considered an inappropriate image for the parousia, since the coming of Christ will be visible to all. But Peter’s point has to do with full comprehension of the revelation of Christ, something only believers will experience. Further, his use of light imagery is doing double-duty, suggesting two things at once (i.e., internal guidance to truth or illumination, and OT prophecy about Christ’s return) and hence can not be expected to be consistent with every point he wishes to make.
  66. 2 Peter 1:20 tn Grk “knowing this [to be] foremost.” Τοῦτο πρῶτον (touto prōton) constitute the object and complement of γινώσκοντες (ginōskontes). The participle is dependent on the main verb in v. 19 (“you do well [if you pay attention]”), probably in a conditional usage. An alternative is to take it imperativally: “Above all, know this.” In this rendering, πρῶτον is functioning adverbially. Only here and 2 Pet 3:3 is τοῦτο πρῶτον found in the NT, making a decision more difficult.
  67. 2 Peter 1:20 tn The ὅτι (hoti) clause is appositional (“know this, that”). English usage can use the colon with the same force.
  68. 2 Peter 1:20 tn Verse 20 is variously interpreted. There are three key terms here that help decide both the interpretation and the translation. As well, the relation to v. 21 informs the meaning of this verse. (1) The term “comes about” (γίνεται [ginetai]) is often translated “is a matter” as in “is a matter of one’s own interpretation.” But the progressive force for this verb is far more common. (2) The adjective ἰδίας (idias) has been understood to mean (a) one’s own (i.e., the reader’s own), (b) its own (i.e., the particular prophecy’s own), or (c) the prophet’s own. Catholic scholarship has tended to see the reference to the reader (in the sense that no individual reader can understand scripture, but needs the interpretations handed down by the Church), while older Protestant scholarship has tended to see the reference to the individual passage being prophesied (and hence the Reformation doctrine of analogia fidei [analogy of faith], or scripture interpreting scripture). But neither of these views satisfactorily addresses the relationship of v. 20 to v. 21, nor do they do full justice to the meaning of γίνεται. (3) The meaning of ἐπίλυσις (epilusis) is difficult to determine, since it is a biblical hapax legomenon. Though it is sometimes used in the sense of interpretation in extra-biblical Greek, this is by no means a necessary sense. The basic idea of the word is unfolding, which can either indicate an explanation or a creation. It sometimes has the force of solution or even spell, both of which meanings could easily accommodate a prophetic utterance of some sort. Further, even the meaning explanation or interpretation easily fits a prophetic utterance, for prophets often, if not usually, explained visions and dreams. There is no instance of this word referring to the interpretation of scripture, however, suggesting that if interpretation is the meaning, it is the prophet’s interpretation of his own vision. (4) The γάρ (gar) at the beginning of v. 21 gives the basis for the truth of the proposition in v. 20. The connection that makes the most satisfactory sense is that prophets did not invent their own prophecies (v. 20), for their impulse for prophesying came from God (v. 21).sn No prophecy of scripture ever comes about by the prophet’s own imagination. 2 Pet 1:20-21, then, form an inclusio with v. 16: The Christian’s faith and hope are not based on cleverly concocted fables but on the sure Word of God—one which the prophets, prompted by the Spirit of God, spoke. Peter’s point is the same as is found elsewhere in the NT, i.e., that human prophets did not originate the message, but they did convey it, using their own personalities in the process.
  69. 2 Peter 1:21 tn If, as seems probable, the “prophecy” mentioned here is to be identified with the “prophecy of scripture” mentioned in the previous verse, then the Greek term ἄνθρωποι (anthrōpoi, “men”) would refer specifically to the human authors of scripture, who (as far as we know) were all men. Thus “men” has been used here in the translation. If, on the other hand, the “prophecy” mentioned in the present verse is not limited to scripture but refers to oral prophecy as well, then women would be included, since Joel 2:20 specifically mentions “sons and daughters” as having the ability to prophesy, and the NT clearly mentions prophetesses (Luke 2:36; Acts 21:9).
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. All rights reserved.

Psalm 119:97-112

מ (Mem)

97 O how I love your law!
All day long I meditate on it.
98 Your commandments[a] make me wiser than my enemies,
for I am always aware of them.
99 I have more insight than all my teachers,
for I meditate on your rules.
100 I am more discerning than those older than I,
for I observe your precepts.
101 I stay away[b] from every evil path,
so that I might keep your instructions.[c]
102 I do not turn aside from your regulations,
for you teach me.
103 Your words are sweeter
in my mouth than honey![d]
104 Your precepts give me discernment.
Therefore I hate all deceitful actions.[e]

נ (Nun)

105 Your word[f] is a lamp to walk by,
and a light to illumine my path.[g]
106 I have vowed and solemnly sworn
to keep your just regulations.
107 I am suffering terribly.
O Lord, revive me with your word.[h]
108 O Lord, please accept the freewill offerings of my praise.[i]
Teach me your regulations.
109 My life is in continual danger,[j]
but I do not forget your law.
110 The wicked lay a trap for me,
but I do not wander from your precepts.
111 I claim your rules as my permanent possession,
for they give me joy.[k]
112 I am determined to obey[l] your statutes
at all times, to the very end.


  1. Psalm 119:98 tn The plural form needs to be revocalized as a singular in order to agree with the preceding singular verb and the singular pronoun in the next line. The Lord’s “command” refers here to the law (see Ps 19:8).
  2. Psalm 119:101 tn Heb “I hold back my feet.”
  3. Psalm 119:101 tn Heb “your word.” Many medieval Hebrew mss read the plural.
  4. Psalm 119:103 tn Heb “How smooth they are to my palate, your word, more than honey to my mouth.” A few medieval Hebrew mss, as well as several other ancient witnesses, read the plural “your words,” which can then be understood as the subject of the plural verb “they are smooth.”
  5. Psalm 119:104 tn Heb “every false path.”
  6. Psalm 119:105 tn Many medieval Hebrew mss read the plural (“words”).
  7. Psalm 119:105 tn Heb “[is] a lamp for my foot and a light for my path.”
  8. Psalm 119:107 tn Heb “according to your word.”
  9. Psalm 119:108 tn Heb “of my mouth.”
  10. Psalm 119:109 tn Heb “my life [is] in my hands continually.”
  11. Psalm 119:111 tn Heb “for the joy of my heart [are] they.”
  12. Psalm 119:112 tn Heb “I turn my heart to do.”
New English Translation (NET)

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Proverbs 28:17-18

17 The one who is tormented[a] by the murder[b] of another will flee to the pit;[c]
let no one support him.
18 The one who walks blamelessly will be delivered,[d]
but whoever is perverse in his ways will fall[e] at once.[f]


  1. Proverbs 28:17 tn The form is the Qal passive participle. The verb means “to oppress; to wrong; to extort”; here the idea of being “oppressed” would refer to the burden of a guilty conscience (hence “tormented”; cf. NAB, NRSV “burdened”). Some commentators have wanted to emend the text to read “suspected,” or “charged with,” or “given to,” etc., but if the motive is religious and not legal, then “oppressed” or “tormented” is preferred.
  2. Proverbs 28:17 sn The text has “the blood of a life”; blood will be the metonymy of effect for the murder, the shedding of blood.
  3. Proverbs 28:17 tn The verse is cryptic; it simply says that he will “flee to the pit.” Some have taken the “pit” to refer to the place of detention for prisoners, but why would he flee to that place? It seems rather to refer to death. This could mean that (1) since there is no place for him to go outside of the grave, he should flee to the pit (cf. TEV, NLT), or (2) he will be a fugitive until he goes to the grave (cf. NASB, NIV, NCV, NRSV, CEV). Neither one of these options is easily derived from the text. The verse seems to be saying that the one who is guilty of murder will flee, and no one should assist him. The meaning of “the pit” is unresolved.
  4. Proverbs 28:18 tn The form is the Niphal imperfect of יָשַׁע (yashaʿ, “will be saved”). In all probability this refers to deliverance from misfortune. Some render it “kept safe” (NIV) or “will be safe” (NRSV, TEV). It must be interpreted in contrast to the corrupt person who will fall.
  5. Proverbs 28:18 tn The Qal imperfect יִפּוֹל (yippol) is given a future translation in this context, as is the previous verb (“will be delivered”) because the working out of divine retribution appears to be coming suddenly in the future. The idea of “falling” could be a metonymy of adjunct (with the falling accompanying the ruin that comes to the person), or it may simply be a comparison between falling and being destroyed. Cf. NCV “will suddenly be ruined”; NLT “will be destroyed.”
  6. Proverbs 28:18 tn The last word in the verse, בְּאֶחָת (beʾekhat), means “in one [= at once (?)].” This may indicate a sudden fall, for falling “in one” (the literal meaning) makes no sense. W. McKane wishes to emend the text to read “into a pit” based on v. 10b (Proverbs [OTL], 622); this emendation is followed by NAB, NRSV.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. All rights reserved.

11/26/2023 DAB Transcript

Daniel 2:24-3:30, 1 Peter 4:7-5:14, Psalm 119:81-96, Proverbs 28:15-16

Today is the 26th day of November, welcome to the Daily Audio Bible. I am Brian. It is wonderful to be here as we greet another brand-new, shiny, sparkly week. Take the next step forward. Today is China’s birthday, our daughter. So, happy birthday China. And yeah, this is the last, we’re not to get out of this week without getting into a new month, and when we get there, we’re on the home stretch, the final month of the year. So, here we are, taking steps forward toward the end of our journey and the conclusion of the Scriptures for this year, but we got a ways to go. And there’s a lot for us. So, this week we’ll read from the New International Version and picking up where we left off yesterday will lead us back into the book of Daniel. Daniel chapter 2 verse 24 through 3 verse 30 today.


Father, we thank You for Your word, we thank You for bringing us into this new week. We thank You that You will bring us into a new month and into new territory, new books in the Scriptures, as we navigate and continue through this week. We take to heart what we learned today from the words of the apostle Peter. Humble ourselves under Your mighty hand, that You may lift us up in due time. Cast all our anxieties on You, because You care for us, and stay alert and of sober mind. There is an enemy who is prowling around, trying to devour us, resist, standing firm in faith, because we know that we’re not alone. Our brothers and sisters are going through things all over the world, we take that to heart. We humble ourselves before You, and we wait for Your rescue, You are our only hope, and we love You with arms outstretched, hearts humbled. Come Holy Spirit, lead us into the truth we ask in the precious, capable, mighty name of our Lord Jesus. Amen.

Prayer and Encouragements:

Hello Daily Audio Bible, this is Salt and Light. I’m asking for a miracle prayer request. My dear friend’s daughter, 24 hours ago, fell in her shower and was non-responsive. They rushed her to the hospital. And it’s been 24 hours of no brain activity, and they are keeping her alive on life support. I am asking for a miracle. A miracle. She was born in 1991, she’s 32. Dear Jesus, thank You.

Greetings to you my DAB family, this is Walking in the Light in Tennessee. Just calling to wish everyone a wonderful Thanksgiving Celebration. If it’s something that you celebrate, I hope you have the grandest, greatest Thanksgiving ever. And if you don’t have a big family and a warm fire and a big turkey on the table and all the traditional things that you know, the culture makes us think is what Thanksgiving is all about, pause. And just thank God for health and strength, the family you do have, the friends that you do have. Even if your Thanksgiving consists of a bologna sandwich with chips, which I absolutely love. Even if that is your Thanksgiving, give thanks to God for it, because we owe it all to him. Just want to say to everyone that I need your prayers. I’m having some health issues now. Different things going on in my body. And I know that the God that I serve, knows all about it and I know that He is able to sustain me. Even in the midst of the health issues, I’m praying for all of you. Just asking that you would remember me. There used to be a song in the church that we would sing that says, oh Lord, remember me. And so, I know that the God that we serve will never forget who we are, according to the word, he has names written in the palms of His hands. And he knows all about us. So, I’m asking the DAB to remember me, Walking in Light in Tennessee. Please lift me up in prayer for health and for strength and for focus and direction. I love you all. I give praise and honor to God for what is, has become. One of my main daily lifelines. Walking in the Light in Tennessee, signing off for Thanksgiving. Happy Thanksgiving everyone.

Hello, my DAB family, this is Jamie in New Jersey, Standing on the Word of God. I humbly ask you to please pray with me. Dear Father in heaven, on this Thanksgiving Day, we bow our hearts to You and pray. We give You thanks for all You’ve done, especially for the gift of Jesus, Your Son. For beauty in nature, Your glory we see, for joy and health, friends and family. Thank You for Your goodness and Your blessings over our lives. Forgive us when we don’t thank You enough for who You are, for all that You do, for all that You’ve given. We ask that You encourage us to serve others who are in need. May we good stewards of Your creation and of all our talents and blessings. We proclaim glory and honor to You. This Thanksgiving, let those of us who have much and those who have little gather at the welcoming table of the Lord. At this blessed feast, may rich and poor alike, remember that we are called to serve one another and to walk together in Your gracious world. With thankful hearts, we praise You our God, who is like a loving parent and denies us no good thing. We pray in Jesus name. Amen. Thank you for praying along with me, my brothers and sisters. I love each and every one of you. Have a good night.

Hi guys, this is your Eyes of a Dove. I’ve developed some uncomfortable sensation in my body and I’ve kind of ignored it, thinking it was just, I don’t know, nothing. And it got more intense last night. I went and saw a doctor. We discovered a portion of my body that the skin is black and blue and it’s in a very sensitive area. I’m being sent to an oncologist specialist to have it potentially biopsied and looked at. There’s nothing I can do right now, I’m very uncomfortable. I’m very fearful. Would you guys please pray. My mind just goes to the worst place. I don’t want to leave my children. This one is very scary because I can visibly see it. And it is blocking me and Billy in our marriage. Physically, we can’t overcome this, until we figure out what it is and how we can fix it. So, we need, we need prayers. I need prayers for peace because there’s nothing I can do. We’re going into a holiday weekend, and I have to wait for this oncologist specialist to call me back to schedule this very scary procedure to find out what the heck this is. I’m just praying that God would heal me right now, in the name of Jesus. Father, please heal my body. Amen. Thank you, guys, bye bye.

The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Sunday November 26, 2023 (NIV)

Daniel 2:24-3:30

24 Then Daniel went in to see[a] Arioch (whom the king had appointed to destroy the wise men of Babylon). He came[b] and said to him, “Don’t destroy the wise men of Babylon! Escort me[c] to the king, and I will disclose the interpretation to him.”[d]

25 So Arioch quickly ushered Daniel into the king’s presence, saying to him, “I[e] have found a man from the captives of Judah who can make known the interpretation to the king.” 26 The king then asked Daniel (whose name was also Belteshazzar), “Are you able to make known to me the dream that I saw, as well as its interpretation?” 27 Daniel replied to the king, “The mystery that the king is asking about is such that no wise men, astrologers, magicians, or diviners can possibly disclose it to the king. 28 However, there is a God in heaven who reveals mysteries,[f] and he has made known to King Nebuchadnezzar what will happen in the times to come.[g] The dream and the visions you had while lying on your bed[h] are as follows:

29 “As for you, O king, while you were in your bed your thoughts turned to future things.[i] The revealer of mysteries has made known to you what will take place. 30 As for me, this mystery was revealed to me not because I possess more wisdom[j] than any other living person, but so that the king may understand[k] the interpretation and comprehend the thoughts of your mind.[l]

31 “You, O king, were watching as a great statue—one[m] of impressive size and extraordinary brightness—was standing before you. Its appearance caused alarm. 32 As for that statue, its head was of fine gold, its chest and arms were of silver, its belly and thighs were of bronze. 33 Its legs were of iron; its feet were partly of iron and partly of clay.[n] 34 You were watching as[o] a stone was cut out,[p] but not by human hands. It struck the statue on its iron and clay feet, breaking them in pieces. 35 Then the iron, clay, bronze, silver, and gold were broken in pieces without distinction[q] and became like chaff from the summer threshing floors that the wind carries away. Not a trace of them could be found. But the stone that struck the statue became a large mountain that filled the entire earth. 36 This was the dream. Now we[r] will set forth before the king its interpretation.

