The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Sunday June 30, 2024 (NIV)

2 Kings 17:1-18:12

Hoshea Son of Elah, the Last King of Israel

17 In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah, Hoshea son of Elah became king over Israel in Samaria and ruled for nine years. He did evil in the eyes of the Lord, but not like the kings of Israel who came before him.

Shalmaneser king of Assyria went up against him, and Hoshea became his vassal and paid tribute to him. But the king of Assyria caught Hoshea in a conspiracy. He had sent messengers to So[a] king of Egypt, and he did not send tribute to the king of Assyria as he had done in previous years. That is why the king of Assyria arrested him and confined him in prison.

Then the king of Assyria invaded the whole land. He went up against Samaria and laid siege to it for three years. In Hoshea’s ninth year, the king of Assyria captured Samaria and exiled Israel to Assyria. He made them live in Halah and along the Habur River, which is the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes.[b]

This happened because the people of Israel sinned against the Lord their God, who had brought them up from the land of Egypt, from under the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and they feared other gods. They walked in the practices of the nations, whom the Lord had driven out before the people of Israel, and the practices which the kings of Israel had introduced. The people of Israel did secret things against the Lord their God, which were not right. They also built high places for themselves in all their cities, from watchtower to fortified city. 10 They set up sacred memorial stones and Asherah poles for themselves upon every high hill and under every leafy tree. 11 They offered sacrifices at all the high places, like the nations that God drove out before them. They did evil things, provoking the Lord to anger. 12 They served filthy idols even though the Lord had said to them, “You must not do this.”

13 The Lord had warned Israel and Judah through all his prophets and seers, saying, “Turn back from your evil ways and keep my commands and my regulations, according to the entire law which I commanded your fathers and which I sent to you through my servants the prophets.” 14 But they did not listen. They made their necks just as stiff as their fathers, who did not trust in the Lord their God.

15 They rejected his regulations and the covenant which he made with their fathers and the testimony with which he warned them. They followed useless idols, and they became useless themselves. They followed the other nations around them, about whom the Lord had commanded them, “Do not do as they do.” 16 They deserted all the commands of the Lord their God, and they made for themselves cast metal images, two calves. They made Asherah poles, and they bowed down to the whole army of the heavens,[c] and they served Baal. 17 They made their sons and daughters pass through the fire. They engaged in divination and sought omens and sold themselves to do evil in the eyes of the Lord, provoking him to anger. 18 So the Lord was furious with Israel, and he removed them from his presence. None was left—only the tribe of Judah.

19 Even Judah did not keep the commands of the Lord their God. They walked in the practices which Israel introduced. 20 So the Lord rejected all the seed of Israel, and he afflicted them. He gave them into the hand of plunderers until he cast them out of his presence.

21 When the Lord tore Israel away from the house of David, they made Jeroboam son of Nebat king. But Jeroboam drove Israel away from following the Lord. He caused them to commit a great sin. 22 The people of Israel walked in all the sins which Jeroboam did. They did not turn from them 23 until the Lord removed Israel from his presence, just as he had said through all his servants the prophets. So Israel went to Assyria, into exile from her homeland to this day.

New Settlers in Israel

24 The king of Assyria brought people from Babylon, Kuthah, Avva, Hamath, and Sepharvaim, and he settled them in the cities of Samaria in the place of the people of Israel. They took possession of Samaria and lived in its cities. 25 When they began to settle there, they did not fear the Lord, so the Lord sent lions among them. The lions were killing people, 26 so they said to the king of Assyria, “The peoples whom you deported and settled in the cities of Samaria do not know the customs of the god of the land. That is why he has sent lions among them, and the lions are killing people, because there aren’t any people left who know the customs of the god of the land.”

27 So the king of Assyria commanded, “Get one of the priests who was exiled from there. He will go and live there and teach the customs of the god of the land.” 28 So one of the priests who had been exiled from Samaria came and lived in Bethel. He was teaching them how they should fear the Lord.

29 But each nation was still making its own gods and setting them in the shrines[d] of the high places which the Samaritans had made, each nation in their cities where they were dwelling. 30 The people from Babylon made Sukkoth Benoth. The people from Kuth made Nergal. The people from Hamath made Ashima. 31 The people from Avvah made Nibhaz and Tartak. The people from Sepharvaim were burning their sons in the fire to Adrammelek and Anammelek, the gods of Sepharvaim. 32 [e]They were fearing the Lord, but they were making priests for their high places from all kinds of people, who were serving them in the shrines on the high places. 33 They were fearing the Lord, but they were also serving their gods according to the customs of the nations from which they had been deported.

34 To this day they are acting according to their former customs. There are none of them who fear the Lord, and there is no one who acts according to the regulations, ordinances, law, and commands which the Lord had commanded the children of Jacob, to whom he gave the name Israel. 35 The Lord had made a covenant with them and commanded them, “Do not fear other gods. Do not bow down to them. Do not serve them. Do not sacrifice to them. 36 Rather fear the Lord, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt with great power and an outstretched arm. Fear him and bow down to him and offer sacrifices to him. 37 Keep the regulations, ordinances, law, and commands, which he wrote for you, and do not fear other gods. 38 Do not forget the covenant I made with you, and do not fear other gods. 39 Fear only the Lord your God. He is the one who will save you from the hand of all your enemies.”

40 But these nations did not listen. Instead, they acted according to their former customs. 41 These nations were fearing the Lord, and they were serving their idols. Their children and their grandchildren did just as their fathers had done. They are doing this up to this day.

Hezekiah Son of Ahaz, King of Judah

18 In the third year of Hoshea son of Elah king of Israel, Hezekiah son of Ahaz king of Judah, became king. He was twenty-five years old when he became king, and he ruled for twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Abi[f] daughter of Zechariah. He did what was right in the eyes of the Lord, like everything that his father David had done. He removed the high places, smashed the sacred memorial stones, cut down the Asherah poles, and broke into pieces the bronze serpent which Moses had made, because until those days the people of Israel had been burning incense to it. They called it Nehushtan.[g]

He trusted in the Lord, the God of Israel, and there was no one like him among the kings of Judah, before him or after him. He held fast to the Lord. He did not turn aside from following him, but he kept the command which the Lord commanded Moses. The Lord was with him. Wherever he went, the Lord gave him success. He rebelled against the king of Assyria and did not serve him. He struck down the Philistines all the way to Gaza and its territory, from watchtower to fortified city.

Assyrian Invasions

In Hezekiah’s fourth year, which was the seventh year of Hoshea son of Elah king of Israel, Shalmaneser king of Assyria went up against Samaria and laid siege to it. 10 They captured it at the end of three years. In the sixth year, which was the ninth year of Hoshea king of Israel, Samaria was captured. 11 Then the king of Assyria exiled Israel to Assyria. He settled them in Halah and on the Habur River, the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes. 12 This was because they did not listen to the voice of the Lord their God, but they abandoned his covenant and all that Moses, the servant of the Lord, commanded. They did not listen to it or obey it.

Footnotes:

  1. 2 Kings 17:4 Probably the pharaoh also known as Osorkon
  2. 2 Kings 17:6 These areas are in northern Syria and Iran.
  3. 2 Kings 17:16 That is, the stars and other celestial bodies
  4. 2 Kings 17:29 Literally houses. These were likely small shrines, not large-scale temples.
  5. 2 Kings 17:32 The Greek Old Testament has an additional sentence at the beginning of verse 32: They were fearing the Lord, but they established their abominations in the shrines of the high places which they made in Samaria, each nation in the city in which they dwelt. Both sentences begin with they were fearing the Lord.
  6. 2 Kings 18:2 Hebrew Abi, a variant of Abijah
  7. 2 Kings 18:4 Nehushtan sounds like the Hebrew words for bronze and for snake.
Evangelical Heritage Version (EHV)

The Holy Bible, Evangelical Heritage Version®, EHV®, © 2019 Wartburg Project, Inc. All rights reserved.

Acts 20

To Macedonia and Greece

20 After the uproar had ended, Paul sent for the disciples and encouraged them. After saying good-bye, he left to go to Macedonia. After he had gone through those areas and had spoken many words of encouragement to the people, he came to Greece and stayed there three months.

Because a plot was made against him by the Jews just as he was about to set sail for Syria, he decided to go back through Macedonia. He was accompanied[a] by Sopater son of Pyrrhus from Berea, Aristarchus and Secundus from Thessalonica, Gaius from Derbe, Timothy, along with Tychicus and Trophimus from the province of Asia. These men went on ahead and waited for us[b] at Troas. We sailed from Philippi after the days of Unleavened Bread, and within five days we came to them at Troas, where we stayed seven days.

Eutychus Raised From the Dead

On the first day of the week, when we were gathered together to break bread, Paul spoke to the people. Since he intended to leave the next day, he continued talking until midnight. There were many lamps in the upstairs room where we were gathered. Seated in a window was a young man named Eutychus. He was sinking into a deep sleep as Paul kept on talking for a long time. When he was sound asleep, he fell down from the third story and was picked up dead. 10 Paul went down, bent over him, threw his arms around him, and said, “Do not be alarmed, because he is alive!” 11 Then he went upstairs, broke bread, and ate. After talking for a considerable time until dawn, he left. 12 They brought the boy home alive and were greatly comforted.

On to Miletus

13 We went on ahead to the ship and sailed for Assos, where we were going to take Paul aboard. He had arranged it this way, since he was intending to travel there by land. 14 When he met us at Assos, we took him on board and went to Mitylene. 15 From there we set sail. We arrived off Chios the next day. The day after that we crossed over to Samos, and[c] on the following day we came to Miletus. 16 Paul had decided to sail past Ephesus, so that he would not have to spend time in the province of Asia. He was in a hurry to be in Jerusalem, if possible, by the day of Pentecost.

Paul Says Farewell to the Elders of Ephesus

17 From Miletus, Paul sent to Ephesus and called for the elders of the church. 18 When they came to him, he said to them, “You know how I lived the whole time I was with you, from the first day I set foot in the province of Asia. 19 I served the Lord with all humility, with tears, and with the trials that came to me due to the plots of the Jews. 20 You know how I did not hesitate to proclaim to you anything that would be beneficial for you or to teach you publicly and from house to house. 21 I have solemnly testified to both Jews and Greeks about repentance toward God and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ.[d]

22 “And you see, now I am going to Jerusalem, compelled by the Spirit, not knowing what will happen to me there, 23 except that the Holy Spirit keeps warning me in town after town that chains and afflictions are waiting for me. 24 However, I consider my life as of no great value to me, so that I may finish my race and the ministry I received from the Lord Jesus—to testify to the gospel of God’s grace.

25 “Now take note of this too. I know that none of you among whom I went around preaching the kingdom of God will ever see my face again. 26 Therefore I solemnly declare to you today that I am innocent of the blood of all of you, 27 for I did not hesitate to proclaim to you the whole counsel of God.

28 “Always keep watch over yourselves and over the whole flock in which the Holy Spirit has placed you as overseers, to shepherd the church of God,[e] which he purchased with his own blood. 29 I know that after my departure savage wolves, who will not spare the flock, will come in among you. 30 Even from your own group men will rise up, twisting the truth in order to draw away disciples after them. 31 Therefore be always on the alert! Remember that for three years, night and day, I never stopped warning each one of you with tears.

32 “And now I entrust you to God and to the word of his grace, which has power to build you up and to give you an inheritance among all those who are sanctified. 33 I did not covet anyone’s silver or gold or clothing. 34 You yourselves know that these hands have provided for my needs and for those who were with me. 35 In every way I gave you an example that, by working hard like this, we need to help the weak and to remember the words that the Lord Jesus himself said: ‘It is more blessed to give than to receive.’”

36 After Paul said these things, he knelt down with all of them and prayed. 37 They all wept very much, as they threw their arms around Paul’s neck and kissed him. 38 They were most distressed over the statement he made, that they would never see his face again. Then they accompanied him to the ship.

Footnotes:

  1. Acts 20:4 Some witnesses to the text add as far as Asia.
  2. Acts 20:5 Luke is included.
  3. Acts 20:15 Some witnesses to the text add after staying at Trogyllium.
  4. Acts 20:21 A few witnesses to the text omit Christ.
  5. Acts 20:28 Some witnesses to the text read the Lord.
Evangelical Heritage Version (EHV)

The Holy Bible, Evangelical Heritage Version®, EHV®, © 2019 Wartburg Project, Inc. All rights reserved.

Psalm 148

Psalm 148

Praise Him, All Creation

Praise Him, All Creation

Praise the Lord.[a]

Praise From the Heavens

Praise the Lord from the heavens.
Praise him in the heights.
Praise him, all his angels.
Praise him, all his armies.
Praise him, sun and moon.
Praise him, all you bright stars.
Praise him, you highest heavens
and you waters which are above the heavens.

Let them praise the name of the Lord,
because he commanded, and they were created.
He caused them to stand forever and ever.
He gave a decree, and it will not pass away.

Praise From the Earth

Praise the Lord from the earth,
great sea creatures and all the depths,
fire and hail, snow and fog,
storm winds that obey his word,
mountains and all hills,
fruit trees and all cedars,
10 wild animals and all cattle,
crawling creatures and flying birds,
11 kings of the earth and all peoples,
officials and all judges on earth,
12 young men and also young women,
old people with young people.
13 Let them praise the name of the Lord,
for his name alone is exalted.
His splendor is above the earth and the heavens.
14 He has raised up a horn[b] for his people—
the praise of all his favored ones—
for the children of Israel, the people close to him.
Praise the Lord.

Footnotes:

  1. Psalm 148:1 Hebrew hallelu Yah
  2. Psalm 148:14 The word horn is a reference to power. Here it refers to the Messiah.
Evangelical Heritage Version (EHV)

The Holy Bible, Evangelical Heritage Version®, EHV®, © 2019 Wartburg Project, Inc. All rights reserved.

Proverbs 18:6-7

A fool’s lips enter a fight,
and his mouth invites a beating.
A fool’s mouth is his destruction,
and his lips are a trap for his soul.[a]

Footnotes:

  1. Proverbs 18:7 Or his life
Evangelical Heritage Version (EHV)

The Holy Bible, Evangelical Heritage Version®, EHV®, © 2019 Wartburg Project, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Saturday June 29, 2024 (NIV)

2 Kings 15-16

Azariah’s Reign over Judah

15 In the twenty-seventh year of King Jeroboam’s reign over Israel, Amaziah’s son Azariah became king over Judah. He was sixteen years old when he began to reign, and he reigned for fifty-two years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Jecholiah, who was from Jerusalem. He did what the Lord approved, just as his father Amaziah had done.[a] But the high places were not eliminated; the people continued to offer sacrifices and burn incense on the high places. The Lord afflicted the king with an illness; he suffered from a skin disease[b] until the day he died. He lived in separate quarters,[c] while his son Jotham was in charge of the palace and ruled over the people of the land.