Daniel Interprets Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream

37 “You, O king, are the king of kings. The God of heaven has granted you sovereignty, power, strength, and honor. 38 Wherever human beings,[s] wild animals,[t] and birds of the sky live—he has given them into your power.[u] He has given you authority over them all. You are the head of gold. 39 Now after you another kingdom[v] will arise, one inferior to yours. Then a third kingdom, one of bronze, will rule in all the earth. 40 Then there will be a fourth kingdom, one strong like iron. Just like iron breaks in pieces and shatters everything, and as iron breaks in pieces[w] all these metals,[x] so it will break in pieces and crush the others.[y] 41 In that you were seeing feet and toes[z] partly of wet clay[aa] and partly of iron, so this will be a divided kingdom. Some of the strength of iron will be in it, for you saw iron mixed with wet clay.[ab] 42 In that the toes of the feet were partly of iron and partly of clay, the latter stages of this kingdom will be partly strong and partly fragile. 43 And[ac] in that you saw iron mixed with wet clay, so people will be mixed[ad] with one another[ae] without adhering to one another, just as[af] iron does not mix with clay. 44 In the days of those kings the God of heaven will raise up an everlasting kingdom that will not be destroyed and a kingdom that will not be left to another people. It will break in pieces and bring about the demise of all these kingdoms. But it will stand forever. 45 You saw that a stone was cut from a mountain, but not by human hands; it smashed the iron, bronze, clay, silver, and gold into pieces. The great God has made known to the king what will occur in the future.[ag] The dream is certain, and its interpretation is reliable.”

46 Then King Nebuchadnezzar bowed down with his face to the ground[ah] and paid homage to Daniel. He gave orders to offer sacrifice and incense to him. 47 The king replied to Daniel, “Certainly your God is a God of gods and Lord of kings and revealer of mysteries, for you were able to reveal this mystery!” 48 Then the king elevated Daniel to high position and bestowed on him many marvelous gifts. He granted him authority over the entire province of Babylon and made him the main prefect over all the wise men of Babylon. 49 And at Daniel’s request, the king[ai] appointed Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego over the administration of the province of Babylon. Daniel himself served in the king’s court.[aj]

Daniel’s Friends Are Tested

[ak] King Nebuchadnezzar had a golden[al] statue made.[am] It was 90 feet[an] tall and 9 feet[ao] wide. He erected it on the plain of Dura in the province of Babylon. Then King Nebuchadnezzar sent out a summons to assemble the satraps, prefects, governors, counselors, treasurers, judges, magistrates,[ap] and all the other authorities of the province to attend the dedication of the statue that he[aq] had erected. So the satraps, prefects, governors, counselors, treasurers, judges, magistrates, and all the other provincial authorities assembled for the dedication of the statue that King Nebuchadnezzar had erected. They were standing in front of the statue that Nebuchadnezzar had erected.[ar]

Then the herald[as] made a loud[at] proclamation: “To you, O peoples, nations, and language groups, the following command is given:[au] When you hear the sound of the horn, flute, zither,[av] trigon, harp, pipes, and all kinds of music, you must[aw] bow down and pay homage to the golden statue that King Nebuchadnezzar has erected. Whoever does not bow down and pay homage will immediately[ax] be thrown into the midst of a furnace of blazing fire!” Therefore when they all[ay] heard the sound of the horn, flute, zither, trigon, harp, pipes,[az] and all kinds of music, all the peoples, nations, and language groups began bowing down and paying homage to the golden statue that King Nebuchadnezzar had erected.

Now[ba] at that time certain[bb] Chaldeans came forward and brought malicious accusations against[bc] the Jews. They said[bd] to King Nebuchadnezzar, “O king, live forever![be] 10 You have issued an edict, O king, that everyone must bow down and pay homage to the golden statue when they hear the sound of the horn, flute, zither, trigon, harp, pipes, and all kinds of music. 11 And whoever does not bow down and pay homage must be thrown into the midst of a furnace of blazing fire. 12 But there are Jewish men whom you appointed over the administration of the province of Babylon—Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego—and these men[bf] have not shown proper respect to you, O king. They don’t serve your gods and they don’t pay homage to the golden statue that you have erected.”

13 Then Nebuchadnezzar in a fit of rage[bg] demanded that they bring[bh] Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego before him. So they brought them[bi] before the king. 14 Nebuchadnezzar said to them, “Is it true, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, that you don’t serve my gods and that you don’t pay homage to the golden statue that I erected? 15 Now if you are ready, when you hear the sound of the horn, flute, zither, trigon, harp, pipes, and all kinds of music, you must bow down and pay homage to the statue that I had made. If you don’t pay homage to it, you will immediately be thrown into the midst of the furnace of blazing fire. Now, who is that god who can rescue you from my power?”[bj] 16 Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego replied to King Nebuchadnezzar,[bk] “We do not need to give you a reply[bl] concerning this. 17 If[bm] our God whom we are serving exists,[bn] he is able to rescue us from the furnace of blazing fire, and he will rescue us, O king, from your power as well. 18 But if he does not, let it be known to you, O king, that we don’t serve your gods, and we will not pay homage to the golden statue that you have erected.”

19 Then Nebuchadnezzar was filled with rage, and his disposition changed[bo] toward Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego. He gave orders[bp] to heat the furnace seven times hotter than it was normally heated. 20 He ordered strong[bq] soldiers in his army to tie up Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego and to throw them into the furnace of blazing fire. 21 So those men were tied up while still wearing their cloaks, trousers, turbans, and other clothes,[br] and were thrown into the furnace[bs] of blazing fire. 22 But since the king’s command was so urgent, and the furnace was so excessively hot, the men who escorted[bt] Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego were killed[bu] by the leaping flames.[bv] 23 But those three men, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, fell into the furnace[bw] of blazing fire while still securely bound.[bx]

God Delivers His Servants

24 Then King Nebuchadnezzar was startled and quickly got up. He said to his ministers, “Wasn’t it three men that we tied up and threw[by] into[bz] the fire?” They replied to the king, “For sure, O king.” 25 He answered, “But I see four men, untied and walking around in the midst of the fire! No harm has come to them! And the appearance of the fourth is like that of a god!”[ca] 26 Then Nebuchadnezzar approached the door of the furnace of blazing fire. He called out,[cb] “Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, servants of the most high God, come out! Come here!”

Then Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego emerged from the fire.[cc] 27 Once the satraps, prefects, governors, and ministers of the king had gathered around, they saw that those men were physically[cd] unharmed by the fire.[ce] The hair of their heads was not singed, nor were their trousers damaged. Not even the smell of fire was to be found on them!

28 Nebuchadnezzar exclaimed,[cf] “Praised be the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, who has sent forth his angel[cg] and has rescued his servants who trusted in him, ignoring[ch] the edict of the king and giving up their bodies rather than[ci] serve or pay homage to any god other than their God! 29 I hereby decree[cj] that any people, nation, or language group that blasphemes[ck] the God of Shadrach, Meshach, or Abednego will be dismembered and his home reduced to rubble! For there exists no other god who can deliver in this way.” 30 Then Nebuchadnezzar[cl] promoted Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego in the province of Babylon.


  1. Daniel 2:24 tc The MT has עַל עַל (ʿal ʿal, “he entered upon”). Several medieval Hebrew mss lack the verb, although this may be due to haplography.
  2. Daniel 2:24 tc The LXX and Vulgate, along with one medieval Hebrew ms, lack this verb.
  3. Daniel 2:24 tn Aram “cause me to enter,” as also in v. 25.
  4. Daniel 2:24 tn Aram “the king.”
  5. Daniel 2:25 sn Arioch’s claim is self-serving and exaggerated. It is Daniel who came to him, and not the other way around. By claiming to have found one capable of solving the king’s dilemma, Arioch probably hoped to ingratiate himself to the king.
  6. Daniel 2:28 tn Aram “a revealer of mysteries.” The phrase serves as a quasi-title for God in Daniel.
  7. Daniel 2:28 tn Aram “in the latter days.”
  8. Daniel 2:28 tn Aram “your dream and the visions of your head upon your bed.”
  9. Daniel 2:29 tn Aram “your thoughts upon your bed went up to what will be after this.”
  10. Daniel 2:30 tn Aram “not for any wisdom which is in me more than [in] any living man.”
  11. Daniel 2:30 tn Aram “they might cause the king to know.” The impersonal plural is used here to refer to the role of God’s spirit in revealing the dream and its interpretation to the king. As J. A. Montgomery says, “it appropriately here veils the mysterious agency” (Daniel [ICC], 164-65). Subsequent narratives show both God and angels involved with Nebuchadnezzar, so “they” can be appropriate.
  12. Daniel 2:30 tn Aram “heart.”
  13. Daniel 2:31 tn Aram “an image.”
  14. Daniel 2:33 sn Clay refers to baked clay, which despite being hard was also fragile. Compare the reference in v. 41 to “wet clay.”
  15. Daniel 2:34 tn Aram “until.”
  16. Daniel 2:34 tc The LXX, Theodotion, and the Vulgate have “from a mountain,” though this is probably a harmonization with v. 45.
  17. Daniel 2:35 tn Aram “as one.” For the meaning “without distinction” see the following: F. Rosenthal, Grammar, 36, §64, and p. 93; E. Vogt, Lexicon linguae aramaicae, 60.
  18. Daniel 2:36 tn Various suggestions have been made concerning the plural “we.” It could be an editorial plural translatable as “I.” However, Daniel has portrayed himself as an agent of God, who revealed the matter (vv. 28, 30), so we can express that reality.
  19. Daniel 2:38 tn Aram “the sons of man.”
  20. Daniel 2:38 tn Aram “the beasts of the field.”
  21. Daniel 2:38 tn Aram “hand.”
  22. Daniel 2:39 sn The identity of the first kingdom is clearly Babylon. The identification of the following three kingdoms is disputed. The common view is that they represent Media, Persia, and Greece. Most conservative scholars identify them as Media-Persia, Greece, and Rome.
  23. Daniel 2:40 tc Theodotion and the Vulgate lack the phrase “and as iron breaks in pieces.”
  24. Daniel 2:40 tn The Aramaic text does not have this word, but it has been added in the translation for clarity.
  25. Daniel 2:40 tn The words “the others” are supplied from the context.
  26. Daniel 2:41 tc The LXX lacks “and toes.”
  27. Daniel 2:41 tn Aram “potter’s clay.”
  28. Daniel 2:41 tn Aram “clay of clay” (also in v. 43).
  29. Daniel 2:43 tc The present translation reads the conjunction, with most medieval Hebrew mss, LXX, Vulgate, and the Qere. The Kethib lacks the conjunction.
  30. Daniel 2:43 sn The reference to people being mixed is usually understood to refer to intermarriage.
  31. Daniel 2:43 tn Aram “with the seed of men.”
  32. Daniel 2:43 tc The present translation reads הֵיךְ דִּי (hekh di) rather than the MT הֵא־כְדִי (heʾ khedi, “even as which”). It is a case of wrong word division.
  33. Daniel 2:45 tn Aram “after this.”
  34. Daniel 2:46 tn Aram “fell on his face.”
  35. Daniel 2:49 tn Aram “and Daniel sought from the king and he appointed.”
  36. Daniel 2:49 tn Aram “was at the gate of the king.”
  37. Daniel 3:1 sn The LXX introduces this chapter with the following chronological note: “in the eighteenth year of.” Such a date would place these events at about the time of the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 b.c. (cf. 2 Kgs 25:8). However, there seems to be no real basis for associating the events of Daniel 3 with this date.
  38. Daniel 3:1 sn There is no need to think of Nebuchadnezzar’s image as being solid gold. No doubt the sense is that it was overlaid with gold (cf. Isa 40:19; Jer 10:3-4), with the result that it presented a dazzling self-compliment to the greatness of Nebuchadnezzar’s achievements.
  39. Daniel 3:1 sn According to a number of patristic authors, the image represented a deification of Nebuchadnezzar himself. This is not clear from the biblical text, however.
  40. Daniel 3:1 tn Aram “60 cubits.” Assuming a length of 18 inches for the standard cubit, the image would be 90 feet (27.4 m) high.
  41. Daniel 3:1 tn Aram “6 cubits.” Assuming a length of 18 inches for the standard cubit, the image would be 9 feet (2.74 m) The dimensions of the image (90 feet high and 9 feet wide) imply that it did not possess normal human proportions, unless a base for the image is included in the height dimension. The ancient world knew of other tall statues. For example, the Colossus of Rhodes—the huge statue of Helios which stood (ca. 280-224 b.c.) at the entrance to the harbor at Rhodes and was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world—was said to be 70 cubits (105 ft or 32 m) in height, which would make it even taller than Nebuchadnezzar’s image.
  42. Daniel 3:2 sn The specific duties of the seven types of officials listed here (cf. vv. 3, 27) are unclear. The Aramaic words that are used are transliterations of Akkadian or Persian technical terms whose exact meanings are uncertain. The translations given here follow suggestions set forth in BDB.
  43. Daniel 3:2 tn Aram “Nebuchadnezzar the king.” The proper name and title have been replaced by the relative pronoun (“he”) in the translation for stylistic reasons.
  44. Daniel 3:3 tc The LXX and Theodotion lack the words “that Nebuchadnezzar had erected.”
  45. Daniel 3:4 tn According to BDB 1097 s.v. כָּרוֹז the Aramaic word used here is a Greek loanword, but other scholars have argued instead for a Persian derivation (HALOT 1902 s.v. *כָּרוֹז).
  46. Daniel 3:4 tn Aram “in strength.”
  47. Daniel 3:4 tn Aram “they are saying.”
  48. Daniel 3:5 sn The word zither (Aramaic קִיתָרוֹס [qitaros]), and the words for harp (Aramaic פְּסַנְתֵּרִין [pesanterin]) and pipes (Aramaic סוּמְפֹּנְיָה [sumponeyah]), are of Greek derivation. Though much has been made of this in terms of suggesting a date in the Hellenistic period for the writing of the book, it is not surprising that a few Greek cultural terms, all of them the names of musical instruments, should appear in this book. As a number of scholars have pointed out, the bigger surprise (if, in fact, the book is to be dated to the Hellenistic period) may be that there are so few Greek loanwords in Daniel.
  49. Daniel 3:5 tn The imperfect Aramaic verbs have here an injunctive nuance.
  50. Daniel 3:6 tn Aram “in that hour.”
  51. Daniel 3:7 tn Aram “all the peoples.”
  52. Daniel 3:7 tc Though not in the Aramaic text of BHS, this word appears in many medieval Hebrew mss, some LXX mss, and the Vulgate (cf. vv. 5, 10, 15).
  53. Daniel 3:8 tc This expression is absent in Theodotion.
  54. Daniel 3:8 tn Aram “men.”
  55. Daniel 3:8 tn Aram “ate the pieces of.” This is a rather vivid idiom for slander.
  56. Daniel 3:9 tn Aram “answered and said,” a common Aramaic idiom that occurs repeatedly in this chapter.
  57. Daniel 3:9 sn O king, live forever! is a comment of typical court courtesy that is not necessarily indicative of the real sentiments of the speaker. Ancient oriental court protocol could sometimes require a certain amount of hypocrisy.
  58. Daniel 3:12 sn Daniel’s absence from this scene has sparked the imagination of commentators, some of whom have suggested that perhaps he was unable to attend the dedication due to sickness or absence prompted by business. Hippolytus supposed that Daniel may have been watching from a distance.
  59. Daniel 3:13 tn Aram “in anger and wrath”; NASB “in rage and anger.” The expression is a hendiadys.
  60. Daniel 3:13 tn The Aramaic infinitive is active.
  61. Daniel 3:13 tn Aram “these men.” The pronoun is used in the translation to avoid undue repetition.
  62. Daniel 3:15 tn Aram “hand,” as also in v. 17.
  63. Daniel 3:16 tc In the MT this word is understood to begin the following address (“answered and said to the king, ‘O Nebuchadnezzar’”). However, it seems unlikely that Nebuchadnezzar’s subordinates would address the king in such a familiar way, particularly in light of the danger that they now found themselves in. The present translation implies moving the verse-dividing atnakh from “king” to “Nebuchadnezzar.”
  64. Daniel 3:16 tn Aram “to return a word to you.”
  65. Daniel 3:17 tc The ancient versions typically avoid the conditional element of v. 17.
  66. Daniel 3:17 tn The Aramaic expression used here is very difficult to interpret. The question concerns the meaning and syntax of אִיתַי (ʾitay, “is” or “exist”). There are several possibilities. (1) Some interpreters take this word closely with the participle later in the verse יָכִל (yakhil, “able”), understanding the two words to form a periphrastic construction (“if our God is…able”; cf. H. Bauer and P. Leander, Grammatik des Biblisch-Aramäischen, 365, §111b). But the separation of the two elements from one another is not an argument in favor of this understanding. (2) Other interpreters take the first part of v. 17 to mean “If it is so, then our God will deliver us” (cf. KJV, ASV, RSV, NASB). However, the normal sense of ʾitay is existence; on this point see F. Rosenthal, Grammar, 41, §95. The present translation maintains the sense of existence for the verb (“If our God…exists”), even though the statement is admittedly difficult to understand in this light. The statement may be an implicit reference back to Nebuchadnezzar’s comment in v. 15, which denies the existence of a god capable of delivering from the king’s power, thus their statement is rhetorically adapted to the perspective of the person they are addressing.
  67. Daniel 3:19 tn Aram “the appearance of his face was altered”; cf. NLT “his face became distorted with rage”; NAB “[his] face became livid with utter rage.”
  68. Daniel 3:19 tn Aram “he answered and said.”
  69. Daniel 3:20 tn This is sometimes taken as a comparative: “[some of the] strongest.”
  70. Daniel 3:21 sn There is a great deal of uncertainty with regard to the specific nature of these items of clothing.
  71. Daniel 3:21 tn Aram “into the midst of the furnace.” For stylistic reasons the words “the midst of” have been left untranslated.
  72. Daniel 3:22 tn Aram “caused to go up.”
  73. Daniel 3:22 tn The Aramaic verb is active.
  74. Daniel 3:22 tn Aram “the flame of the fire” (so KJV, ASV, NASB); NRSV “the raging flames.”
  75. Daniel 3:23 tn Aram “into the midst of the furnace.” For stylistic reasons the words “the midst of” have been left untranslated.
  76. Daniel 3:23 sn The deuterocanonical writings known as The Prayer of Azariah and The Song of the Three present at this point a confession and petition for God’s forgiveness and a celebration of God’s grace for the three Jewish youths in the fiery furnace. Though not found in the Hebrew/Aramaic text of Daniel, these compositions do appear in the ancient Greek versions.
  77. Daniel 3:24 tn Aram “we threw…bound.”
  78. Daniel 3:24 tn Aram “into the midst of.”
  79. Daniel 3:25 sn The phrase like that of a god is in Aramaic “like that of a son of the gods.” Many patristic writers understood this phrase in a christological sense (i.e., “the Son of God”). But it should be remembered that these are words spoken by a pagan who is seeking to explain things from his own polytheistic frame of reference; for him the phrase “like a son of the gods” is equivalent to “like a divine being.” Despite the king’s description though, the fourth person probably was an angel who had come to deliver the three men, or was a theophany.
  80. Daniel 3:26 tn Aram “answered and said.”
  81. Daniel 3:26 tn Aram “from the midst of the fire.” For stylistic reasons the words “the midst of” have been left untranslated.
  82. Daniel 3:27 tn Aram “in their bodies.”
  83. Daniel 3:27 tn Aram “the fire did not have power.”
  84. Daniel 3:28 tn Aram “answered and said.”
  85. Daniel 3:28 sn The king identifies the “son of the gods” (v. 25) as an angel. Comparable Hebrew expressions are used elsewhere in the Hebrew Bible for the members of God’s angelic assembly (see Gen 6:2, 4; Job 1:6; 2:1; 38:7; Pss 29:1; 89:6). An angel later comes to rescue Daniel from the lions (Dan 6:22).
  86. Daniel 3:28 tn Aram “they changed” or “violated.”
  87. Daniel 3:28 tn Aram “so that they might not.”
  88. Daniel 3:29 tn Aram “from me is placed an edict.”
  89. Daniel 3:29 tn Aram “speaks negligence.”
  90. Daniel 3:30 tn Aram “and the king.” The proper name has been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. All rights reserved.