The rest of the events of Azariah’s reign, including all his accomplishments, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Judah.[d] Azariah passed away[e] and was buried[f] with his ancestors in the City of David. His son Jotham replaced him as king.

Zechariah’s Reign over Israel

In the thirty-eighth year of King Azariah’s reign over Judah, Jeroboam’s son Zechariah became king over Israel. He reigned in Samaria for six months. He did evil in the sight of[g] the Lord, as his ancestors had done. He did not repudiate[h] the sinful ways of Jeroboam son of Nebat who encouraged Israel to sin. 10 Shallum son of Jabesh conspired against him; he assassinated him in Ibleam[i] and took his place as king. 11 The rest of the events of Zechariah’s reign are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Israel.[j] 12 His assassination fulfilled[k] the Lord’s message to Jehu, “Four generations of your descendants will rule on Israel’s throne.”[l] And that is how it happened.

13 Shallum son of Jabesh became king in the thirty-ninth year of King Uzziah’s[m] reign over Judah. He reigned for one month[n] in Samaria. 14 Menahem son of Gadi went up from Tirzah to[o] Samaria and attacked Shallum son of Jabesh.[p] He killed him and took his place as king. 15 The rest of the events of Shallum’s reign, including the conspiracy he organized, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Israel.[q] 16 At that time Menahem came from Tirzah and attacked Tiphsah. He struck down all who lived in the city and the surrounding territory, because they would not surrender.[r] He even ripped open the pregnant women.

Menahem’s Reign over Israel

17 In the thirty-ninth year of King Azariah’s reign over Judah, Menahem son of Gadi became king over Israel. He reigned for ten years in Samaria. 18 He did evil in the sight of[s] the Lord; he did not repudiate[t] the sinful ways of Jeroboam son of Nebat, who encouraged Israel to sin.[u]

During his reign, 19 Pul[v] king of Assyria invaded the land, and Menahem paid[w] him[x] 1,000 talents[y] of silver to gain his support[z] and to solidify his control of the kingdom.[aa] 20 Menahem got this silver by taxing all the wealthy men in Israel; he took fifty shekels of silver from each one of them and paid it to the king of Assyria.[ab] Then the king of Assyria left; he did not stay there in the land.

21 The rest of the events of Menahem’s reign, including all his accomplishments, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Israel.[ac] 22 Menahem passed away[ad] and his son Pekahiah replaced him as king.

Pekahiah’s Reign over Israel

23 In the fiftieth year of King Azariah’s reign over Judah, Menahem’s son Pekahiah became king over Israel. He reigned in Samaria for two years. 24 He did evil in the sight of[ae] the Lord; he did not repudiate[af] the sinful ways of Jeroboam son of Nebat who encouraged Israel to sin. 25 His officer Pekah son of Remaliah conspired against him. He and fifty Gileadites assassinated Pekahiah, as well as Argob and Arieh, in Samaria in the fortress of the royal palace.[ag] Pekah[ah] then took his place as king.

26 The rest of the events of Pekahiah’s reign, including all his accomplishments, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Israel.[ai]

Pekah’s Reign over Israel

27 In the fifty-second year of King Azariah’s reign over Judah, Pekah son of Remaliah became king over Israel. He reigned in Samaria for twenty years. 28 He did evil in the sight of[aj] the Lord; he did not repudiate[ak] the sinful ways of Jeroboam son of Nebat who encouraged Israel to sin. 29 During Pekah’s reign over Israel, King Tiglath-Pileser of Assyria came and captured Ijon, Abel Beth Maacah, Janoah, Kedesh, Hazor, Gilead, and Galilee, including all the territory of Naphtali. He deported the people[al] to Assyria. 30 Hoshea son of Elah conspired against Pekah son of Remaliah. He assassinated him[am] and took his place as king, in the twentieth year of the reign of Jotham son of Uzziah.

31 The rest of the events of Pekah’s reign, including all his accomplishments, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Israel.[an]

Jotham’s Reign over Judah

32 In the second year of the reign of Israel’s King Pekah son of Remaliah, Uzziah’s son Jotham became king over Judah. 33 He was twenty-five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned for sixteen years in Jerusalem. His mother was Jerusha the daughter of Zadok. 34 He did what the Lord approved, just as his father Uzziah had done.[ao] 35 But the high places were not eliminated; the people continued to offer sacrifices and burn incense on the high places. He built the Upper Gate to the Lord’s temple.

36 The rest of the events of Jotham’s reign, including his accomplishments, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Judah.[ap] 37 In those days the Lord prompted King Rezin of Syria and Pekah son of Remaliah to attack Judah.[aq] 38 Jotham passed away[ar] and was buried with his ancestors in the city of his ancestor David. His son Ahaz replaced him as king.

Ahaz’s Reign over Judah

16 In the seventeenth year of the reign of Pekah son of Remaliah, Jotham’s son Ahaz became king over Judah. Ahaz was twenty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned for sixteen years in Jerusalem. He did not do what pleased the Lord his God, in contrast to his ancestor David.[as] He followed in the footsteps of[at] the kings of Israel. He passed his son through the fire,[au] a horrible sin practiced by the nations[av] whom the Lord drove out from before the Israelites. He offered sacrifices and burned incense on the high places, on the hills, and under every green tree.

At that time King Rezin of Syria and King Pekah son of Remaliah of Israel attacked Jerusalem.[aw] They besieged Ahaz,[ax] but were unable to conquer him.[ay] (At that time King Rezin of Syria[az] recovered Elat for Syria; he drove the Judahites from there.[ba] Syrians[bb] arrived in Elat and live there to this very day.) Ahaz sent messengers to King Tiglath-Pileser of Assyria, saying, “I am your servant and your dependent.[bc] March up and rescue me from the power[bd] of the king of Syria and the king of Israel, who have attacked[be] me.” Then Ahaz took the silver and gold that were[bf] in the Lord’s temple and in the treasuries of the royal palace and sent it as tribute[bg] to the king of Assyria. The king of Assyria responded favorably to his request;[bh] he[bi] attacked Damascus and captured it. He deported the people[bj] to Kir and executed Rezin.

10 When King Ahaz went to meet with King Tiglath-Pileser of Assyria in Damascus, he saw the altar there.[bk] King Ahaz sent to Uriah the priest a drawing of the altar and a blueprint for its design.[bl] 11 Uriah the priest built an altar in conformity to the plans King Ahaz had sent from Damascus.[bm] Uriah the priest finished it before King Ahaz arrived back from Damascus.[bn] 12 When the king arrived back from Damascus and[bo] saw the altar, he approached it[bp] and offered a sacrifice on it.[bq] 13 He offered his burnt sacrifice and his grain offering. He poured out his libation and sprinkled the blood from his peace offerings on the altar. 14 He moved the bronze altar that stood in the Lord’s presence from the front of the temple (between the altar and the Lord’s temple) and put it on the north side of the new[br] altar. 15 King Ahaz ordered Uriah the priest, “On the large altar[bs] offer the morning burnt sacrifice, the evening grain offering, the royal burnt sacrifices and grain offering, the burnt sacrifice for all the people of the land, their grain offering, and their libations. Sprinkle all the blood of the burnt sacrifice and other sacrifices on it. The bronze altar will be for my personal use.”[bt] 16 So Uriah the priest did exactly as[bu] King Ahaz ordered.