1 Peter 4:7-5:14

Service, Suffering, and Judgment

For the culmination of all things is near. So be self-controlled and sober-minded for the sake of prayer.[a] Above all keep[b] your love for one another fervent,[c] because love covers a multitude of sins.[d] Show hospitality[e] to one another without complaining. 10 Just as each one has received a gift, use it to serve one another[f] as good stewards of the varied grace of God. 11 Whoever speaks, let it be with[g] God’s words.[h] Whoever serves, do so with the strength[i] that God supplies, so that in everything God will be glorified through Jesus Christ. To him belong[j] the glory and the power forever and ever. Amen.

12 Dear friends, do not be astonished[k] that a trial by fire is occurring among you,[l] as though something strange were happening to you. 13 But rejoice in the degree that you have shared in the sufferings of Christ, so that when his glory is revealed[m] you may also rejoice and be glad.[n] 14 If you are insulted for the name of Christ, you are blessed, because the Spirit of glory,[o] who is the Spirit of God,[p] rests[q] on you. 15 But let none of you suffer as a murderer or thief or criminal or as a troublemaker.[r] 16 But if you suffer as a Christian,[s] do not be ashamed, but glorify[t] God that you bear such a name.[u] 17 For it is time for judgment to begin, starting with the house[v] of God. And if it starts with us, what will be the fate[w] of those who are disobedient to the gospel of God? 18 And if the righteous are barely saved, what will become of[x] the ungodly and sinners?[y] 19 So then let those who suffer according to the will of God entrust their souls to a faithful Creator as they do good.[z]

Leading and Living in God’s Flock

So as your fellow elder and a witness of Christ’s sufferings and as one who shares in the glory that will be revealed, I urge the elders among you: Give a shepherd’s care to[aa] God’s flock among you, exercising oversight[ab] not merely as a duty[ac] but willingly under God’s direction,[ad] not for shameful profit but eagerly. And do not lord it over[ae] those entrusted to you,[af] but be examples to the flock. Then[ag] when the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the crown of glory that never fades away.

In the same way, you who are younger,[ah] be subject to the elders. And all of you, clothe yourselves with humility toward one another, because God opposes the proud but gives grace to the humble.[ai] And God will exalt you in due time,[aj] if you humble yourselves under his mighty hand[ak] by casting[al] all your cares[am] on him because he cares for you. Be sober and alert. Your enemy the devil, like a roaring lion,[an] is on the prowl looking for someone[ao] to devour. Resist him,[ap] strong in your faith, because you know[aq] that your brothers and sisters[ar] throughout the world[as] are enduring[at] the same kinds of suffering.[au] 10 And, after you have suffered for a little while, the God of all grace who called you to his eternal glory in Christ[av] will himself restore, confirm, strengthen, and establish you.[aw] 11 To him belongs[ax] the power forever. Amen.

Final Greetings

12 Through Silvanus,[ay] whom I know to be a faithful brother,[az] I have written to you briefly, in order to encourage you and testify[ba] that this is the true grace of God. Stand fast in it.[bb] 13 The church[bc] in Babylon,[bd] chosen together with you,[be] greets you, and so does Mark, my son. 14 Greet one another with a loving kiss.[bf] Peace to all of you who are in Christ.[bg]


  1. 1 Peter 4:7 tn Grk “for prayers.”
  2. 1 Peter 4:8 tn The primary verb of v. 8 is a participle (“having”) but it continues the sense of command from v. 7.
  3. 1 Peter 4:8 tn Or “constant.”
  4. 1 Peter 4:8 sn The statement of v. 8b, love covers a multitude of sins, is proverbial: It is quoted from Prov 10:12 (cf. Jas 5:20). It speaks of the forbearance that comes with love: Christian love is patient and forgiving toward the offenses of a fellow Christian (Matt 18:21-22; 1 Cor 13:4-7).
  5. 1 Peter 4:9 tn There is no main verb in this verse (“showing hospitality” translates the adjective φιλόξενοι [philoxenoi]), but it continues the sense of command from v. 7.
  6. 1 Peter 4:10 tn Grk “serving it to one another.” The primary verb is a participle but it continues the sense of command from v. 7.
  7. 1 Peter 4:11 tn Grk “if anyone speaks—as God’s words.”
  8. 1 Peter 4:11 tn Or “oracles.”
  9. 1 Peter 4:11 tn Grk “if anyone serves—with strength…”
  10. 1 Peter 4:11 tn Grk “is/are.”
  11. 1 Peter 4:12 tn Or “do not be surprised, taken aback.” The same verb occurs in 4:4.
  12. 1 Peter 4:12 tn Grk “at the burning among you, occurring to you for testing.”
  13. 1 Peter 4:13 tn Grk “in the revelation of his glory.”
  14. 1 Peter 4:13 tn The verb “be glad” is used also in 1:6 and 1:8. The verbs of v. 13b are used together in Matt 5:12 and Rev 19:7.
  15. 1 Peter 4:14 tc Many mss, some of them significant and early ([א] A P 33 81 323 945 1241 1739 pm bo), add καὶ δυνάμεως (kai dunameōs; “and of power”) here. The shorter reading is supported by P72 B K L Ψ 049 pm). Although the evidence is evenly divided, the longer reading looks to be an explanatory or liturgical expansion on the text and for this reason should be considered secondary.
  16. 1 Peter 4:14 tn Grk “the Spirit of glory and of God.”
  17. 1 Peter 4:14 sn A quotation taken from Isa 11:2.
  18. 1 Peter 4:15 tn The meaning of the Greek word used here is uncertain. It may mean “spy, informer,” “revolutionary,” or “defrauder, embezzler.” But the most likely meaning is “busybody, one who meddles in the affairs of others, troublesome meddler.” The translation given in the text is intended to suggest this general idea.
  19. 1 Peter 4:16 tn The verb is implied by the context but not expressed; Grk “but if as a Christian.”
  20. 1 Peter 4:16 tn These are third person imperatives in Greek (“if [one of you suffers] as a Christian, let him not be ashamed…let him glorify”), but have been translated as second person verbs since this is smoother English idiom.
  21. 1 Peter 4:16 tn Grk “in this name.”
  22. 1 Peter 4:17 tn Grk “to begin from the house.”
  23. 1 Peter 4:17 tn Or “the end.”
  24. 1 Peter 4:18 tn Grk “where will he appear.”
  25. 1 Peter 4:18 tn The personal references in v. 18 are generic singulars, but they have been changed to the plural in English to maintain consistency with the plurals of v. A quotation from Prov 11:31 (LXX).
  26. 1 Peter 4:19 tn Grk “in doing good.”
  27. 1 Peter 5:2 tn Grk “shepherd,” “tend,” “pastor.”
  28. 1 Peter 5:2 tc A few significant and early witnesses mss (א* B sa) lack ἐπισκοποῦντες (episkopountes, “exercising oversight”), but the participle enjoys otherwise good ms support (P72 א2 A P Ψ 33 1739 M lat bo). A decision is difficult because normally the shorter reading is preferred, especially when found in excellent witnesses. However, in this instance the omission may be due to a hesitation among some scribes to associate oversight with elders, since the later church viewed overseer/bishop as a separate office from elder.
  29. 1 Peter 5:2 tn Or “not under compulsion/coercion.”
  30. 1 Peter 5:2 tn Grk “according to God.”
  31. 1 Peter 5:3 tn Grk “not as lording it over…but being examples.” The participles continue the command of v. 2 by describing how the shepherding should be carried out.
  32. 1 Peter 5:3 tn Grk “the ones allotted,” referring to those God has given over to their care.
  33. 1 Peter 5:4 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “Then” to reflect the logical sequence of events.
  34. 1 Peter 5:5 sn In this context younger and elder are terms that combine two meanings: relative age and an official structure of leadership in the church. As in v. 1, elder here denotes those who exercise spiritual leadership, who for the most part are older in years. Likewise younger means the rest of the community, who for the most part are younger in age, who are urged to accept the authority of their leaders.
  35. 1 Peter 5:5 sn A quotation from Prov 3:34 (cf. Jas 4:6).
  36. 1 Peter 5:6 tn Grk “in time,” but connoting “the proper time, when the time is right” as in Matt 24:45; Luke 12:42.
  37. 1 Peter 5:6 tn Grk “Humble yourselves, therefore, under the mighty hand of God, so that in due time he may exalt you.” The sentence was rearranged so that the English reader could more clearly see the connection between “casting” (v. 7) and “humble” (v. 6).
  38. 1 Peter 5:7 tn Or “throwing on”; “loading.” Some scholars take the participle to function imperativally, or as attendant circumstance—thus, “cast.” See below for Casting. According to ExSyn 630, “Although treated as an independent command in several modern translations (e.g., RSV, NRSV, NIV), the participle [casting] should be connected with the verb of v 6, ταπεινώθητε [tapeinōthēte, Humble yourselves]. As such, it is not offering a new command, but is defining how believers are to humble themselves. Taking the participle as means enriches the understanding of both verbs: Humbling oneself is not a negative act of self-denial per se, but a positive one of active dependence on God for help.”
  39. 1 Peter 5:7 tn Or “anxiety, burden,” but using a word from the same root as the verb “cares” in the last part of the verse.
  40. 1 Peter 5:8 sn This phrase may be an allusion to Ps 22:13.
  41. 1 Peter 5:8 tc A few mss (B Ψ 1175) lack the pronoun τινα (tina), while others have it. Those that have it either put the acute accent over the penult, making this an interrogative pronoun (“whom”; 436 642 2492 vg; most Fathers), or leave off any accent, making this an indefinite pronoun (“someone”; L P 33vid 81 1611 1735 1739 2344 al), or are too early to employ accents but nevertheless have the pronoun τινα (P72 א A). Generally speaking, the shorter and harder reading is to be preferred. In this instance, the omission of the pronoun would obviously be accommodated for by scribes, since both ζητέω (zēteō, “look, seek”) and καταπίνω (katapinō, “devour”) are transitive verbs. However, if the omission were original, one might expect the position of the pronoun to float in the mss—both before and after the infinitive καταπιεῖν (katapiein, “to devour”). Further, other terms might be expected as well, such as ἕνα ἐξ ὑμῶν (hena ex humōn, “one of you”) or τινα ἐξ ὑμῶν (tina ex humōn, “a certain one/someone of you”). The uniformity of both the word and its location suggests that the shorter reading (found in but a few Greek mss) in this instance was a scribal mistake. As to whether the pronoun is interrogative or indefinite, since accents were not a part of the earliest mss, such Greek witnesses are of no help to us in this kind of problem. There would be little difference in meaning between the two in this context.
  42. 1 Peter 5:9 tn Grk “whom,” referring to the devil in v. 8. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  43. 1 Peter 5:9 tn Grk “knowing,” a participle that usually denotes a reason for the related action.
  44. 1 Peter 5:9 tn Grk “your brotherhood.” The Greek term “brotherhood” is used in a broad sense to connote familial relationships within the family of God (cf. BDAG 19 s.v. ἀδελφότης 1). Another alternative translation would be “your fellow believers,” though this would weaken the familial connotations. This same word occurs in 2:17; there it has been translated “family of believers.”
  45. 1 Peter 5:9 tn Grk “your brotherhood in the world,” referring to the Christian community worldwide.
  46. 1 Peter 5:9 tn This verb carries the nuance “to accomplish, complete,” emphasizing their faithful endurance in suffering. The verb is passive in Greek (“suffering is being endured by your brotherhood”), but has been translated as an active to give a smoother English style.
  47. 1 Peter 5:9 tn Grk “the same things of sufferings.”
  48. 1 Peter 5:10 tc A few significant mss (א B 614 630 1505 1611) lack “Jesus” after “Christ,” while the majority include the name (P72 A P Ψ 5 33 81 436 442 1175 1735 1739 1852 2344 2492 M latt). The inclusion is a natural and predictable expansion on the text, but in light of its broad representation a decision is difficult. NA28 lists the longer reading in the apparatus with a diamond, indicating a toss-up as to what the initial text should read.
  49. 1 Peter 5:10 tn The pronoun “you” is not used explicitly but is clearly implied by the Greek.
  50. 1 Peter 5:11 tn No verb is expressed here but the verb “is” or “belongs” is clearly implied. This doxology expresses a fact for which God should be glorified (as in 4:11), rather than a wish or prayer (“may power be to him”).
  51. 1 Peter 5:12 sn The phrase Through Silvanus means either that Silvanus was the secretary (amanuensis) who assisted Peter in writing or composing the letter (cf. Rom 16:22) or that he carried the letter to the churches. The latter sense is more likely since this is the meaning of the Greek wording when it is used elsewhere (cf. Acts 15:23; Ignatius, Letter to the Romans 10:1; Letter to the Philadelphians 11:2; Letter to the Smyrnaeans 12:1; Polycarp, Letter to the Philippians 14), though it is perhaps possible that both ideas could be incorporated by this expression. For a detailed argument regarding this issue, see E. R. Richards, “Silvanus Was Not Peter’s Secretary: Theological Bias in Interpreting διὰ Σιλουανοῦἔγραψα,” JETS 43 (September 2000): 417-32.
  52. 1 Peter 5:12 tn Grk “the faithful brother, as I think.”
  53. 1 Peter 5:12 tn These are participles (“encouraging and testifying”) showing purpose. The pronoun object “you” is omitted in Greek but implied by the context.
  54. 1 Peter 5:12 tn Grk “in which stand fast.” For emphasis, and due to constraints of contemporary English, this was made a separate sentence in the translation.
  55. 1 Peter 5:13 tn Grk “the one in Babylon,” which could refer to some individual woman (“she who is in Babylon”) since the Greek article (here “the one”) is feminine. But it is much more likely to be a veiled reference to a church (the Greek word “church” is also feminine in gender).
  56. 1 Peter 5:13 sn Most scholars understand Babylon here to be a figurative reference to Rome. Although in the OT the city of Babylon in Mesopotamia was the seat of tremendous power (2 Kgs 24-25; Isa 39; Jer 25), by the time of the NT what was left was an insignificant town, and there is no tradition in Christian history that Peter ever visited there. On the other hand, Christian tradition connects Peter with the church in Rome, and many interpreters think other references to Babylon in the NT refer to Rome as well (Rev 14:8; 16:19; 17:5; 18:2, 10, 21). Thus it is likely Peter was referring to Rome here.
  57. 1 Peter 5:13 tn Grk “chosen together,” implying the connection “with you” in context.
  58. 1 Peter 5:14 tn Grk “a kiss of love.”
  59. 1 Peter 5:14 tc Most mss (א P 5 436 442 1611 1735 1739c 1852 2492 M sy) have ἀμήν (amen, “amen”) at the end of 1 Peter. Such a conclusion is routinely added by scribes to NT books because a few of these books originally had such an ending (cf. Rom 16:27; Gal 6:18; Jude 25). A majority of Greek witnesses have the concluding ἀμήν in every NT book except Acts, James, and 3 John (and even in these books, ἀμήν is found in some witnesses). It is thus a predictable variant. Further, the absence of such a conclusion to the epistle in such witnesses as P72 A B Ψ 81 323 945 1175 1241 1243 1739* 2344 co seems inexplicable unless the word is not authentic.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. All rights reserved.

Psalm 119:81-96

כ (Kaf)

81 I desperately long for[a] your deliverance.
I find hope in your word.
82 My eyes grow tired as I wait for your promise to be fulfilled.[b]
I say,[c] “When will you comfort me?”
83 For[d] I am like a wineskin[e] dried up in smoke.[f]
I do not forget your statutes.
84 How long must your servant endure this?[g]
When will you judge those who pursue me?
85 The arrogant dig pits to trap me,[h]
which violates your law.[i]
86 All your commands are reliable.
I am pursued without reason.[j] Help me!
87 They have almost destroyed me here on the earth,
but I do not reject your precepts.
88 Revive me with[k] your loyal love,
that I might keep[l] the rules you have revealed.[m]

ל (Lamed)

89 O Lord, your instructions endure;
they stand secure in heaven.[n]
90 You demonstrate your faithfulness to all generations.[o]
You established the earth and it stood firm.
91 Today they stand firm by your decrees,
for all things are your servants.
92 If I had not found encouragement in your law,[p]
I would have died in my sorrow.[q]
93 I will never forget your precepts,
for by them you have revived me.
94 I belong to you. Deliver me!
For I seek your precepts.
95 The wicked prepare to kill me,[r]
yet I concentrate on your rules.
96 I realize that everything has its limits,
but your commands are beyond full comprehension.[s]


  1. Psalm 119:81 tn Heb “my soul pines for.” See Ps 84:2.
  2. Psalm 119:82 tn Heb “my eyes fail for your word.” The psalmist has intently kept his eyes open, looking for God to intervene, but now his eyes are watery and bloodshot, impairing his vision. See Ps 69:3.
  3. Psalm 119:82 tn Heb “saying.”
  4. Psalm 119:83 tn Or “even though.”
  5. Psalm 119:83 tn The Hebrew word נֹאד (noʾd, “leather container”) refers to a container made from animal skin which is used to hold wine or milk (see Josh 9:4, 13; Judg 4:19; 1 Sam 16:20).
  6. Psalm 119:83 tn Heb “in the smoke.”
  7. Psalm 119:84 tn Heb “How long are the days of your servant?”
  8. Psalm 119:85 tn Heb “for me.”
  9. Psalm 119:85 tn Heb “which [is] not according to your law.”
  10. Psalm 119:86 sn God’s commands are a reliable guide to right and wrong. By keeping them the psalmist is doing what is right, yet he is still persecuted.
  11. Psalm 119:88 tn Heb “according to.”
  12. Psalm 119:88 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
  13. Psalm 119:88 tn Heb “of your mouth.”
  14. Psalm 119:89 tn Heb “Forever, O Lord, your word stands firm in heaven,” or “Forever, O Lord, [is] your word; it stands firm in heaven.” The translation assumes that “your word” refers here to the body of divine instructions contained in the law (note the frequent references to the law in vv. 92-96). See vv. 9, 16-17, 57, 101, 105, 130, 139 and 160-61. The reference in v. 86 to God’s law being faithful favors this interpretation. Another option is that “your word” refers to God’s assuring word of promise, mentioned in vv. 25, 28, 42, 65, 74, 81, 107, 114, 147 and 169. In this case one might translate, “O Lord, your promise is reliable, it stands firm in heaven.”
  15. Psalm 119:90 tn Heb “to a generation and a generation [is] your faithfulness.”
  16. Psalm 119:92 tn Heb “if your law had not been my delight.”
  17. Psalm 119:92 tn Or “my suffering.”
  18. Psalm 119:95 tn Heb “the wicked wait for me to kill me.”
  19. Psalm 119:96 tn Heb “to every perfection I have seen an end, your command is very wide.” God’s law is beyond full comprehension, which is why the psalmist continually studies it (vv. 95, 97).
New English Translation (NET)

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Proverbs 28:15-16

15 Like[a] a roaring lion or a roving bear,[b]
so is a wicked ruler over a poor people.[c]
16 The prince who is a great oppressor lacks wisdom,[d]
but the one who hates[e] unjust gain will prolong his days.


  1. Proverbs 28:15 tn The term “like” is not in the Hebrew text, but is supplied in the translation for clarity and smoothness.
  2. Proverbs 28:15 sn The comparison uses animals that are powerful, terrifying, insensitive, and in search of prey. Because political tyrants are like this, animal imagery of this sort is also used in Dan 7:1-8 for the series of ruthless world powers.
  3. Proverbs 28:15 sn A poor nation under the control of political tyrants who are dangerous and destructive is helpless. The people of that nation will crumble under them because they cannot meet their demands and are of no use to them.
  4. Proverbs 28:16 tn Heb “A prince lacking of understanding [is] also a great oppressor” (both KJV, ASV similar) The last clause, “and a great oppressor,” appears to modify “the prince.” There is little difference in meaning, only in emphasis. The LXX has “lacks income” (reading תְּבוּאוֹת [tevuʾot] instead of תְּבוּנוֹת [tevunot]). C. H. Toy (Proverbs [ICC], 501) suggests deleting the word for “prince” altogether, but this emendation is gratuitous.
  5. Proverbs 28:16 tc This follows the Qere reading of the participle which is singular (as opposed to the plural). The implication is that this one is also a ruler, paralleling the first half. But since he “hates” (= rejects) unjust gain he will extend [his] days, meaning he will enjoy a long and happy life (cf. NIV, NRSV, CEV).
New English Translation (NET)

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The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Saturday November 25, 2023 (NIV)

Daniel 1:1-2:23

Daniel Finds Favor in Babylon

In the third[a] year of the reign of King Jehoiakim of Judah, King Nebuchadnezzar[b] of Babylon advanced against Jerusalem and laid it under siege.[c] Now the Lord[d] delivered[e] King Jehoiakim of Judah into his power,[f] along with some of the vessels[g] of the temple of God.[h] He brought them to the land of Babylonia[i] to the temple of his god[j] and put[k] the vessels in the treasury of his god.

The king commanded[l] Ashpenaz,[m] who was in charge of his court officials,[n] to choose[o] some of the Israelites who were of royal and noble descent[p] young men in whom there was no physical defect and who were handsome,[q] well versed in all kinds of wisdom, well educated[r] and having keen insight,[s] and who were capable[t] of entering the king’s royal service[u]—and to teach them the literature and language[v] of the Babylonians.[w] So the king assigned them a daily ration[x] from his royal delicacies[y] and from the wine he himself drank. They were to be trained[z] for the next three years. At the end of that time they were to enter the king’s service.[aa] As it turned out,[ab] among these young men[ac] were some from Judah:[ad] Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah.[ae] But the overseer of the court officials renamed them. He gave[af] Daniel the name Belteshazzar, Hananiah he named Shadrach, Mishael he named Meshach, and Azariah he named Abednego.[ag]

But Daniel made up his mind[ah] that he would not defile[ai] himself with the royal delicacies or the royal wine.[aj] He therefore asked the overseer of the court officials for permission not to defile himself. Then God made the overseer of the court officials sympathetic to Daniel.[ak] 10 But he[al] responded to Daniel, “I fear my master the king. He is the one who has decided[am] your food and drink. What would happen if he saw that you looked malnourished in comparison to the other young men your age?[an] If that happened,[ao] you would endanger my life[ap] with the king!” 11 Daniel then spoke to the warden[aq] whom the overseer of the court officials had appointed over Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah: 12 “Please test your servants for ten days by providing us with some vegetables to eat and water to drink. 13 Then compare our appearance[ar] with that of[as] the young men who are eating the royal delicacies;[at] deal with us[au] in light of what you see.” 14 So the warden[av] agreed to their proposal[aw] and tested them for ten[ax] days.

15 At the end of the ten days their appearance was better and their bodies were healthier[ay] than all the young men who had been eating the royal delicacies. 16 So the warden removed the delicacies and the wine[az] from their diet[ba] and gave them a diet of vegetables instead. 17 Now as for these four young men, God endowed them with knowledge and skill in all sorts of literature and wisdom—and Daniel had insight into all kinds of visions and dreams.

18 When the time appointed by the king arrived,[bb] the overseer of the court officials brought them into Nebuchadnezzar’s presence. 19 When the king spoke with them, he did not find among the entire group[bc] anyone like Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, or Azariah. So they entered the king’s service.[bd] 20 In every matter of wisdom and[be] insight the king asked them about, he found them to be ten times[bf] better than any of the magicians and astrologers that were in his entire empire. 21 Now Daniel lived on until the first[bg] year of Cyrus the king.

Nebuchadnezzar Has a Disturbing Dream

In the second year of his[bh] reign Nebuchadnezzar had many dreams.[bi] His mind[bj] was disturbed and he suffered from insomnia.[bk] The king issued an order[bl] to summon the magicians, astrologers, sorcerers, and wise men[bm] in order to explain his dreams to him.[bn] So they came and awaited the king’s instructions.[bo]

The king told them, “I have had a dream,[bp] and I[bq] am anxious to understand the dream.” The wise men replied to the king: [What follows is in Aramaic[br]] “O king, live forever! Tell your servants the dream, and we will disclose its[bs] interpretation.” The king replied[bt] to the wise men, “My decision is firm.[bu] If you do not inform me of both the dream and its interpretation, you will be dismembered[bv] and your homes reduced to rubble! But if you can disclose the dream and its interpretation, you will receive from me gifts, a reward, and considerable honor. So disclose to me the dream and its interpretation.” They again replied, “Let the king inform us[bw] of the dream; then we will disclose its[bx] interpretation.” The king replied, “I know for sure that you are attempting to gain time, because you see that my decision is firm. If you don’t inform me of the dream, there is only one thing that is going to happen to you.[by] For you have agreed among yourselves to report to me something false and deceitful[bz] until such time as things might change. So tell me the dream, and I will have confidence[ca] that you can disclose its interpretation.”

10 The wise men replied to the king, “There is no man on earth who is able to disclose the king’s secret,[cb] for no king, regardless of his position and power, has ever requested such a thing from any magician, astrologer, or wise man. 11 What the king is asking is too difficult, and no one exists who can disclose it to the king, except for the gods—but they don’t live among mortals!”[cc]

12 Because of this the king got furiously angry[cd] and gave orders to destroy all the wise men of Babylon. 13 So a decree went out, and the wise men were about[ce] to be executed. They also sought[cf] Daniel and his friends so that they could be executed.

14 Then Daniel spoke with prudent counsel[cg] to Arioch, who was in charge of the king’s executioners and who had gone out to execute the wise men of Babylon. 15 He inquired of Arioch the king’s deputy, “Why is the decree from the king so urgent?”[ch] Then Arioch informed Daniel about the matter. 16 So Daniel went in and[ci] requested the king to grant him time, that he might disclose the interpretation to the king. 17 Then Daniel went to his home and informed his friends Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah of the matter. 18 He asked them to pray for mercy from the God of heaven concerning this mystery so that he[cj] and his friends would not be destroyed along with the rest of the wise men of Babylon. 19 Then in a night vision the mystery was revealed to Daniel. So Daniel praised[ck] the God of heaven, 20 saying:[cl]

“Let the name of God[cm] be praised[cn] forever and ever,
for wisdom and power belong to him.
21 He changes times and seasons,
deposing some kings
and establishing others.[co]
He gives wisdom to the wise;
he imparts knowledge to those with understanding;[cp]
22 he reveals deep and hidden things.
He knows what is in the darkness,
and light resides with him.
23 O God of my fathers, I acknowledge and glorify you,
for you have bestowed wisdom and power on me.
Now you have enabled me to understand what we[cq] requested from you.
For you have enabled us to understand the king’s dilemma.”[cr]