17 King Ahaz took off the frames of the movable stands, and removed the basins from them. He took “The Sea”[bv] down from the bronze bulls that supported it[bw] and put it on the stone pavement. 18 He also removed the Sabbath awning[bx] that had been built[by] in the temple and the king’s outer entranceway to the Lord’s temple, on account of the king of Assyria.[bz]

19 The rest of the events of Ahaz’s reign, including his accomplishments, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Judah.[ca] 20 Ahaz passed away[cb] and was buried with his ancestors in the City of David. His son Hezekiah replaced him as king.

Footnotes:

  1. 2 Kings 15:3 tn Heb “he did what was proper in the eyes of the Lord, according to all which Amaziah his father had done.”
  2. 2 Kings 15:5 tn Traditionally, “he was a leper.” But see the note at 5:1.
  3. 2 Kings 15:5 tn The precise meaning of בֵית הַחָפְשִׁית (bet hakhofshit), “house of […?],” is uncertain. For a discussion of various proposals, see M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 166-67.
  4. 2 Kings 15:6 tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Azariah, and all which he did, are they not written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Judah?”
  5. 2 Kings 15:7 tn Heb “lay down with his fathers.”
  6. 2 Kings 15:7 tn Heb “and they buried him.”
  7. 2 Kings 15:9 tn Heb “in the eyes of.”
  8. 2 Kings 15:9 tn Heb “turn away from.”
  9. 2 Kings 15:10 tc The MT reads, “and he struck him down before the people and killed him” (cf. KJV, ASV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT). However, the reading קָבָל עָם (qaval ʿam), “before the people,” is problematic to some because קָבָל is a relatively late Aramaic term. Nevertheless, the Aramaic term qobel certainly antedates the writing of Kings. The bigger problem seems to be the unnecessary intrusion of an Aramaic word at all here. Most interpreters prefer to follow Lucian’s Greek version and read “in Ibleam” (בְיִבְלְעָם, beyivleʿam). Cf. NAB, TEV.
  10. 2 Kings 15:11 tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Jeroboam, look, they are written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Israel.”
  11. 2 Kings 15:12 tn Heb “that was.”
  12. 2 Kings 15:12 tn “sons of four generations will sit for you on the throne of Israel.” sn See the note at 2 Kgs 10:30.
  13. 2 Kings 15:13 sn Azariah was also known by the name Uzziah.
  14. 2 Kings 15:13 tn Heb “a month of days.”
  15. 2 Kings 15:14 tn Heb “and came to.”
  16. 2 Kings 15:14 tn Heb “went up from Tirzah and arrived in Samaria and attacked Shallum son of Jabesh in Samaria.”
  17. 2 Kings 15:15 tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Shallum, and his conspiracy which he conspired, look, they are written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Israel.”
  18. 2 Kings 15:16 tn Heb “then Menahem attacked Tiphsah and all who were in it and its borders from Tirzah, for it would not open, and he attacked.”tn Instead of “Tiphsah,” the LXX has “Tirzah,” while Lucian’s Greek version reads “Tappuah.” For discussion see M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 171.
  19. 2 Kings 15:18 tn Heb “in the eyes of.”
  20. 2 Kings 15:18 tn Heb “turn away from.”
  21. 2 Kings 15:18 tc The MT of v. 18 ends with the words, “all his days.” If this phrase is taken with what precedes, then one should translate, “[who encouraged Israel to sin] throughout his reign.” However, it may be preferable to emend the text to בְּיֹמָיו (beyomayv), “in his days,” and join the phrase to what follows. The translation assumes this change.
  22. 2 Kings 15:19 sn Pul was a nickname of Tiglath-Pileser III (cf. 15:29). See M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 171-72.
  23. 2 Kings 15:19 tn Heb “gave.”
  24. 2 Kings 15:19 tn Heb “Pul.” The proper name has been replaced by the pronoun (“him”) in the translation for stylistic reasons.
  25. 2 Kings 15:19 tn The Hebrew term כִּכָּר (kikkar, “circle”) refers generally to something that is round. When used of metals it can refer to a disk-shaped weight made of the metal or to a standard unit of weight, generally regarded as a talent. Since the accepted weight for a talent of metal is about 75 pounds, this would have amounted to about 75,000 pounds of silver (cf. NCV “about seventy-four thousand pounds”); NLT “thirty-seven tons”; CEV “over thirty tons”; TEV “34,000 kilogrammes.”
  26. 2 Kings 15:19 tn Heb “so his hands would be with him.”
  27. 2 Kings 15:19 tn Heb “to keep hold of the kingdom in his hand.”
  28. 2 Kings 15:20 tn Heb “and Menahem brought out the silver over Israel, over the prominent men of means, to give to the king of Assyria, fifty shekels of silver for each man.”
  29. 2 Kings 15:21 tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Menahem, and all which he did, are they not written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Israel?”
  30. 2 Kings 15:22 tn Heb “lay down with his fathers.”
  31. 2 Kings 15:24 tn Heb “in the eyes of.”
  32. 2 Kings 15:24 tn Heb “turn away from.”
  33. 2 Kings 15:25 tn Heb “and he struck him down in Samaria in the fortress of the house of the king, Argob and Arieh, and with him fifty men from the sons of the Gileadites, and they killed him.”sn The precise identity of Argob and Arieh, as well as their relationship to the king, are uncertain. The usual assumption is that they were officials assassinated along with Pekahiah, or that they were two of the more prominent Gileadites involved in the revolt. For discussion see M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 173.
  34. 2 Kings 15:25 tn Heb “He.” The proper name Pekah has been supplied in the translation for clarity.
  35. 2 Kings 15:26 tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Pekahiah, and all that he did, look, they are written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Israel.”
  36. 2 Kings 15:28 tn Heb “in the eyes of.”
  37. 2 Kings 15:28 tn Heb “turn away from.”
  38. 2 Kings 15:29 tn Heb “them.”
  39. 2 Kings 15:30 tn Heb “and struck him down and killed him.”
  40. 2 Kings 15:31 tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Pekah, and all that he did, look, they are written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Israel.”
  41. 2 Kings 15:34 tn Heb “he did what was proper in the eyes of the Lord, according to all which Uzziah his father had done.”
  42. 2 Kings 15:36 tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Jotham, and that which he did, are they not written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Judah?”
  43. 2 Kings 15:37 tn Heb “the Lord began to send against Judah Rezin…and Pekahiah….”
  44. 2 Kings 15:38 tn Heb “lay down with his fathers.”
  45. 2 Kings 16:2 tn Heb “and he did not do what was proper in the eyes of the Lord his God, like David his father.”
  46. 2 Kings 16:3 tn Heb “he walked in the way of.”
  47. 2 Kings 16:3 sn This may refer to child sacrifice, though some interpret it as a less drastic cultic practice. For discussion see M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 266-67.
  48. 2 Kings 16:3 tn Heb “like the abominable practices of the nations.”
  49. 2 Kings 16:5 tn Heb “went up to Jerusalem for battle.”
  50. 2 Kings 16:5 tn That is, Jerusalem, Ahaz’s capital city.
  51. 2 Kings 16:5 tn Heb “they were unable to fight.” The object must be supplied from the preceding sentence. Elsewhere when the Niphal infinitive of לָחָם (lakham) follows the verb יָכֹל (yakhol), the infinitive appears to have the force of “prevail against.” See Num 22:11; 1 Sam 17:9; and the parallel passage in Isa 7:1.
  52. 2 Kings 16:6 tc Some prefer to read “the king of Edom” and “for Edom” here. The names Syria (Heb “Aram,” אֲרָם, ʾaram) and Edom (אֱדֹם, ʾedom) are easily confused in the Hebrew consonantal script.
  53. 2 Kings 16:6 tn Heb “from Elat.”
  54. 2 Kings 16:6 tc The consonantal text (Kethib), supported by many medieval Hebrew mss, the Syriac version, and some mss of the Targum and Vulgate, read “Syrians” (Heb “Arameans”). The marginal reading (Qere), supported by the LXX, Targums, and Vulgate, reads “Edomites.”
  55. 2 Kings 16:7 tn Heb “son.” Both terms (“servant” and “son”) reflect Ahaz’s subordinate position as Tiglath-Pileser’s subject.
  56. 2 Kings 16:7 tn Heb “hand, palm.”
  57. 2 Kings 16:7 tn Heb “who have arisen against.”
  58. 2 Kings 16:8 tn Heb “that was found.”
  59. 2 Kings 16:8 tn Or “bribe money.”
  60. 2 Kings 16:9 tn Heb “listened to him.”
  61. 2 Kings 16:9 tn Heb “the king of Assyria.”
  62. 2 Kings 16:9 tn Heb “it.”
  63. 2 Kings 16:10 tn Heb “in Damascus.”
  64. 2 Kings 16:10 tn Heb “the likeness of the altar and its pattern for all its work.”
  65. 2 Kings 16:11 tn Heb “according to all that King Ahaz sent from Damascus.”
  66. 2 Kings 16:11 tn Heb “so Uriah the priest did, until the arrival of King Ahaz from Damascus.”
  67. 2 Kings 16:12 tn Heb “and the king.”
  68. 2 Kings 16:12 tn Heb “the altar.”
  69. 2 Kings 16:12 tn Or “ascended it.”
  70. 2 Kings 16:14 tn The word “new” is added in the translation for clarification.
  71. 2 Kings 16:15 tn That is, the newly constructed altar.
  72. 2 Kings 16:15 tn Heb “for me to seek.” The precise meaning of בָּקַר (baqar), “seek,” is uncertain in this context. For discussion see M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 189.
  73. 2 Kings 16:16 tn Heb “according to all that.”
  74. 2 Kings 16:17 sn See the note at 1 Kgs 7:23.
  75. 2 Kings 16:17 tn Heb “that [were] under it.”
  76. 2 Kings 16:18 tn The precise meaning of the Hebrew term מוּסַךְ (musakh; Qere) / מִיסַךְ (misakh; Kethib) is uncertain. For discussion see HALOT 557 s.v. מוּסַךְ and M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 189-90.
  77. 2 Kings 16:18 tn Heb “that they built.”
  78. 2 Kings 16:18 sn It is doubtful that Tiglath-Pileser ordered these architectural changes. Ahaz probably made these changes so he could send some of the items and materials to the Assyrian king as tribute. See M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 190, 193.
  79. 2 Kings 16:19 tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Ahaz, and that which he did, are they not written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Judah?”
  80. 2 Kings 16:20 tn Heb “lay down with his fathers.”
New English Translation (NET)