  1. Daniel 1:1 sn The third year of the reign of Jehoiakim would be ca. 605 b.c. At this time Daniel would have been a teenager. The reference to Jehoiakim’s third year poses a serious crux interpretum, since elsewhere these events are linked to his fourth year (Jer 25:1; cf. 2 Kgs 24:1; 2 Chr 36:5-8). Apparently Daniel is following an accession year chronology, whereby the first partial year of a king’s reign was reckoned as the accession year rather than as the first year of his reign. Jeremiah, on the other hand, is following a nonaccession year chronology, whereby the accession year is reckoned as the first year of the king’s reign. In that case, the conflict is only superficial. Most modern scholars, however, have concluded that Daniel is historically inaccurate here.
  2. Daniel 1:1 sn King Nebuchadnezzar ruled Babylon from ca. 605-562 b.c.
  3. Daniel 1:1 sn This attack culminated in the first of three major deportations of Jews to Babylon. The second one occurred in 597 b.c. and included among many other Jewish captives the prophet Ezekiel. The third deportation occurred in 586 b.c., at which time the temple and the city of Jerusalem were thoroughly destroyed.
  4. Daniel 1:2 tn The Hebrew term translated “Lord” here is אֲדֹנָי (ʾadonay).
  5. Daniel 1:2 tn Heb “gave.”
  6. Daniel 1:2 tn Heb “hand,” which is often used idiomatically for one’s power and authority. See BDB 390 s.v. יָד 2.
  7. Daniel 1:2 tn Or “utensils”; or “articles.”
  8. Daniel 1:2 tn Heb “house of God.”
  9. Daniel 1:2 sn The land of Babylonia (Heb “the land of Shinar”) is another name for Sumer and Akkad, where Babylon was located (cf. Gen 10:10; 11:2; 14:1, 9; Josh 7:21; Isa 11:11; Zech 5:11).
  10. Daniel 1:2 tn Or “gods” (NCV, NRSV, TEV; also later in this verse). The Hebrew term can be used as a numerical plural for many gods or as a plural of majesty for one particular god. Since Nebuchadnezzar was a polytheist, it is not clear if the reference here is to many gods or one particular deity. The plural of majesty, while normally used for Israel’s God, is occasionally used of foreign gods (cf. BDB 43 s.v. אֱלֹהִים 1, 2). See Judg 11:24 (of the Moabite god Chemosh); 1 Sam 5:7 (of the Philistine god Dagon); 1 Kgs 11:33 (of the Canaanite goddess Astarte, the Moabite god Chemosh, and the Ammonite god Milcom); and 2 Kgs 19:37 (of the Assyrian god Nisroch). Since gods normally had their own individual temples, Dan 1:2 probably refers to a particular deity, perhaps Marduk, the supreme god of Babylon, or Marduk’s son Nabu, after whom Nebuchadnezzar was named. The name Nebuchadnezzar means “Nabu has protected the son who will inherit” (HALOT 660 s.v. נְבוּכַדְרֶאצַּר). For a discussion of how temples functioned in Babylonian religion, see H. Ringgren, Religions of the Ancient Near East, 77-81.
  11. Daniel 1:2 tn Heb “brought.” Though the Hebrew verb “brought” is repeated in this verse, the translation uses “brought…put” for stylistic variation.
  12. Daniel 1:3 tn Or “gave orders to.” Heb “said to.”
  13. Daniel 1:3 sn It is possible that the word Ashpenaz is not a proper name at all but a general term for “innkeeper.” See J. J. Collins, Daniel (Hermeneia), 127, n. 9. However, the ancient versions understand the term to be a name, and the present translation (along with most English versions) understands the word in this way.
  14. Daniel 1:3 sn The word court official (Hebrew saris) need not mean “eunuch” in a technical sense (see Gen 37:36, where the term refers to Potiphar, who had a wife), although in the case of the book of Daniel there was in Jewish literature a common tradition to that effect. On the OT usage of this word see HALOT 769-70 s.v. סָרֹיס.
  15. Daniel 1:3 tn Heb “bring.”
  16. Daniel 1:3 tn Heb “and from the seed of royalty and from the nobles.”
  17. Daniel 1:4 tn Heb “good of appearance.”
  18. Daniel 1:4 tn Heb “knowers of knowledge.”
  19. Daniel 1:4 tn Heb “understanders of knowledge.”
  20. Daniel 1:4 tn Heb “who had strength.”
  21. Daniel 1:4 tn Heb “to stand in the palace of the king” (cf. vv. 5, 19).
  22. Daniel 1:4 sn The language of the Chaldeans referred to here is Akkadian, an East Semitic cuneiform language.
  23. Daniel 1:4 tn Heb “Chaldeans” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NRSV). This is an ancient name for the Babylonians.
  24. Daniel 1:5 tn Heb “a thing of a day in its day.”
  25. Daniel 1:5 tn Heb “from the delicacies of the king.”
  26. Daniel 1:5 tn Or “educated.” See HALOT 179 s.v. I גדל.
  27. Daniel 1:5 tn Heb “stand before the king.”
  28. Daniel 1:6 tn Heb “and it happened that.”
  29. Daniel 1:6 tn Heb “among them.” The referent (the young men taken captive from Judah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  30. Daniel 1:6 tn Heb “the sons of Judah.”
  31. Daniel 1:6 sn The names reflect a Jewish heritage. In Hebrew Daniel means “God is my judge”; Hananiah means “the Lord is gracious”; Mishael means “who is what God is?”; and Azariah means “the Lord has helped.”
  32. Daniel 1:7 tc The LXX and Vulgate lack the verb here.
  33. Daniel 1:7 sn The meanings of the Babylonian names are more conjectural than is the case with the Hebrew names. The probable etymologies are as follows: Belteshazzar means “protect his life,” although the MT vocalization may suggest “Belti, protect the king” (cf. Dan 4:8); Shadrach perhaps means “command of Aku”; Meshach is of uncertain meaning; and Abednego means “servant of Nego.” Assigning Babylonian names to the Hebrew youths may have been an attempt to erase from their memory their Israelite heritage.
  34. Daniel 1:8 tn Heb “placed on his heart.”
  35. Daniel 1:8 tn Or “would not make himself ceremonially unclean”; TEV “become ritually unclean.”sn Various reasons have been suggested as to why such food would defile Daniel. Perhaps it had to do with violations of Mosaic law with regard to unclean foods, or perhaps it was food that had been offered to idols. Daniel’s practice in this regard is strikingly different from that of Esther, who was able successfully to conceal her Jewish identity.
  36. Daniel 1:8 tn Heb “with the delicacies of the king and with the wine of his drinking.”
  37. Daniel 1:9 tn Heb “Then God granted Daniel loyal love and compassion before the overseer of the court officials.” The expression “loyal love and compassion” is a hendiadys; the two words combine to express one idea.
  38. Daniel 1:10 tn Heb “The overseer of the court officials.” The subject has been specified in the translation for the sake of clarity.
  39. Daniel 1:10 tn Heb “assigned” (see v. 5).
  40. Daniel 1:10 tn Heb “Why should he see your faces thin from the young men who are according to your age?” The term translated “thin” occurs only here and in Gen 40:6, where it appears to refer to a dejected facial expression. The word is related to an Arabic root meaning “be weak.” See HALOT 277 s.v. II זעף.
  41. Daniel 1:10 tn The words “if that happened” are not in the Hebrew text but have been added in the translation for clarity.
  42. Daniel 1:10 tn Heb “my head.” Presumably this is an implicit reference to capital punishment (cf. NCV, TEV, CEV, NLT), although this is not entirely clear.
  43. Daniel 1:11 sn Having failed to convince the overseer, Daniel sought the favor of the warden whom the overseer had appointed to care for the young men.
  44. Daniel 1:13 tn Heb “let our appearance be seen before you.”
  45. Daniel 1:13 tn Heb “the appearance of.”
  46. Daniel 1:13 tn Heb “delicacies of the king,” as also in v. 15.
  47. Daniel 1:13 tn Heb “your servants.”
  48. Daniel 1:14 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the warden mentioned in v. 11) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  49. Daniel 1:14 tn Heb “listened to them with regard to this matter.”
  50. Daniel 1:14 sn The number ten is sometimes used in the OT as an ideal number of completeness (cf. v. 20; Zech 8:23; Rev 2:10).
  51. Daniel 1:15 tn Heb “fat of flesh”; KJV, ASV “fatter in flesh”; NASB, NRSV “fatter” (although this is no longer a sign of health in Western culture).
  52. Daniel 1:16 tn Heb “the wine of their drinking.”
  53. Daniel 1:16 tn The words “from their diet” are not in the Hebrew text but have been added in the translation for clarity.
  54. Daniel 1:18 tn Heb “at the end of the days that the king said to bring them.”
  55. Daniel 1:19 tn Heb “from all of them.”
  56. Daniel 1:19 tn Heb “stood before the king.”
  57. Daniel 1:20 tc The MT lacks the conjunction, reading the first word in the phrase as a construct (“wisdom of insight”). While this reading is not impossible, it seems better to follow Theodotion, the Syriac, the Vulgate, and the Sahidic Coptic, all of which have the conjunction.
  58. Daniel 1:20 tn Heb “hands.”
  59. Daniel 1:21 sn The Persian king Cyrus’ first year in control of Babylon was 539 b.c. Daniel actually lived beyond the first year of Cyrus, as is clear from 10:1. The purpose of the statement in 1:21 is merely to say that Daniel’s life spanned the entire period of the neo-Babylonian empire. His life span also included the early years of the Persian control of Babylon. However, by that time his age was quite advanced; he probably died sometime in the 530’s b.c.
  60. Daniel 2:1 tn Heb “Nebuchadnezzar’s.” The possessive pronoun is substituted in the translation for stylistic reasons.
  61. Daniel 2:1 tn Heb “dreamed dreams.” The plural is used here and in v. 2, but the singular in v. 3. The plural “dreams” has been variously explained. Some interpreters take the plural as denoting an indefinite singular (so GKC 400 §124.o). But it may be that it is describing a stream of related dreams, or a dream state. In the latter case, one might translate: “Nebuchadnezzar was in a trance.” See further, J. A. Montgomery, Daniel (ICC), 142.
  62. Daniel 2:1 tn Heb “his spirit.”
  63. Daniel 2:1 tn Heb “his sleep left (?) him.” The use of the verb הָיָה (hayah, “to be”) here is unusual. The context suggests a meaning such as “to be finished” or “gone” (cf. Dan 8:27). Some scholars emend the verb to read נָדְדָה (nadedah, “fled”); cf. Dan 6:19. See further, DCH 2:540 s.v. היה I Ni.3; HALOT 244 s.v. היה nif; BDB 227-28 s.v. הָיָה Niph.2.
  64. Daniel 2:2 tn Heb “said.” So also in v. 12.
  65. Daniel 2:2 tn Heb “Chaldeans.” The term Chaldeans (Hebrew כַּשְׂדִּים, kasdim) is used in the book of Daniel both in an ethnic sense and, as here, to refer to a caste of Babylonian wise men and astrologers.
  66. Daniel 2:2 tn Heb “to explain to the king his dreams.”
  67. Daniel 2:2 tn Heb “stood before the king.”
  68. Daniel 2:3 tn Heb “I have dreamed a dream” (so KJV, ASV).
  69. Daniel 2:3 tn Heb “my spirit.”
  70. Daniel 2:4 sn Contrary to common belief, the point here is not that the wise men (Chaldeans) replied to the king in the Aramaic language, or that this language was uniquely the language of the Chaldeans. It was this view that led in the past to Aramaic being referred to as “Chaldee.” Aramaic was used as a lingua franca during this period; its origins and usage were not restricted to the Babylonians. Rather, this phrase is better understood as an editorial note (cf. NAB) marking the fact that from 2:4b through 7:28 the language of the book shifts from Hebrew to Aramaic. In 8:1, and for the remainder of the book, the language returns to Hebrew. Various views have been advanced to account for this change of language, most of which are unconvincing. The change in language likely reflects stages in the transmission history of the book of Daniel or factors in its composition history.
  71. Daniel 2:4 tn Or “the.”
  72. Daniel 2:5 tn Aram “answered and said,” a common idiom to indicate a reply, but redundant in contemporary English.
  73. Daniel 2:5 tn It seems clear from what follows that Nebuchadnezzar clearly recalls the content of the dream, although obviously he does not know what to make of it. By not divulging the dream itself to the would-be interpreters, he intends to find out whether they are simply leading him on. If they can tell him the dream’s content, which he is able to verify, he then can have confidence in their interpretation, which is what eludes him. The translation “the matter is gone from me” (cf. KJV, ASV), suggesting that the king had simply forgotten the dream, is incorrect. The Aramaic word used here (אַזְדָּא, ʾazdaʾ) is probably of Persian origin; it occurs in the OT only here and in v. 8. There are two main possibilities for the meaning of the word: “the matter is promulgated by me” (see KBL 1048 s.v.) and therefore “publicly known” (cf. NRSV; F. Rosenthal, Grammar, 62-63, §189), or “the matter is irrevocable” (cf. NAB, NIV, TEV, CEV, NLT; HALOT 1808 s.v. אזד; cf. also BDB 1079 s.v.). The present translation reflects this latter option. See further E. Vogt, Lexicon linguae aramaicae, 3.
  74. Daniel 2:5 tn Aram “made limbs” (cf. 3:29).
  75. Daniel 2:7 tn Aram “his servants.”
  76. Daniel 2:7 tn Or “the.”
  77. Daniel 2:9 tn Aram “one is your law,” i.e., only one thing is applicable to you.
  78. Daniel 2:9 tn Aram “a lying and corrupt word.”
  79. Daniel 2:9 tn Aram “I will know.”
  80. Daniel 2:10 tn Aram “matter, thing.”
  81. Daniel 2:11 tn Aram “whose dwelling is not with flesh.”
  82. Daniel 2:12 tn Aram “was angry and very furious.” The expression is a hendiadys (two words or phrases expressing a single idea).
  83. Daniel 2:13 tn The Aramaic participle is used here to express the imminent future.
  84. Daniel 2:13 tn The impersonal active plural (“they sought”) of the Aramaic verb could also be translated as an English passive: “Daniel and his friends were sought” (cf. NAB).
  85. Daniel 2:14 tn Aram “returned prudence and counsel.” The expression is a hendiadys.
  86. Daniel 2:15 tn The Aramaic word מְהַחְצְפָה (mehakhtsefah) may refer to the severity of the king’s decree (i.e., “harsh”; so HALOT 1879 s.v. חצף; BDB 1093 s.v. חֲצַף), although it would seem that in a delicate situation such as this Daniel would avoid this kind of criticism of the king’s actions. The translation above understands the word to refer to the immediacy, not harshness, of the decree. See further, F. Rosenthal, Grammar, 50, §116; E. Vogt, Lexicon linguae aramaicae, 67.
  87. Daniel 2:16 tc Theodotion and the Syriac lack the words “went in and.”
  88. Daniel 2:18 tn Aram “Daniel.” The proper name is redundant here in English and has not been included in the translation.
  89. Daniel 2:19 tn Or “blessed.”
  90. Daniel 2:20 tn Aram “Daniel answered and said.”
  91. Daniel 2:20 sn As is often the case in the Bible, here the name represents the person.
  92. Daniel 2:20 tn Or “blessed.”
  93. Daniel 2:21 tn Aram “kings.”
  94. Daniel 2:21 tn Aram “the knowers of understanding.”
  95. Daniel 2:23 tn Various explanations have been offered for the plurals we and us. They could be editorial plurals, or refer to Daniel and his three friends who were also praying about the matter.
  96. Daniel 2:23 tn Aram “the word of the king.”
New English Translation (NET)

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1 Peter 3:8-4:6

Suffering for Doing Good

Finally, all of you be harmonious,[a] sympathetic, affectionate, compassionate, and humble. Do not return evil for evil or insult for insult, but instead bless[b] others[c] because you were called to inherit a blessing. 10 For

the one who wants to love life and see good days must keep[d] his tongue from evil and his lips from uttering deceit.
11 And he must turn away from evil and do good;
he must seek peace and pursue it.
12 For the eyes of the Lord are[e] upon the righteous and his ears are open to their prayer.
But the Lord’s face is against those who do evil.[f]

13 For[g] who is going to harm you if you are devoted to what is good? 14 But in fact, if you happen to suffer[h] for doing what is right,[i] you are blessed. But do not be terrified of them[j] or be shaken.[k] 15 But set Christ[l] apart[m] as Lord in your hearts and always be ready to give an answer to anyone who asks about the hope you possess.[n] 16 Yet do it with courtesy and respect,[o] keeping a good conscience, so that those who slander your good conduct in Christ may be put to shame when they accuse you.[p] 17 For it is better to suffer for doing good, if God wills it,[q] than for doing evil.

18 [r] Because Christ also suffered[s] once for sins,
the just for the unjust,[t]
to bring you to God,
by being put to death in the flesh
but[u] by being made alive in the spirit.[v]
19 In it[w] he went and preached to the spirits in prison,[x]

20 after they were disobedient long ago[y] when God patiently waited[z] in the days of Noah as an ark was being constructed. In the ark[aa] a few, that is eight souls, were delivered through water. 21 And this prefigured baptism, which now saves you[ab]—not the washing off of physical dirt[ac] but the pledge[ad] of a good conscience to God—through the resurrection of Jesus Christ, 22 who went into heaven and is at the right hand of God[ae] with angels and authorities and powers subject to him.[af]

So, since Christ suffered[ag] in the flesh, you also arm yourselves with the same attitude, because the one who has suffered in the flesh has finished with sin,[ah] in that he spends the rest of his time[ai] on earth concerned about the will of God and not human desires. For the time that has passed was sufficient for you to do what the non-Christians[aj] desire.[ak] You lived then[al] in debauchery, evil desires, drunkenness, carousing, drinking bouts,[am] and wanton idolatries.[an] So[ao] they are astonished[ap] when you do not rush with them into the same flood of wickedness, and they vilify you.[aq] They will face a reckoning before[ar] Jesus Christ[as] who stands ready to judge the living and the dead. Now it was for this very purpose[at] that the gospel was preached to those who are now dead,[au] so that though[av] they were judged in the flesh[aw] by human standards[ax] they may live spiritually[ay] by God’s standards.[az]