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Acts 19:13-41

13 But some itinerant[a] Jewish exorcists tried to invoke the name[b] of the Lord Jesus over those who were possessed by[c] evil spirits, saying, “I sternly warn[d] you by Jesus whom Paul preaches.” 14 (Now seven sons of a man named[e] Sceva, a Jewish high priest, were doing this.)[f] 15 But the evil spirit replied to them,[g] “I know about Jesus[h] and I am acquainted with[i] Paul, but who are you?”[j] 16 Then the man who was possessed by[k] the evil spirit jumped on[l] them and beat them all into submission.[m] He prevailed[n] against them so that they fled from that house naked and wounded. 17 This became known to all who lived in Ephesus, both Jews and Greeks; fear came over[o] them all, and the name of the Lord Jesus was praised.[p] 18 Many of those who had believed came forward,[q] confessing and making their deeds known.[r] 19 Large numbers[s] of those who had practiced magic[t] collected their books[u] and burned them up in the presence of everyone.[v] When[w] the value of the books was added up, it was found to total 50,000 silver coins.[x] 20 In this way the word of the Lord[y] continued to grow in power[z] and to prevail.[aa]

A Riot in Ephesus

21 Now after all these things had taken place,[ab] Paul resolved[ac] to go to Jerusalem, passing through Macedonia[ad] and Achaia.[ae] He said,[af] “After I have been there, I must also see Rome.”[ag] 22 So after sending[ah] two of his assistants,[ai] Timothy and Erastus, to Macedonia,[aj] he himself stayed on for a while in the province of Asia.[ak]

23 At[al] that time[am] a great disturbance[an] took place concerning the Way.[ao] 24 For a man named Demetrius, a silversmith who made silver shrines[ap] of Artemis,[aq] brought a great deal[ar] of business[as] to the craftsmen. 25 He gathered[at] these[au] together, along with the workmen in similar trades,[av] and said, “Men, you know that our prosperity[aw] comes from this business. 26 And you see and hear that this Paul has persuaded[ax] and turned away[ay] a large crowd,[az] not only in Ephesus but in practically all of the province of Asia,[ba] by saying[bb] that gods made by hands are not gods at all.[bc] 27 There is danger not only that this business of ours will come into disrepute,[bd] but also that the temple of the great goddess Artemis[be] will be regarded as nothing,[bf] and she whom all the province of Asia[bg] and the world worship will suffer the loss of her greatness.”[bh]

28 When[bi] they heard[bj] this they became enraged[bk] and began to shout,[bl] “Great is Artemis[bm] of the Ephesians!” 29 The[bn] city was filled with the uproar,[bo] and the crowd[bp] rushed to the theater[bq] together,[br] dragging with them Gaius and Aristarchus, the Macedonians who were Paul’s traveling companions. 30 But when Paul wanted to enter the public assembly,[bs] the disciples would not let him. 31 Even some of the provincial authorities[bt] who were his friends sent[bu] a message[bv] to him, urging him not to venture[bw] into the theater. 32 So then some were shouting one thing, some another, for the assembly was in confusion, and most of them did not know why they had met together.[bx] 33 Some of the crowd concluded[by] it was about[bz] Alexander because the Jews had pushed him to the front.[ca] Alexander, gesturing[cb] with his hand, was wanting to make a defense[cc] before the public assembly.[cd] 34 But when they recognized[ce] that he was a Jew, they all shouted in unison,[cf] “Great is Artemis[cg] of the Ephesians!” for about two hours.[ch] 35 After the city secretary[ci] quieted the crowd, he said, “Men of Ephesus, what person[cj] is there who does not know that the city of the Ephesians is the keeper[ck] of the temple of the great Artemis[cl] and of her image that fell from heaven?[cm] 36 So because these facts[cn] are indisputable,[co] you must keep quiet[cp] and not do anything reckless.[cq] 37 For you have brought these men here who are neither temple robbers[cr] nor blasphemers of our goddess.[cs] 38 If then Demetrius and the craftsmen who are with him have a complaint[ct] against someone, the courts are open[cu] and there are proconsuls; let them bring charges against one another there.[cv] 39 But if you want anything in addition,[cw] it will have to be settled[cx] in a legal assembly.[cy] 40 For[cz] we are in danger of being charged with rioting[da] today, since there is no cause we can give to explain[db] this disorderly gathering.”[dc] 41 After[dd] he had said[de] this,[df] he dismissed the assembly.[dg]