  1. 1 Peter 3:8 tn There is no main verb in this verse (Grk “Finally, all [ ] harmonious”), but it continues the sense of command from the previous paragraphs.
  2. 1 Peter 3:9 tn Grk “not returning…but blessing,” continuing the sense of command from the preceding.
  3. 1 Peter 3:9 tn The direct object “others” is omitted but implied in Greek, and must be supplied to suit English style.
  4. 1 Peter 3:10 tn Grk “stop.”
  5. 1 Peter 3:12 tn The verbs are implied but not expressed in this verse: “the Lord’s eyes [ ] on the righteous and his ears [ ] to their prayer, but his face [ ] against those who do evil.”
  6. 1 Peter 3:12 sn Verses 10-12 are a quotation from Ps 34:12-16.
  7. 1 Peter 3:13 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “For” to indicate that what follows gives an explanation.
  8. 1 Peter 3:14 sn The Greek construction here implies that such suffering was not the norm, even though it could happen, and in fact may well have happened to some of the readers (cf. 4:4, 12-19).
  9. 1 Peter 3:14 tn Grk “because of righteousness.”
  10. 1 Peter 3:14 tn Grk “do not fear their fear,” referring to those who cause their suffering. The phrase “their fear” may mean “what they fear” (subjective genitive), but in a situation of persecution it more likely means “fear of them” (objective genitive).
  11. 1 Peter 3:14 sn A quotation from Isa 8:12.
  12. 1 Peter 3:15 tc Most later mss, including some significant ones (P 5 81 436 442 1735 2344 2492 M) have θεόν (theon, “God”) instead of Χριστόν (Christon; “Christ”) here. But Χριστόν is widely supported by excellent and early witnesses (P72 א A B C Ψ 33 1175 1243 1611 1739 1852 latt sy co), and as a less common idiom better explains the rise of the other reading.
  13. 1 Peter 3:15 tn Or “sanctify Christ as Lord.”
  14. 1 Peter 3:15 tn Grk “the hope in you.”
  15. 1 Peter 3:16 tn Grk “but with courtesy and respect,” continuing the command of v. 15. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  16. 1 Peter 3:16 tn Grk “when you are spoken against.”
  17. 1 Peter 3:17 tn Grk “if the will of God should will it.” As in 3:14 the Greek construction here implies that suffering for doing good was not what God normally willed, even though it could happen, and in fact may have happened to some of the readers (cf. 4:4, 12-19).
  18. 1 Peter 3:18 sn This passage has been typeset as poetry because many scholars regard this passage as poetic or hymnic. These terms are used broadly to refer to the genre of writing, not to the content. There are two broad criteria for determining if a passage is poetic or hymnic: “(a) stylistic: a certain rhythmical lilt when the passages are read aloud, the presence of parallelismus membrorum (i.e., an arrangement into couplets), the semblance of some metre, and the presence of rhetorical devices such as alliteration, chiasmus, and antithesis; and (b) linguistic: an unusual vocabulary, particularly the presence of theological terms, which is different from the surrounding context” (P. T. O’Brien, Philippians [NIGTC], 188-89). Classifying a passage as hymnic or poetic is important because understanding this genre can provide keys to interpretation. However, not all scholars agree that the above criteria are present in this passage, so the decision to typeset it as poetry should be viewed as a tentative decision about its genre.
  19. 1 Peter 3:18 tc The variants here are legion (B. M. Metzger produces eight variants in a nice layout of the evidence [TCGNT 622]). Most of these variants involve pronouns, prepositions, or word order changes, but the major problem involves whether Christ “suffered” (ἔπαθεν, epathen) or “died” (ἀπέθανεν, apethanen). The witnesses that read ἀπέθανεν are P72 א*,2 A Cvid Ψ 0285 5 436 442 614 630 945 1175 1241 1243 1505 1611 1735 1739 1852 2344; the witnesses that read ἔπαθεν are B L P 81 2492 M. Although the external evidence slightly favors ἀπέθανεν, such may be a secondary reading. Intrinsically, ἔπαθεν both fits the context better, especially the verbal link between v. 17 and v. 18 (note in particular the introductory causal ὅτι [hoti, “because”] and the emphatic καί [kai, “also”]), and fits the author’s style (1 Peter never uses ἀποθνῄσκω [apothnēskō], but uses πάσχω [paschō] 11 other times, more than any other NT book). However, scribes would most likely realize this, and might conform the verb in v. 18 to the author’s typical usage. It may be argued, however, that scribes tended to alter the text in light of more common NT idioms, and did not have as much sensitivity to the literary features in the immediate context. In this instance, it may not be insignificant that the NT collocates ἀποθνῄσκω with ἁμαρτία (hamartia, “sin”) seven other times, though only once (1 Cor 15:3) with a meaning similar to what would be demanded here, but collocates πάσχω with ἁμαρτία in only one other place, 1 Pet 4:1, where the meaning also detours from what is seen here. All in all, a decision is difficult, but ἔπαθεν is to be preferred slightly.
  20. 1 Peter 3:18 sn The reference to the just suffering for the unjust is an allusion to Isa 53:11-12.
  21. 1 Peter 3:18 tn Greek emphasizes the contrast between these two phrases more than can be easily expressed in English.
  22. 1 Peter 3:18 sn Put to death in the flesh…made alive in the spirit. The contrast of flesh and spirit is not between two parts of Christ’s person (material versus immaterial) but between two broader modes of existence: the realm of unregenerate earthly life versus eternal heavenly life. The reference may not be to the Holy Spirit directly, but indirectly, since the Spirit permeates and characterizes the spiritual mode of existence. However, ExSyn 343 (n. 76) states “It is often objected that the Holy Spirit cannot be in view because the two datives of v 18 (σαρκί, πνεύματι [sarki, pneumati]) would then have a different syntactical force (sphere, means). But if 1 Pet 3:18 is a hymnic or liturgical fragment, this can be no objection because of ‘poetic license’: poetry is replete with examples of grammatical and lexical license, not the least of which is the use of the same morpho-syntactic categories, in parallel lines, with entirely different senses (note, e.g., the dat. expressions in 1 Tim 3:16).”
  23. 1 Peter 3:19 tn Grk “in which.” ExSyn 343 notes: “The antecedent of the RP [relative pronoun] is by no means certain. Some take it to refer to πνεύματι immediately preceding, the meaning of which might be either the Holy Spirit or the spiritual state. Others see the phrase as causal (‘for which reason,’ ‘because of this’), referring back to the entire clause, while still other scholars read the phrase as temporal (if so, it could be with or without an antecedent: ‘on which occasion’ or ‘meanwhile’). None of these options is excluded by syntax. It may be significant, however, that every other time ἐν ᾧ is used in 1 Peter it bears an adverbial/conjunctive force (cf. 1:6; 2:12; 3:16 [here, temporal]; 4:4).” Also, because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  24. 1 Peter 3:19 sn And preached to the spirits in prison. The meaning of this preaching and the spirits to whom he preached are much debated. It is commonly understood to be: (1) Christ’s announcement of his victory over evil to the fallen angels who await judgment for their role in leading the Noahic generation into sin; this proclamation occurred sometime between Christ’s death and ascension; or (2) Christ’s preaching of repentance through Noah to the unrighteous humans, now dead and confined in hell, who lived in the days of Noah. The latter is preferred because of the temporal indications in v. 20a and the wider argument of the book. These verses encourage Christians to stand for righteousness and try to influence their contemporaries for the gospel in spite of the suffering that may come to them. All who identify with them and their Savior will be saved from the coming judgment, just as in Noah’s day.
  25. 1 Peter 3:20 tn This reflects a Greek participle, literally “having been disobedient formerly,” that refers to the “spirits” in v. 19. Many translations take this as adjectival describing the spirits (“who had once been disobedient”; cf. NASB, NIV, NKJV, NLT, NRSV, TEV), but the grammatical construction strongly favors an adverbial interpretation describing the time of the preaching, as reflected above.
  26. 1 Peter 3:20 tn Grk “the patience of God waited.”
  27. 1 Peter 3:20 tn Grk “in which,” referring to the ark; the referent (the ark) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  28. 1 Peter 3:21 tn Grk “which also, [as] an antitype, now saves you, [that is] baptism.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  29. 1 Peter 3:21 tn Grk “the removal of the dirt of the flesh,” where flesh refers to the physical make-up of the body with no moral connotations.
  30. 1 Peter 3:21 tn Or “response”; “answer.”
  31. 1 Peter 3:22 tn Grk “who is at the right hand…having gone into heaven.”
  32. 1 Peter 3:22 tn Grk “angels…having been subjected to him.”
  33. 1 Peter 4:1 tc Most mss (א2 A P 5 33 81 436 442 1175 1611 1852 M) add ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν (huper hēmōn, “for us”); others (א* 69 1505 syp) add ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν (huper humōn, “for you”), the first hand of א also has ἀποθανόντος (apothanontos, “since he died”) instead of παθόντος (pathontos, “since he suffered”). But the reading without ὑπὲρ ἡ/ὑμῶν best explains the rise of the other readings, for not only is there confusion as to which pronoun belongs here, but the longer readings, being clarifications, are evidently scribally motivated. The shortest reading is found in significant and early witnesses (P72 B C Ψ 323 1243 1739 sa) and is strongly preferred.
  34. 1 Peter 4:1 sn Has finished with sin. The last sentence in v. 1 may refer to Christ as the one who suffered in the flesh (cf. 2:21, 23; 3:18; 4:1a) and the latter part would then mean, “he has finished dealing with sin.” But it is more likely that it refers to the Christian who suffers unjustly (cf. 2:19-20; 3:14, 17). This shows that he has made a break with sin as vs. 2 describes.
  35. 1 Peter 4:2 tn This verse may give the purpose or result of their “arming” themselves as called for in v. 1b and then the translation would be: “so that you may spend the rest of your time…” But it is better to take it as explanatory of the last phrase in v. 1: what it means to be finished with sin.
  36. 1 Peter 4:3 tn Grk “the Gentiles,” used here of those who are not God’s people.
  37. 1 Peter 4:3 tn Grk “to accomplish the desire of the Gentiles.”
  38. 1 Peter 4:3 tn Grk “having gone along,” referring to the readers’ behavior in time past.
  39. 1 Peter 4:3 tn According to BDAG 857 s.v. πότος the term refers to a social gathering at which wine is served, hence “drinking parties” (cf. TEV, NASB). However, the collocation with the other terms in v. 4 suggests something less sophisticated and more along the lines of wild and frenzied drinking bouts.
  40. 1 Peter 4:3 tn The Greek words here all occur in the plural to describe their common practice in the past.
  41. 1 Peter 4:4 tn Grk “in/by which,” referring to the change of behavior described in v. 3. The unbelievers are astonished by the readers’ moral transformation. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  42. 1 Peter 4:4 tn Or “are surprised, are taken aback.” The same verb occurs in 4:12.
  43. 1 Peter 4:4 tn Grk “blaspheming,” giving the result of their astonishment. Here the target of their “blasphemy/vilification” is not God but the Christian.
  44. 1 Peter 4:5 tn Grk “give an account to.”
  45. 1 Peter 4:5 tn Grk “the one”; the referent (Jesus Christ) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  46. 1 Peter 4:6 tn Grk “since for this purpose the gospel was preached even to the dead,” referring to the purpose described in the clause to follow in v. 6b.
  47. 1 Peter 4:6 sn In context the phrase those who are dead refers to those now dead who had accepted the gospel while they were still living and had suffered persecution for their faith. Though they “suffered judgment” in this earthly life (i.e., they died, in the midst of physical abuse from the ungodly), they will enjoy life from God in the spiritual, heavenly realm because of the gospel (v. 6b). It clearly does not assume a second chance for conversion offered to unbelievers who had died; why would Peter urge people to suffer in this life for the sake of the gospel if he believed that mercy would be extended to all the dead in the hereafter (cf. 2:7-8; 4:1-5, 12-19)?
  48. 1 Peter 4:6 tn Grk “so that they may be judged…but may live.” Greek emphasizes the contrast between these two clauses more than can be easily expressed in English.
  49. 1 Peter 4:6 tn Or “in their earthly lives,” since “flesh” here denotes the physical, earthly life. The phrase “in the flesh” is retained to preserve the links with 3:18 and 4:1 which use the same wording.
  50. 1 Peter 4:6 tn Grk “according to men.”
  51. 1 Peter 4:6 tn Grk “in spirit,” referring to the heavenly, eternal realm of existence (cf. 3:18).
  52. 1 Peter 4:6 tn Grk “according to God.”
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. All rights reserved.

Psalm 119:65-80

ט (Tet)

65 You are good[a] to your servant,
O Lord, just as you promised.[b]
66 Teach me proper discernment[c] and understanding.
For I consider your commands to be reliable.[d]
67 Before I was afflicted I used to stray off,[e]
but now I keep your instructions.[f]
68 You are good and you do good.
Teach me your statutes.
69 Arrogant people smear my reputation with lies,[g]
but I observe your precepts with all my heart.
70 Their hearts are calloused,[h]
but I find delight in your law.
71 It was good for me to suffer,
so that I might learn your statutes.
72 The law you have revealed is more important to me
than thousands of pieces of gold and silver.[i]

י (Yod)

73 Your hands made me and formed me.[j]
Give me understanding so that I might learn[k] your commands.
74 Your loyal followers will be glad when they see me,[l]
for I find hope in your word.
75 I know, Lord, that your regulations[m] are just.
You disciplined me because of your faithful devotion to me.[n]
76 May your loyal love console me,
as you promised your servant.[o]
77 May I experience your compassion,[p] so I might live.
For I find delight in your law.
78 May the arrogant be humiliated, for they have slandered me.[q]
But I meditate on your precepts.
79 May your loyal followers[r] turn to me,
those who know your rules.
80 May I be fully committed to your statutes,[s]
so that I might not be ashamed.


  1. Psalm 119:65 tn Heb “do good.”
  2. Psalm 119:65 tn Heb “according to your word.”
  3. Psalm 119:66 tn Heb “goodness of taste.” Here “taste” refers to moral and ethical discernment.
  4. Psalm 119:66 tn Heb “for I believe in your commands.”
  5. Psalm 119:67 tn Heb “before I suffered, I was straying off.”
  6. Psalm 119:67 tn Heb “your word.”
  7. Psalm 119:69 tn Heb “smear over me a lie.”
  8. Psalm 119:70 tn Heb “their heart is insensitive like fat.”
  9. Psalm 119:72 tn Heb “better to me [is] the law of your mouth than thousands of gold and silver.”
  10. Psalm 119:73 tn Heb “made me and established me.” The two verbs also appear together in Deut 32:6, where God, compared to a father, is said to have “made and established” Israel.
  11. Psalm 119:73 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
  12. Psalm 119:74 tn Heb “those who fear you will see me and rejoice.”
  13. Psalm 119:75 tn In this context (note the second line) the Hebrew term מִשְׁפָּטִים (mishpatim), which so often refers to the regulations of God’s law elsewhere in this psalm, may refer instead to his decisions or disciplinary judgment.
  14. Psalm 119:75 tn Heb “and [in] faithfulness you afflicted me.”
  15. Psalm 119:76 tn Heb “according to your word to your servant.”
  16. Psalm 119:77 tn Heb “and may your compassion come to me.”
  17. Psalm 119:78 tn Heb “for [with] falsehood they have denied me justice.”
  18. Psalm 119:79 tn Heb “those who fear you.”
  19. Psalm 119:80 tn Heb “may my heart be complete in your statutes.”
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. All rights reserved.

Proverbs 28:14

14 Blessed is the one who is always cautious,[a]
but whoever hardens his heart[b] will fall into evil.


  1. Proverbs 28:14 tn Most commentators (and some English versions, e.g., NIV) assume that the participle מְפַחֵד (mefakhed, “fears”) means “fears the Lord,” even though “the Lord” is not present in the text. Such an assumption would be more convincing if the word יִרְאַת (yirʾat) had been used. It is possible that the verse refers to fearing sin or its consequences. In other words, the one who is always apprehensive about the nature and consequences of sin will avoid sin and find God’s blessing. Of course the assumption that the phrase means “fear the Lord” could be correct as well. There would be little difference in the outcome; in either case sin would be avoided.
  2. Proverbs 28:14 sn The one who “hardens his heart” in this context is the person who refuses to fear sin and its consequences. The image of the “hard heart” is one of a stubborn will, unyielding and unbending (cf. NCV, TEV, NLT). This individual will fall into sin.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. All rights reserved.

11/24/2023 DAB Transcript

Ezekiel 47:1-48:35, 1 Peter 2:11-3:7, Psalm 119:49-64, Proverbs 28:12-13

Today is the 24th day of November, welcome to the Daily Audio Bible. I am Brian, it’s great to be here with you today, Black Friday. So, imagine…imagine we’re shopping with lots of people today, driving around and catching sales. And here we are, the holiday season and there is probably not a more important season, to center ourselves in the Scriptures and to center ourselves in the story of our salvation and the arrival of the Savior. So, let’s do that as we continue the journey forward through the Scriptures. Today, we will complete the book of Ezekiel and we’ve been camping out in Ezekiel for a while, we’ll reach the conclusion today. So, let’s dive in, Ezekiel chapters 47 and 48.


Father, we thank You for Your word. We thank You for what’s told to us in the Proverbs. Those of us who conceal what we’re doing in the dark, will not prosper. But if we turn from our wickedness, we will receive mercy. Forgive us oh Lord, we are all guilty of being in the dark somewhere. Holy Spirit come with the light of the truth and shine it inside of us, we open ourselves to You. We want to walk through this season, humbly, open, and not caught up in all of the materialism and all of the grandeur. We want to be with You, honoring You, walking with You. Lead us forward we pray, Jesus. In Your precious name. Amen.

Announcements: that is home base. It’s the website, it’s where you find out what’s going on around here. It’s Black Friday, so everybody kind of knows that and everybody’s got sales everywhere and shopping everywhere. We’ve talked about what we’re doing for Christmas here at the Daily Audio Bible. How we normally have a Christmas box with a Christmas ornament for the year in and stuff and this year, we’ve got a new…a new plan. We got some new resources, all of the different music from the Daily Audio Bible has been pressed up onto beautiful colored to vinyl and beautiful packaging as a way of investing into the technology that brings the Daily Audio Bible to us each day, as we kind of turn into the final phase of brand-new, a brand-new home, a brand-new place for us that that will come our way in 2024. But this year, if you can partner with us, purchase one of the vinyl albums or purchase all of them. They’re $25, a gift of $25 each. You can give as much as you want but you can get them all and we’ll send you the Christmas ornament for the year with the word for the year, which has been “expand”. And that has been an interesting thing to say the least. Looking forward to talking about that some more. But that’s what’s going on for Christmas. And so, it’s Black Friday. These will probably, they always do sell out, so just yeah. and just go to the Shop and you’ll find it there in the Christmas section. Or using the app, just push the little drawer icon in the upper left-hand corner and go to the Shop and you’ll find it there. And thank you, humbly for your partnership.

If you have a prayer request or encouragement, of course you can hit the Hotline button in the app, that’s the little red button up at the top or you can dial 877-942-4253.

And that’s it for today. I am Brian, I love you and I will be waiting for you here tomorrow.