Footnotes:

  1. Acts 19:13 tn Grk “some Jewish exorcists who traveled about.” The adjectival participle περιερχομένων (perierchomenōn) has been translated as “itinerant.”
  2. Acts 19:13 tn Grk “to name the name.”
  3. Acts 19:13 tn Grk “who had.” Here ἔχω (echō) is used of demon possession, a common usage according to BDAG 421 s.v. ἔχω 7.a.α.
  4. Acts 19:13 sn The expression I sternly warn you means “I charge you as under oath.”
  5. Acts 19:14 tn Grk “a certain Sceva.”
  6. Acts 19:14 sn Within the sequence of the narrative, this amounts to a parenthetical note by the author.
  7. Acts 19:15 tn Grk “answered and said to them.” The expression, redundant in English, has been simplified to “replied.”
  8. Acts 19:15 tn Grk “Jesus I know about.” Here ᾿Ιησοῦν (Iēsoun) is in emphatic position in Greek, but placing the object first is not normal in contemporary English style.
  9. Acts 19:15 tn BDAG 380 s.v. ἐπίσταμαι 2 has “know, be acquainted with τινάτὸν Παῦλον Ac 19:15.” Here the translation “be acquainted with” was used to differentiate from the previous phrase which has γινώσκω (ginōskō).
  10. Acts 19:15 sn But who are you? This account shows how the power of Paul was so distinct that parallel claims to access that power were denied. In fact, such manipulation, by those who did not know Jesus, was judged (v. 16). The indirect way in which the exorcists made the appeal shows their distance from Jesus.
  11. Acts 19:16 tn Grk “in whom the evil spirit was.”
  12. Acts 19:16 tn Grk “the man in whom the evil spirit was, jumping on them.” The participle ἐφαλόμενος (ephalomenos) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. L&N 15.239 has “ἐφαλόμενος ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐπ᾿ αὐτούς ‘the man jumped on them’ Ac 19:16.”
  13. Acts 19:16 tn Grk “and beating them all into submission.” The participle κατακυριεύσας (katakurieusas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. According to W. Foerster, TDNT 3:1098, the word means “the exercise of dominion against someone, i.e., to one’s own advantage.” These exorcists were shown to be powerless in comparison to Jesus who was working through Paul.
  14. Acts 19:16 tn BDAG 484 s.v. ἰσχύω 3 has “win out, prevailκατά τινος over, against someone Ac 19:16.”
  15. Acts 19:17 tn Grk “fell on.” BDAG 377 s.v. ἐπιπίπτω 2 has “φόβος ἐ. ἐπί τινα fear came upon someoneAc 19:17.”
  16. Acts 19:17 tn Or “exalted.”
  17. Acts 19:18 tn Grk “came”; the word “forward” is supplied in the translation to clarify the meaning and to conform to the contemporary English idiom.
  18. Acts 19:18 tn Or “confessing and disclosing their deeds.” BDAG 59 s.v. ἀναγγέλλω 2 has “W. ἐξομολογεῖσθαι: . τὰς πράξεις αὐτὸν make their deeds known Ac 19:18.”sn Making their deeds known. Ephesus was a major pagan religious center with much syncretistic “magical” practice. Coming to Jesus changed the lives and attitudes of these believers, creating a social impact.
  19. Acts 19:19 tn BDAG 472 s.v. ἱκανός 4.a has “many, quite a few” for ἱκανοί (hikanoi) in this verse.
  20. Acts 19:19 tn On this term see BDAG 800 s.v. περίεργος 2.
  21. Acts 19:19 tn Or “scrolls.”
  22. Acts 19:19 tn Or “burned them up publicly.” L&N 14.66 has “‘they brought their books together and burned them up in the presence of everyone’ Ac 19:19.”
  23. Acts 19:19 tn Grk “and when.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun.
  24. Acts 19:19 tn Or “fifty thousand silver drachmas.” BDAG 128 s.v. ἀργύριον 2.c states, “ἀργυρίου μυριάδας πέντε 50,000 (Attic silver) drachmas Ac 19:19.” Another way to express the value would be in sheep: One drachma could buy one sheep. So this many drachmas could purchase a huge flock of sheep. A drachma also equals a denarius, or a day’s wage for the average worker. So this amount would be equal to 50,000 work days or in excess of 8,300 weeks of labor (the weeks are calculated at six working days because of the Jewish cultural context). The impact of Christianity on the Ephesian economy was considerable (note in regard to this the concerns expressed in 19:26-27).
  25. Acts 19:20 sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rhēma tou kuriou; Luke 22:61, Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logos tou kuriou; here and in Acts 8:25; 13:44, 48, 49; 15:35, 36; 16:32; 19:10; 1 Thess 1:8; 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said.
  26. Acts 19:20 tn The imperfect verb ηὔξανεν (ēuxanen) has been translated as a progressive imperfect, as has the following verb ἴσχυεν (ischuen).
  27. Acts 19:20 sn The word of the Lord…to prevail. Luke portrays the impact of Christianity in terms of the Lord’s transforming power in the lives of individuals.
  28. Acts 19:21 tn Grk “all these things had been fulfilled.”
  29. Acts 19:21 tn Grk “Paul purposed in [his] spirit” (an idiom). According to BDAG 1003 s.v. τίθημι 1.b.ε the entire idiom means “to resolve” (or “decide”): “ἔθετο ὁ Παῦλος ἐν τῷ πνεύματι w. inf. foll. Paul resolved 19:21.”
  30. Acts 19:21 sn Macedonia was the Roman province of Macedonia in Greece.
  31. Acts 19:21 sn Achaia was the Roman province of Achaia located across the Aegean Sea from Ephesus. Its principal city was Corinth.
  32. Acts 19:21 tn Grk “Achaia, saying.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence and the awkwardness in English of having two participial clauses following one another (“passing through…saying”), the participle εἰπών (eipōn) has been translated as a finite verb and a new sentence begun here in the translation.
  33. Acts 19:21 sn This is the first time Paul mentions Rome. He realized the message of Christianity could impact that society even at its heights.
  34. Acts 19:22 tn The aorist participle ἀποστείλας (aposteilas) has been taken temporally reflecting action antecedent to that of the main verb (ἐπέσχεν, epeschen).
  35. Acts 19:22 tn Grk “two of those who ministered to him.”
  36. Acts 19:22 sn Macedonia was the Roman province of Macedonia in Greece.
  37. Acts 19:22 tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia. The Roman province of Asia made up about one-third of modern Asia Minor and was on the western side of it. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.
  38. Acts 19:23 tn Grk “There happened at that time.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Instead the verb “took place” has been supplied in the translation.
  39. Acts 19:23 tn BDAG 512 s.v. κατά B.2.a, “in definite indications of time…Of the past: κ. ἐκεῖνον τὸν καιρόν at that time, thenAc 12:1; 19:23.”
  40. Acts 19:23 tn Grk “no little disturbance” (an idiom; see BDAG 991 s.v. τάραχος 2).
  41. Acts 19:23 sn The Way refers to the Christian movement (Christianity).
  42. Acts 19:24 tn BDAG 665 s.v. ναός 1.a states, “Specif. of temples: of replicas of the temple of Artemis at Ephesus 19:24…but here, near ἱερόν vs. 27ναός can be understood in the more restricted sense shrine, where the image of the goddess stood.”
  43. Acts 19:24 sn Artemis was the name of a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus.
  44. Acts 19:24 tn Grk “brought not a little business” (an idiom).
  45. Acts 19:24 sn A great deal of business. The charge that Christianity brought economic and/or social upheaval was made a number of times in Acts: 16:20-21; 17:6-7; 18:13.
  46. Acts 19:25 tn Grk “gathering.” The participle συναθροίσας (sunathroisas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  47. Acts 19:25 tn Grk “whom”; because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“whom”) has been replaced with a pronoun (“these”) and a new sentence begun in the translation.
  48. Acts 19:25 sn Workmen in similar trades. In effect, Demetrius gathered the Ephesian chamber of commerce together to hear about the threat to their prosperity.
  49. Acts 19:25 tn Another possible meaning is “that this business is an easy way for us to earn a living.”
  50. Acts 19:26 tn Grk “persuading.” The participle πείσας (peisas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  51. Acts 19:26 tn Or “misled.”
  52. Acts 19:26 tn BDAG 472 s.v. ἱκανός 3.a has “of pers. ὄχλος a large crowdAc 11:24, 26; 19:26.”
  53. Acts 19:26 tn Grk “Asia”; see the note on this word in v. 22.
  54. Acts 19:26 tn The participle λέγων (legōn) has been regarded as indicating instrumentality.
  55. Acts 19:26 tn The words “at all” are not in the Greek text but are implied.sn Gods made by hands are not gods at all. Paul preached against paganism’s idolatry. Here is a one-line summary of a speech like that in Acts 17:22-31.
  56. Acts 19:27 tn Or “come under public criticism.” BDAG 101 s.v. ἀπελεγμός has “come into disrepute Ac 19:27.”
  57. Acts 19:27 sn Artemis was the name of a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus.
  58. Acts 19:27 tn BDAG 597 s.v. λογίζομαι 1.b has “εἰς οὐθὲν λογισθῆναι be looked upon as nothingAc 19:27.”
  59. Acts 19:27 tn Grk “Asia”; see the note on this word in v. 22.
  60. Acts 19:27 tn Or “her magnificence.” BDAG 488 s.v. καθαιρέω 2.b has “καθαιρεῖσθαι τῆς μεγαλειότητος αὐτῆς suffer the loss of her magnificence Ac 19:27”; L&N 13.38 has “‘and to have her greatness done away with’ Ac 19:27.”sn Suffer the loss of her greatness. It is important to appreciate that money alone was not the issue, even for the pagan Ephesians. The issue was ultimately the dishonor of their goddess to whom they were devoted in worship. The battle was a “cosmic” one between deities.
  61. Acts 19:28 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
  62. Acts 19:28 tn Grk “And hearing.” The participle ἀκούσαντες (akousantes) has been taken temporally.
  63. Acts 19:28 tn Grk “they became filled with rage” (an idiom). The reaction of the Ephesians here is like that of the Jews earlier (Acts 7:54).
  64. Acts 19:28 tn Grk “and began shouting, saying.” The imperfect verb ἔκραζον (ekrazon) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect. The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in English and has not been translated.
  65. Acts 19:28 sn Artemis was a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus.
  66. Acts 19:29 tn Grk “And the.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
  67. Acts 19:29 tn L&N 39.43 has “‘the uproar spread throughout the whole city’ (literally ‘the city was filled with uproar’) Ac 19:29.” BDAG 954 s.v. σύγχυσις has “confusion, tumult.”
  68. Acts 19:29 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the crowd) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  69. Acts 19:29 sn To the theater. This location made the event a public spectacle. The Grand Theater in Ephesus (still standing today) stood facing down the main thoroughfare of the city toward the docks. It had a seating capacity of 25,000.
  70. Acts 19:29 tn Grk “to the theater with one accord.”
  71. Acts 19:30 tn Or “enter the crowd.” According to BDAG 223 s.v. δῆμος 2, “in a Hellenistic city, a convocation of citizens called together for the purpose of transacting official business, popular assemblyεἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὸν δ. go into the assembly 19:30.”
  72. Acts 19:31 tn Grk “Asiarchs” (high-ranking officials of the province of Asia).
  73. Acts 19:31 tn Grk “sending”; the participle πέμψαντες (pempsantes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  74. Acts 19:31 tn The words “a message” are not in the Greek text but are implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.
  75. Acts 19:31 tn BDAG 242-43 s.v. δίδωμι 11 has “to cause (oneself) to go, go, venture somewhere (cp. our older ‘betake oneself’)…Ac 19:31.” The desire of these sympathetic authorities was surely to protect Paul’s life. The detail indicates how dangerous things had become.
  76. Acts 19:32 tn Or “had assembled.”
  77. Acts 19:33 tn Or “Some of the crowd gave instructions to.”
  78. Acts 19:33 tn The words “it was about” are not in the Greek text but are implied; ᾿Αλέξανδρον (Alexandron) is taken to be an accusative of general reference.
  79. Acts 19:33 tn BDAG 865 s.v. προβάλλω 1 has “to cause to come forward, put forwardτινά someone…push someone forward to speak in the theater…Ac 19:33.”
  80. Acts 19:33 tn Or “motioning.”
  81. Acts 19:33 sn The nature of Alexander’s defense is not clear. It appears he was going to explain, as a Jew, that the problem was not caused by Jews, but by those of “the Way.” However, he never got a chance to speak.
  82. Acts 19:33 tn Or “before the crowd.” According to BDAG 223 s.v. δῆμος 2, “in a Hellenistic city, a convocation of citizens called together for the purpose of transacting official business, popular assemblyἀπολογεῖσθαι τῷ δ. make a defense before the assembly vs. 33.”
  83. Acts 19:34 tn Grk “But recognizing.” The participle ἐπιγνόντες (epignontes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  84. Acts 19:34 tn Grk “[they shouted] with one voice from all of them” (an idiom).
  85. Acts 19:34 sn Artemis was a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus, 1.25 mi (2 km) northeast of the Grand Theater. Dimensions were 418 ft by 239 ft (125 m by 72 m) for the platform; the temple proper was 377 ft by 180 ft (113 m by 54 m). The roof was supported by 117 columns, each 60 ft (18 m) high by 6 ft (1.8 m) in diameter. The Emperor Justinian of Byzantium later took these columns for use in construction of the Hagia Sophia, where they still exist (in modern day Istanbul).
  86. Acts 19:34 sn They all shouted…for about two hours. The extent of the tumult shows the racial and social tensions of a cosmopolitan city like Ephesus, indicating what the Christians in such locations had to face.
  87. Acts 19:35 tn Or “clerk.” The “scribe” (γραμματεύς, grammateus) was the keeper of the city’s records.
  88. Acts 19:35 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos).
  89. Acts 19:35 tn See BDAG 670 s.v. νεωκόρος. The city is described as the “warden” or “guardian” of the goddess and her temple.
  90. Acts 19:35 sn Artemis was a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus.
  91. Acts 19:35 tn Or “from the sky” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).sn The expression fell from heaven adds a note of apologetic about the heavenly origin of the goddess. The city’s identity and well-being was wrapped up with this connection, in their view. Many interpreters view her image that fell from heaven as a stone meteorite regarded as a sacred object.
  92. Acts 19:36 tn Grk “these things.”
  93. Acts 19:36 tn The genitive absolute construction with the participle ὄντων (ontōn) has been translated as a causal adverbial participle. On the term translated “indisputable” see BDAG 68-69 s.v. ἀναντίρρητος which has “not to be contradicted, undeniable.”
  94. Acts 19:36 tn Grk “it is necessary that you be quiet.”
  95. Acts 19:36 tn L&N 88.98 has “pertaining to impetuous and reckless behavior—‘reckless, impetuous.’…‘so then, you must calm down and not do anything reckless’ Ac 19:36.” The city secretary was asking that order be restored.
  96. Acts 19:37 tn Or perhaps, “desecrators of temples.”
  97. Acts 19:37 sn Nor blasphemers of our goddess. There was no formal crime with which Paul could be charged. He had the right to his religion as long as he did not act physically against the temple. Since no overt act had taken place, the official wanted the community to maintain the status quo on these religious matters. The remarks suggest Paul was innocent of any civil crime.
  98. Acts 19:38 tn BDAG 600 s.v. λόγος 1.a.ε has “ἔχειν πρός τινα λόγον have a complaint against someone…19:38.”
  99. Acts 19:38 tn L&N 56.1 has ‘if Demetrius and his workers have an accusation against someone, the courts are open’ Ac 19:38.”
  100. Acts 19:38 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text but is implied. The official’s request is that the legal system be respected.
  101. Acts 19:39 tn Or “anything more than this.”
  102. Acts 19:39 tn Or “resolved.”
  103. Acts 19:39 tn Or “in a legal meeting of the citizens.” L&N 30.81 has “ἐν τῇ ἐννόμῳ ἐκκλησίᾳ ἐπιλυθήσεται ‘it will have to be settled in a legal meeting of the citizens’ Ac 19:39.” This meeting took place three times a year.
  104. Acts 19:40 tn Grk “For indeed.” The ascensive force of καί (kai) would be awkward to translate here.
  105. Acts 19:40 tn The term translated “rioting” refers to a revolt or uprising (BDAG 940 s.v. στάσις 2, 3). This would threaten Roman rule and invite Roman intervention.
  106. Acts 19:40 tn Or “to account for.” Grk “since there is no cause concerning which we can give account concerning this disorderly gathering.” The complexity of the Greek relative clause (“which”) and the multiple prepositions (“concerning”) have been simplified in the translation consistent with contemporary English style.
  107. Acts 19:40 tn Or “commotion.” BDAG 979 s.v. συστροφή 1 gives the meaning “a tumultuous gathering of people, disorderly/seditious gathering or commotionAc 19:40.”
  108. Acts 19:41 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
  109. Acts 19:41 tn Grk “And saying.” The participle εἰπών (eipōn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  110. Acts 19:41 tn Grk “these things.”
  111. Acts 19:41 sn Verse 41 in the English text is included as part of verse 40 in the standard critical editions of the Greek NT.
New English Translation (NET)