Prayer and Encouragements:

Hi everyone, this is Christy in Kentucky. I wanted to talk to Cory today and tell you, my sweet sister. Our other sister in Georgia called to pray for you. And I want you to know that you have a sister in Kentucky that is praying for you. And I understand what you’re walking through, as my precious and beautiful husband was diagnosed with ALS a year ago in August. And yes, this is a difficult journey. But God, Amen. But God. I am first his wife, second, I am his caregiver. And Cory, we know that at the name of Jesus, every knee shall bow. And that means that ALS has to bow at the name of Jesus. And so, Cory, I want to pray for you, sister. Father, we love You, we praise You. Father, we trust You. Your word says, Lord Jesus, that by Your stripes we were, and we are healed. Father God, we love You so much and we know that there is nothing, nothing to great for You. Father, we believe the spirit of testimony and this healing for Cory and for Time. That others will see Your miraculous power, Father. So many around us do not believe in Jesus. And Lord, we are praying that You will heal Cory. And that You will heal Tim from ALS. Lord Jesus, we want this to be a testimony to You. Father, we know that Your will, is Your will, Lord. We also know, Father, that You are a miraculous God and that You can do things even suddenly. So, Father, we thank You, we love You most of all. And we trust You. And it’s in Your precious and holy name that we plead …

Hi, Daily Audio Bible family, this is Kyle in Pennsylvania calling with an update for my daughter Rylee, who had surgery on the 14th. The surgery went well, they were able to do what they wanted to do. And so, she’s in recovery right now. Sorry for the delay in calling back. I got a cold last week, so I wasn’t able to visit her a lot and my voice was kind of shot. But I’m feeling better now. Continued prayers for her because there is a lot of fluid building up in her lungs that they’re really not sure why it’s building up. So, they’re gonna do some tests and some imaging this week to see what’s going on there. But she’s doing really well. She’s definitely getting better and becoming more like herself and perking up a little bit. So, that’s nice to see. But just, yeah, keep her in prayers that the side of the heart that was a lot smaller, they’re hoping that will continue to grow and that it’ll be more equal to the other side of her heart that’s what the surgery was trying to do. So, pray for that. And then just pray we’ll figure out what’s causing the fluid to build up around her lungs and that they’ll be able to fix that. Thank you for all your prayers. I heard a ton of prayers, and it really meant a lot to me and my wife and our family. Thank you all, bye.

Evening brothers and sisters, it’s Soaring on Eagles Wings from Canada. Linda from Oregon, I heard your prayer and I’m going to be the only person who’s able to help you and your daughter. Your 44 year old daughter has been recently diagnosed with stage 4, triple negative breast cancer. And this has metastasized to her liver, her lungs and her spine. She’s in sever pain in her lower extremities. And she lost her dad in April. She has a husband and two little kids. Oh Abba, half mercy. You’re the God _. You’re the healer. You’re everything to us. And so, as I join with the other DAB families, and Linda, as we take her daughter and reach for her hand and bring healing to that body, which seems so impossible right at this moment. Give her extra time to spend with her children and her husband. Oh God, the doctors need wisdom to know how to care for her, what should they do? You be their hands and their ears and everything that they need to help her. Dear God, comfort her when she feels overwhelmed. Let Your love embrace her, her family and know that You’re working.

Shalom Daily Audio Bible. This is Dwayne from Wisconsin, all praise and glory to our wonderful Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ. Today is November 21st already. The Hardin family, congratulations. Congratulations to China and her husband and the family at the new birth of the young lady. So, we want to lift her up and give praise to our Lord and Savior, that she would grow up and be a Godly child and be a light for our Lord and Savior. Let us continue to pray for our children. Brian called in, would like us to pray for his son Mitchell. He’s in rehab but he’s praying that he will get the help he needs. And that when he is released that he will have housing and also that he will continue being in treatment and basically, just getting the help he needs. And we give praise that he is diving into Your word, Lord. And we pray that that takes root and grows inside of him, and he becomes a light for You, Lord. And also, he wants us to pray for his other son Matt and then Ashley is pregnant, so congratulations there. And that they draw closer to You, as well. Linda called in, would like us to pray for her 44-year-old daughter, who was just recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Lord, we lift her up to You. Lord, we ask for Your intervention. We ask Your will be done. We pray that will be done. That You would relieve the pain that she is suffering. And if it is Your will, that You would take this cancer from her. Be with her, Lord. We pray that she will draw closer to You and lean into You during this time. In Jesus name we pray. Amen and God Bless.

The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Friday November 24, 2023 (NIV)

Ezekiel 47-48

Water from the Temple

47 Then he brought me back to the entrance of the temple. I noticed[a] that water was flowing from under the threshold of the temple toward the east (for the temple faced east). The water was flowing down from under the right side of the temple, from south of the altar. He led me out by way of the north gate and brought me around the outside of the outer gate that faces toward the east; I noticed[b] that the water was trickling out from the south side.

When the man went out toward the east with a measuring line in his hand, he measured 1,750 feet,[c] and then he led me through water, which was ankle deep. Again he measured 1,750 feet and led me through the water, which was now knee deep. Once more he measured 1,750 feet and led me through the water, which was waist deep. Again he measured 1,750 feet, and it was a river I could not cross, for the water had risen; it was deep enough to swim in, a river that could not be crossed. He said to me, “Son of man, have you seen this?”

Then he led me back to the bank of the river. When I had returned, I noticed[d] a vast number of trees on the banks of the river, on both sides. He said to me, “These waters go out toward the eastern region and flow down into the rift valley; when they enter the Dead Sea,[e] where the sea is stagnant,[f] the waters become fresh.[g] Every living creature that swarms where the river[h] flows will live; there will be many fish, for these waters flow there. It will become fresh,[i] and everything will live where the river flows. 10 Fishermen will stand beside it; from En Gedi to En Eglaim they will spread nets. They will catch many kinds of fish, like the fish of the Great Sea.[j] 11 But its swamps and its marshes will not become fresh; they will remain salty. 12 On both sides of the river’s banks, every kind of tree will grow for food. Their leaves will not wither nor will their fruit fail, but they will bear fruit every month, because their water source flows from the sanctuary. Their fruit will be for food and their leaves for healing.”[k]

Boundaries for the Land

13 This is what the Sovereign Lord says: “Here[l] are the borders[m] you will observe as you allot the land to the twelve tribes of Israel. (Joseph will have two portions.)[n] 14 You must divide it equally just as I vowed to give it to your forefathers;[o] this land will be assigned as your inheritance.[p]

15 “This will be the border of the land:[q] On the north side, from the Great Sea by way of Hethlon to the entrance of Zedad; 16 Hamath, Berothah, Sibraim, which is between the border of Damascus and the border of Hamath, as far as Hazer Hattikon, which is on the border of Hauran. 17 The border will run from the sea to Hazar Enan, at the border of Damascus, and on the north is the border of Hamath. This is the north side. 18 On the east side, between Hauran and Damascus, and between Gilead and the land of Israel, will be the Jordan. You will measure from the border to the eastern sea. This is the east side. 19 On the south side it will run from Tamar to the waters of Meribah Kadesh, the river,[r] to the Great Sea. This is the south side. 20 On the west side the Great Sea will be the boundary to a point opposite Lebo Hamath. This is the west side.

21 “This is how you will divide this land for yourselves among the tribes of Israel. 22 You must allot it as an inheritance among yourselves and for the resident foreigners who live among you, who have fathered sons among you. You must treat them as native-born among the people of Israel; they will be allotted an inheritance with you among the tribes of Israel.[s] 23 In whatever tribe the resident foreigner lives, there you will give him his inheritance,” declares the Sovereign Lord.

The Tribal Portions

48 “These are the names of the tribes: From the northern end beside the road of Hethlon to Lebo Hamath, as far as Hazar Enan (which is on the border of Damascus, toward the north beside Hamath), extending from the east side to the west, Dan will have one portion. Next to the border of Dan, from the east side to the west side, Asher[t] will have one portion. Next to the border of Asher from the east side to the west side, Naphtali will have one portion. Next to the border of Naphtali from the east side to the west side, Manasseh will have one portion. Next to the border of Manasseh from the east side to the west side, Ephraim will have one portion. Next to the border of Ephraim from the east side to the west side, Reuben will have one portion. Next to the border of Reuben from the east side to the west side, Judah[u] will have one portion.

“Next to the border of Judah from the east side to the west side will be the allotment you must set apart. It is to be 8¼ miles[v] wide, and the same length as one of the tribal portions, from the east side to the west side; the sanctuary will be in the middle of it. The allotment you set apart to the Lord will be 8¼ miles[w] in length and 3⅓ miles[x] in width. 10 These will be the allotments for the holy portion: for the priests, toward the north 8¼ miles[y] in length, toward the west 3⅓ miles[z] in width, toward the east 3⅓ miles[aa] in width, and toward the south 8¼ miles[ab] in length; the sanctuary of the Lord will be in the middle. 11 This will be for the priests who are set apart from the descendants of Zadok who kept my charge and did not go astray when the people of Israel strayed off, as the Levites did.[ac] 12 It will be their portion from the allotment of the land, a Most Holy Place, next to the border of the Levites.

13 “Alongside the border of the priests, the Levites will have an allotment 8¼ miles[ad] in length and 3⅓ miles[ae] in width. The whole length will be 8¼ miles[af] and the width 3⅓ miles.[ag] 14 They must not sell or exchange any of it; they must not transfer this choice portion of land, for it is set apart[ah] to the Lord.

15 “The remainder, 1⅔ miles[ai] in width and 8¼ miles[aj] in length, will be for common use by the city, for houses and for open space. The city will be in the middle of it; 16 these will be its measurements: The north side will be 1½ miles,[ak] the south side 1½ miles, the east side 1½ miles, and the west side 1½ miles. 17 The city will have open spaces: On the north there will be 437½ feet,[al] on the south 437½ feet, on the east 437½ feet, and on the west 437½ feet. 18 The remainder of the length alongside the holy allotment will be 3⅓ miles[am] to the east and 3⅓ miles toward the west, and it will be beside the holy allotment. Its produce will be for food for the workers of the city. 19 The workers of the city from all the tribes of Israel will cultivate it. 20 The whole allotment will be 8¼ miles[an] square; you must set apart the holy allotment with the possession of the city.

21 “The rest, on both sides of the holy allotment and the property of the city, will belong to the prince. Extending from the 8¼ miles[ao] of the holy allotment to the east border, and westward from the 8¼ miles[ap] to the west border, alongside the portions, it will belong to the prince. The holy allotment and the sanctuary of the temple will be in the middle of it. 22 The property of the Levites and of the city will be in the middle of that which belongs to the prince. The portion between the border of Judah and the border of Benjamin will be for the prince.

23 “As for the rest of the tribes: From the east side to the west side, Benjamin will have one portion. 24 Next to the border of Benjamin, from the east side to the west side, Simeon will have one portion. 25 Next to the border of Simeon, from the east side to the west side, Issachar will have one portion. 26 Next to the border of Issachar, from the east side to the west side, Zebulun will have one portion. 27 Next to the border of Zebulun, from the east side to the west side, Gad will have one portion. 28 Next to the border of Gad, at the south side, the border will run from Tamar to the waters of Meribah Kadesh, to the Stream of Egypt,[aq] and on to the Great Sea. 29 This is the land that you will allot to the tribes of Israel, and these are their portions, declares the Sovereign Lord.

30 “These are the exits of the city: On the north side, 1½ miles[ar] by measure, 31 the gates of the city[as] will be named for the tribes of Israel. There will be three gates to the north: one gate for Reuben, one gate for Judah, and one gate for Levi. 32 On the east side, 1½ miles in length, there will be three gates: one gate for Joseph, one gate for Benjamin, and one gate for Dan. 33 On the south side, 1½ miles by measure, there will be three gates: one gate for Simeon, one gate for Issachar, and one gate for Zebulun. 34 On the west side, 1½ miles in length, there will be three gates: one gate for Gad, one gate for Asher, and one gate for Naphtali. 35 The circumference of the city will be 6 miles.[at] The name of the city from that day forward will be: ‘The Lord Is There.’”[au]


  1. Ezekiel 47:1 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.
  2. Ezekiel 47:2 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.
  3. Ezekiel 47:3 tn Heb “1,000 cubits” (i.e., 525 meters); this phrase occurs three times in the next two verses.
  4. Ezekiel 47:7 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.
  5. Ezekiel 47:8 tn Heb “the sea,” referring to the Dead Sea. This has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  6. Ezekiel 47:8 tn Heb “to the sea, those which are brought out.” The reading makes no sense. The text is best emended to read “filthy” (i.e., stagnant). See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:273.
  7. Ezekiel 47:8 tn Heb “the waters become healed.”
  8. Ezekiel 47:9 tn Heb “two rivers,” perhaps under the influence of Zech 14:8. The translation follows the LXX and other ancient versions in reading the singular, which is demanded by the context (see vv. 5-7, 9b, 12).
  9. Ezekiel 47:9 tn Heb “will be healed.”
  10. Ezekiel 47:10 sn The Great Sea refers to the Mediterranean Sea (also in vv. 15, 19, 20).
  11. Ezekiel 47:12 sn See Rev 22:1-2.
  12. Ezekiel 47:13 tc This translation follows the reading זֶה (zeh) instead of גֵּה (geh), a nonexistent word, as supported by the LXX.
  13. Ezekiel 47:13 tn Or “territory”; see D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:715.
  14. Ezekiel 47:13 tc The grammar is awkward, though the presence of these words is supported by the versions. L. C. Allen (Ezekiel [WBC], 2:274) suggests that it is an explanatory One portion for Ephraim, the other for Manasseh (Gen 48:17-20).
  15. Ezekiel 47:14 sn Gen 15:9-21.
  16. Ezekiel 47:14 tn Heb “will fall to you as an inheritance.”
  17. Ezekiel 47:15 sn The measurements resemble those in Num 34:1-2.
  18. Ezekiel 47:19 tn Or “valley.” The syntax is difficult. Some translate “to the river,” others “from the river”; in either case the preposition is supplied for the sake of English.
  19. Ezekiel 47:22 sn A similar attitude toward non-Israelites is found in Isa 56:3-8. There the term is נֵכָר (nekar, “foreigner”) and specifically the descendant (בֶּן, ben) of a nekar who becomes a follower of the Lord. Likewise the resident foreigner גֵּר (ger) in this verse is one who has given allegiance to the Lord (see notes at Exod 12:19 and Deut 29:11). What is new for the resident foreigner (גֵּר, ger) in this prophecy is having an inheritance in Israel. Previously the resident foreigner could own a house but not land.
  20. Ezekiel 48:2 sn The tribes descended from Jacob’s maidservants are placed farthest from the sanctuary. See Gen 30.
  21. Ezekiel 48:7 sn The tribe from which the Davidic prince would come is given the most prestigious allotment (see Gen 49:8-12).
  22. Ezekiel 48:8 tn Heb “25,000 cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).
  23. Ezekiel 48:9 tn Heb “25,000 cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).
  24. Ezekiel 48:9 tn Heb “10,000 cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers).
  25. Ezekiel 48:10 tn Heb “25,000 cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).
  26. Ezekiel 48:10 tn Heb “10,000 cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers).
  27. Ezekiel 48:10 tn Heb “10,000 cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers).
  28. Ezekiel 48:10 tn Heb “25,000 cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).
  29. Ezekiel 48:11 tn Heb “strayed off.”
  30. Ezekiel 48:13 tn Heb “25,000 cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).
  31. Ezekiel 48:13 tn Heb “10,000 cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers).
  32. Ezekiel 48:13 tn Heb “25,000 cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).
  33. Ezekiel 48:13 tn Heb “10,000 cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers).
  34. Ezekiel 48:14 tn Or “holy.”
  35. Ezekiel 48:15 tn Heb “5,000 cubits” (i.e., 2.625 kilometers).
  36. Ezekiel 48:15 tn Heb “25,000 cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).
  37. Ezekiel 48:16 tn Heb “4,500 cubits” (i.e., 2.36 kilometers); the phrase occurs three more times in this verse.
  38. Ezekiel 48:17 tn Heb “250 cubits” (i.e., 131.25 meters); the phrase occurs three more times in this verse.
  39. Ezekiel 48:18 tn Heb “10,000 cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers); the phrase occurs again later in this verse.
  40. Ezekiel 48:20 tn Heb “25,000 cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).
  41. Ezekiel 48:21 tn Heb “25,000 cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).
  42. Ezekiel 48:21 tn Heb “25,000 cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).
  43. Ezekiel 48:28 tn Traditionally “the Brook of Egypt,” although a number of recent translations have “the Wadi of Egypt” (cf. NAB, NIV, NRSV). The word “Egypt” is not in the Hebrew text but is implied.
  44. Ezekiel 48:30 tn Heb “4,500 cubits” (i.e., 2.36 kilometers); the phrase occurs again in vv. 32-34.
  45. Ezekiel 48:31 sn See Rev 21:12-14.
  46. Ezekiel 48:35 tn Heb “18,000 cubits” (i.e., 9.45 kilometers).
  47. Ezekiel 48:35 sn See Rev 21:12-21.
New English Translation (NET)

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1 Peter 2:11-3:7

11 Dear friends, I urge you as foreigners and exiles to keep away from fleshly desires that do battle against the soul, 12 and maintain good conduct[a] among the non-Christians,[b] so that though[c] they now malign you as wrongdoers, they may see your good deeds and glorify God when he appears.[d]

Submission to Authorities

13 Be subject to every human institution[e] for the Lord’s sake, whether to a king as supreme 14 or to governors as those he commissions[f] to punish wrongdoers and praise[g] those who do good. 15 For God wants you[h] to silence the ignorance of foolish people by doing good. 16 Live[i] as free people, not using your freedom as a pretext for evil, but as God’s slaves.[j] 17 Honor all people, love the family of believers,[k] fear God, honor the king.

18 Slaves,[l] be subject[m] to your masters with all reverence, not only to those who are good and gentle, but also to those who are perverse. 19 For this finds God’s favor,[n] if because of conscience toward God[o] someone endures hardships in suffering unjustly. 20 For what credit is it if you sin and are mistreated and endure it? But if you do good and suffer and so endure, this finds favor with God.[p] 21 For to this you were called, since Christ also suffered for you, leaving an example for you to follow in his steps. 22 He[q] committed no sin nor was deceit found in his mouth.[r] 23 When he was maligned, he[s] did not answer back; when he suffered, he threatened[t] no retaliation,[u] but committed himself to God[v] who judges justly. 24 He[w] himself bore our sins[x] in his body on the tree, that we may cease from sinning[y] and live for righteousness. By his[z] wounds[aa] you were healed.[ab] 25 For you were going astray like sheep[ac] but now you have turned back to the shepherd and guardian of your souls.

Wives and Husbands

In the same way, wives, be subject to your own husbands. Then,[ad] even if some are disobedient to the word, they will be won over without a word by the way you live,[ae] when they see your pure and reverent conduct.[af] Let your[ag] beauty[ah] not be external—the braiding of hair and wearing of gold jewelry[ai] or fine clothes— but the inner person[aj] of the heart, the lasting beauty of a gentle and tranquil spirit, which is precious in God’s sight. For in the same way the holy women who hoped in God long ago adorned themselves by being subject to their husbands, like Sarah who obeyed[ak] Abraham, calling him lord. You become her children[al] when you do what is good and have no fear in doing so.[am] Husbands, in the same way, treat your wives with consideration as the weaker partners and show them honor[an] as fellow heirs of the grace of life. In this way nothing will hinder your prayers.[ao]


  1. 1 Peter 2:12 tn Grk “keeping your conduct good.”
  2. 1 Peter 2:12 tn Grk “the Gentiles,” used here of those who are not God’s people.
  3. 1 Peter 2:12 tn Grk “in order that in what they malign you.”
  4. 1 Peter 2:12 tn Or “when he visits.” Grk “in the day of visitation,” denoting a time when God intervenes directly in human affairs, either for blessing (Luke 1:68, 78; 7:16; 19:44) or for judgment (Isa 10:3; Jer 6:15). This phrase may be a quotation from Isa 10:3, in which case judgment is in view here. But blessing seems to be the point, since part of the motive for good behavior is winning the non-Christian over to the faith (as in 3:1; also apparently in 3:15; cf. Matt 5:16).
  5. 1 Peter 2:13 tn Or “every human being”; Grk “every human creation,” denoting either everything created for mankind (NRSV mg: “every institution ordained for human beings”) or every creature who is human. The meaning of the verb “be subject” and the following context supports the rendering adopted in the text.
  6. 1 Peter 2:14 tn Grk “those sent by him.”
  7. 1 Peter 2:14 tn Grk “for the punishment…and the praise.”
  8. 1 Peter 2:15 tn Grk “because thus it is God’s will.”
  9. 1 Peter 2:16 tn There is no main verb in this verse, but it continues the sense of command from v. 13, “be subject…, as free people…not using…but as slaves of God.”
  10. 1 Peter 2:16 tn Traditionally, “servants” or “bondservants.” Though δοῦλος (doulos) is normally translated “servant,” the word does not bear the connotation of a free individual serving another. BDAG notes that “‘servant’ for ‘slave’ is largely confined to Biblical transl. and early American times…in normal usage at the present time the two words are carefully distinguished” (BDAG 260 s.v.). One good translation is “bondservant” (sometimes found in the ASV for δοῦλος) in that it often indicates one who sells himself into slavery to another. But as this is archaic, few today understand its force. Also, many slaves in the Roman world became slaves through Rome’s subjugation of conquered nations, kidnapping, or by being born into slave households. sn Undoubtedly the background for the concept of being the Lord’s slave or servant is to be found in the Old Testament scriptures. For a Jew this concept did not connote drudgery, but honor and privilege. It was used of national Israel at times (Isa 43:10), but was especially associated with famous OT personalities, including such great men as Moses (Josh 14:7), David (Ps 89:3; cf. 2 Sam 7:5, 8) and Elijah (2 Kgs 10:10); all these men were “servants (or slaves) of the Lord.”
  11. 1 Peter 2:17 tn Grk “love the brotherhood.” The Greek term “brotherhood” is used in a broad sense to connote familial relationships within the family of God. BDAG 19 s.v. ἀδελφότης 1 suggests “a fellowship,” but in the present context “love the fellowship of believers” could be taken to mean “love to participate in fellowship with believers,” whereas the present verse suggests the Christian community as a whole, in familial terms, is in view. This same word occurs in 5:9; there it has been translated “brothers and sisters.”
  12. 1 Peter 2:18 tn The Greek term here is οἰκέτης (oiketēs), often used of a servant in a household (who would have been a slave).
  13. 1 Peter 2:18 tn Grk “being subject,” but continuing the sense of command from vs. 13.
  14. 1 Peter 2:19 tn Grk “For this [is] favor/grace,” used as a metonymy of that which pleases him, which he looks on with favor (cf. BDAG 1079 s.v. χάρις 2). Cf. 1 Pet 2:20.
  15. 1 Peter 2:19 tc The expression “consciousness/conscience of God” (συνείδησιν θεοῦ; suneidēsin theou) is unusual, occurring only here in the NT. Because θεοῦ was liable to misinterpretation, several witnesses altered the text, either replacing it with ἀγαθήν (agathēn; C Ψ 323 442 614 630 945 1175 1241 1243 1505 1611 1739 1852 2492 sy) or expanding the expression by adding ἀγαθήν before θεοῦ (P72 [A* 33 2344] 81). Replacing θεοῦ with ἀγαθήν conforms to other NT phrases, notably in this same letter (Acts 23:1; 1 Tim 1:5, 19; 1 Pet 3:16, 21), suggesting that such a reading is motivated. The reading θεοῦ, however, has superior support (א Ac B P 049 5 436 1735 M lat co), and best explains the rise of the Grk “conscious(ness) of God,” an awareness of God and allegiance to him.
  16. 1 Peter 2:20 tn Grk “For this [is] favor/grace with God,” used as a metonymy as in vs. 19 of that which pleases him, which he looks on with favor (cf. BDAG 1079 s.v. χάρις 2).
  17. 1 Peter 2:22 tn Grk “who,” referring to Christ and applying the quotations from Isa 53 to him. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  18. 1 Peter 2:22 sn A quotation from Isa 53:9.
  19. 1 Peter 2:23 tn Grk “who being maligned,” continuing the reference to Christ. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  20. 1 Peter 2:23 tn Grk “he did not threaten, but.”
  21. 1 Peter 2:23 sn An allusion to Isa 53:7.
  22. 1 Peter 2:23 tn Grk “to the one”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  23. 1 Peter 2:24 tn Grk “who.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  24. 1 Peter 2:24 sn A quotation from Isa 53:4, 12.
  25. 1 Peter 2:24 tn The verb ἀπογίνομαι (apoginomai) occurs only here in the NT. It can have a literal meaning (“to die”; L&N 74.27) and a figurative meaning (“to cease”; L&N 68.40). Because it is opposite the verb ζάω (zaō, “to live”), many argue that the meaning of the verb here must be “die” (so BDAG 108 s.v.), but even so literal death would not be in view. “In place of ἀποθνῃσκιεν, the common verb for ‘die,’ ἀπογινεθαι serves Peter as a euphemism, with the meaning ‘to be away’ or ‘to depart’” (J. R. Michaels, 1 Peter [WBC 49], 148). It is a metaphorical way to refer to the decisive separation from sin Jesus accomplished for believers through his death; the result is that believers “may cease from sinning.”
  26. 1 Peter 2:24 tn Grk “whose.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  27. 1 Peter 2:24 tn Grk the singular: “wound”; “injury.”
  28. 1 Peter 2:24 sn A quotation from Isa 53:5.
  29. 1 Peter 2:25 sn A quotation from Isa 53:6.
  30. 1 Peter 3:1 tn Grk “that…they may be won over,” showing the purpose of “being subject” (vs. 1b). Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  31. 1 Peter 3:1 tn Grk “by the wives’ behavior.”
  32. 1 Peter 3:2 tn Grk “behavior,” the same word translated “the way you live” in vs. 1.
  33. 1 Peter 3:3 tn Grk “whose,” referring to the wives.
  34. 1 Peter 3:3 tn Or “adornment.”
  35. 1 Peter 3:3 tn The word “jewelry” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied to indicate that gold ornaments or jewelry is intended; otherwise the reader might assume wearing gold-colored clothing was forbidden.
  36. 1 Peter 3:4 tn Grk “the hidden man.” KJV’s “the hidden man of the heart,” referring to a wife, could be seriously misunderstood by the modern English reader.
  37. 1 Peter 3:6 tn Grk “as Sarah obeyed.”
  38. 1 Peter 3:6 tn Grk “whose children you become.”
  39. 1 Peter 3:6 tn Grk “doing good and not fearing any intimidation.”
  40. 1 Peter 3:7 tn Grk “living together according to knowledge, as to the weaker, female vessel.” The primary verbal ideas of v. 7 are contained in participles (“living together…showing honor”) but they continue the sense of command from the previous paragraphs.
  41. 1 Peter 3:7 tn Grk “so that your prayers may not be hindered.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek, this clause was translated as a separate sentence.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. All rights reserved.

Psalm 119:49-64

ז (Zayin)

49 Remember your word to your servant,
for you have given me hope.
50 This[a] is what comforts me in my trouble,
for your promise revives me.[b]
51 Arrogant people do nothing but scoff at me.[c]
Yet I do not turn aside from your law.
52 I remember your ancient regulations,[d]
O Lord, and console myself.[e]
53 Rage takes hold of me because of the wicked,
those who reject your law.
54 Your statutes have been my songs[f]
in the house where I live.[g]
55 I remember your name during the night, O Lord,
and I will keep[h] your law.
56 This[i] has been my practice,
for I observe your precepts.

ח (Khet)

57 The Lord is my source of security.[j]
I have determined[k] to follow your instructions.[l]
58 I seek your favor[m] with all my heart.
Have mercy on me as you promised.[n]
59 I consider my actions[o]
and follow[p] your rules.
60 I keep your commands eagerly
and without delay.[q]
61 The ropes of the wicked tighten around[r] me,
but I do not forget your law.
62 In the middle of the night I arise[s] to thank you
for your just regulations.
63 I am a friend to all your loyal followers,[t]
and to those who keep your precepts.
64 O Lord, your loyal love fills the earth.
Teach me your statutes!


  1. Psalm 119:50 tn The demonstrative “this” refers back to the hope just mentioned or forward to the statement in the second line concerning the promise’s power to revive. See the note on the word “me” at the end of the verse for further discussion.
  2. Psalm 119:50 tn The hope generated by the promise (see v. 49b) brings comfort because (note “for” at the beginning of the line) the promise revives the psalmist’s spirits. Another option is to take כִּי (ki) at the beginning of the second line in the sense of “that,” in which case “this” refers to the promise’s power to revive.
  3. Psalm 119:51 tn Heb “scoff at me to excess.”
  4. Psalm 119:52 tn Heb “I remember your regulations from of old.” The prepositional phrase “from of old” apparently modifies “your regulations,” alluding to the fact that God revealed them to Israel in the distant past. Another option is to understand the prepositional phrase as modifying the verb, in which case one might translate, “I have long remembered your regulations.”
  5. Psalm 119:52 tn Or “find comfort.”
  6. Psalm 119:54 tn Heb “songs were your statutes to me.”
  7. Psalm 119:54 tn Heb “in the house of my dwelling place.” Some take the Hebrew noun מָגוֹר (magor) in the sense of “temporary abode,” and see this as a reference to the psalmist’s status as a resident foreigner (see v. 19). But the noun can refer to a dwelling place in general (see Ps 55:15).
  8. Psalm 119:55 tn The cohortative verbal form expresses the psalmist’s resolve to obey the law.
  9. Psalm 119:56 tn Heb “this has been to me.” The demonstrative “this” (1) refers back to the practices mentioned in vv. 54-55, or (2) looks forward to the statement in the second line, in which case the כִּי (ki) at the beginning of the second line should be translated “that.”
  10. Psalm 119:57 tn Heb “my portion [is] the Lord.” The psalmist compares the Lord to landed property, which was foundational to economic stability in ancient Israel (see Ps 16:5).
  11. Psalm 119:57 tn Heb “I said.”
  12. Psalm 119:57 tn Heb “to keep your words” (see v. 9).
  13. Psalm 119:58 tn Heb “I appease your face.”
  14. Psalm 119:58 tn Heb “according to your word.”
  15. Psalm 119:59 tn Heb “my ways.”
  16. Psalm 119:59 tn Heb “and I turn my feet toward.”
  17. Psalm 119:60 tn Heb “I hurry and I do not delay to keep your commands.”
  18. Psalm 119:61 tn Heb “surround.”
  19. Psalm 119:62 tn The psalmist uses an imperfect verbal form to emphasize that this is his continuing practice.
  20. Psalm 119:63 tn Heb “to all who fear you.”
New English Translation (NET)

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Proverbs 28:12-13

12 When the righteous rejoice,[a] great is the glory,[b]
but when the wicked rise to power, people are sought out.[c]
13 The one who covers[d] his transgressions will not prosper,[e]
but whoever confesses them and forsakes them will find mercy.[f]


  1. Proverbs 28:12 tn The form בַּעֲלֹץ (baʿalots) is the infinitive construct with the preposition indicating a temporal clause (“when…”); the “righteous” are the subject of this clause (subjective genitive). The word may be taken as a metonymy of adjunct—the righteous exult or rejoice because they are prosperous (cf. NLT “succeed”).
  2. Proverbs 28:12 sn “Glory” here may have the sense of elation and praise.
  3. Proverbs 28:12 tn The meaning of “sought out” (יְחֻפַּשׂ, yekhuppas) indicates that people have gone into hiding. So the development of the ideas for this proverb requires in the first line that “rejoice” be connected with “triumph” that means they have come to power; and in the second line that “are sought out” means people have gone into hiding (cf. ASV, NIV, NRSV, NLT). C. H. Toy thinks this is too strained; he offers this rendering: “When the righteous are exalted there is great confidence, but when the wicked come into power men hide themselves” (Proverbs [ICC], 500). For the verb G. R. Driver posits an Arabic cognate hafasa, “prostrated; trampled on” (“Problems in the Hebrew Text of Proverbs,” Bib 32 [1951]: 192-93), which gives a clearer result of wicked rule, but is perhaps unnecessary (e.g., Prov 28:28; 29:2). See J. A. Emerton, “Notes on Some Passages in the Book of Proverbs,” JTS 20 (1969): 202-20.
  4. Proverbs 28:13 tn The Hebrew participles provide the subject matter in this contrast. On the one hand is the person who covers over (מְכַסֶּה, mekhasseh) his sins. This means refusing to acknowledge them in confession, and perhaps rationalizing them away. On the other hand there is the one who both “confesses” (מוֹדֶה, modeh) and “forsakes” (עֹזֵב, ʿozev) the sin. To “confess” sins means to acknowledge them, to say the same thing about them that God does.
  5. Proverbs 28:13 sn The verse contrasts the consequences of each. The person who refuses to confess will not prosper. This is an understatement (a figure of speech known as tapeinosis); the opposite is the truth, that eventually such a person will be undone and ruined. On the other hand, the penitent will find mercy. This expression is a metonymy of cause for the effect—although “mercy” is mentioned, what mercy provides is intended, i.e., forgiveness. In other passages the verb “conceal” is used of God’s forgiveness—he covers over the iniquity (Ps 32:1). Whoever acknowledges sin, God will cover it; whoever covers it, God will lay it open.
  6. Proverbs 28:13 sn This verse is unique in the book of Proverbs; it captures the theology of forgiveness (e.g., Pss 32; 51). Every part of the passage is essential to the point: Confession of sins as opposed to concealing them, coupled with a turning away from them, results in mercy.
New English Translation (NET)

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