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Psalm 147

Psalm 147[a]

147 Praise the Lord,
for it is good to sing praises to our God.
Yes,[b] praise is pleasant and appropriate.
The Lord rebuilds Jerusalem,
and gathers the exiles of Israel.
He heals[c] the brokenhearted,
and bandages their wounds.
He counts the number of the stars;
he names all of them.
Our Lord is great and has awesome power;[d]
there is no limit to his wisdom.[e]
The Lord lifts up the oppressed,
but knocks[f] the wicked to the ground.
Offer to the Lord a song of thanks.[g]
Sing praises to our God to the accompaniment of a harp.
He covers[h] the sky with clouds,
provides the earth with rain,
and causes grass to grow on the hillsides.[i]
He gives food to the animals,
and to the young ravens when they chirp.[j]
10 He is not enamored with the strength of a horse,
nor is he impressed by the warrior’s strong legs.[k]
11 The Lord takes delight in his faithful followers,[l]
and in those who wait for his loyal love.
12 Extol the Lord, O Jerusalem.
Praise your God, O Zion.
13 For he makes the bars of your gates strong.
He blesses your children[m] within you.
14 He[n] brings peace to your territory.[o]
He abundantly provides for you[p] the best grain.
15 He[q] sends his command through the earth;[r]
swiftly his order reaches its destination.[s]
16 He sends the snow that is white like wool;
he spreads the frost that is white like ashes.[t]
17 He throws his hailstones[u] like crumbs.
Who can withstand the cold wind he sends?[v]
18 He then orders it all to melt;[w]
he breathes on it,[x] and the water flows.
19 He proclaims his word to Jacob,
his statutes and regulations to Israel.
20 He has not done so with any other nation;
they are not aware of his regulations.
Praise the Lord!

Footnotes:

  1. Psalm 147:1 sn Psalm 147. The psalmist praises the Lord for he is the sovereign ruler of the world who cares for the needs of his covenant people.
  2. Psalm 147:1 tn Or “for.”
  3. Psalm 147:3 tn Heb “the one who heals.”
  4. Psalm 147:5 tn Heb “and great of strength.”
  5. Psalm 147:5 tn Heb “to his wisdom there is no counting.”
  6. Psalm 147:6 tn Heb “brings down.”
  7. Psalm 147:7 tn Heb “sing to the Lord with thanksgiving.”
  8. Psalm 147:8 tn Heb “the one who covers.”
  9. Psalm 147:8 tn Heb “hills.”
  10. Psalm 147:9 tn Heb “which cry out.”
  11. Psalm 147:10 tn Heb “he does not desire the strength of the horse, he does not take delight in the legs of the man.” Here “the horse” refers to the war horse used by ancient Near Eastern chariot forces, and “the man” refers to the warrior whose muscular legs epitomize his strength.
  12. Psalm 147:11 tn Heb “those who fear him.”
  13. Psalm 147:13 tn Heb “your sons.”
  14. Psalm 147:14 tn Heb “the one who.”
  15. Psalm 147:14 tn Heb “he makes your boundary peace.”
  16. Psalm 147:14 tn Heb “satisfies you with.”
  17. Psalm 147:15 tn Heb “the one who.”
  18. Psalm 147:15 tn Heb “the one who sends his word, the earth.” The Hebrew term אֶרֶץ (ʾerets, “earth”) is an adverbial accusative; one must supply a preposition before it (such as “through” or “to”) in the English translation.
  19. Psalm 147:15 tn Heb “swiftly his word runs.”
  20. Psalm 147:16 tn Heb “the one who gives snow like wool, frost like ashes he scatters.”
  21. Psalm 147:17 tn Heb “his ice.”
  22. Psalm 147:17 tn Heb “Before his cold, who can stand?”
  23. Psalm 147:18 tn Heb “he sends his word and melts them.”
  24. Psalm 147:18 tn Heb “he blows his breath.”
New English Translation (NET)

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Proverbs 18:4-5

The words of a person’s mouth[a] are like[b] deep waters,[c]
and[d] the fountain of wisdom[e] is like[f] a flowing brook.[g]
It is terrible[h] to show partiality[i] to the wicked,[j]
by depriving[k] a righteous man of justice.

Footnotes:

  1. Proverbs 18:4 tc The LXX reads “in a person’s heart,” probably conforming to the near parallel in Prov 20:5.
  2. Proverbs 18:4 tn The comparative “like” does not appear in the Hebrew text, but is implied by the metaphor; it is supplied in the translation for the sake of clarity.
  3. Proverbs 18:4 sn The metaphor “deep waters” indicates either that the words have an inexhaustible supply or that they are profound. Keil and Delitzsch see the second line as two more characteristics of the man’s words rather than as a second sentence, i.e., a person’s words are: deep waters, a bubbling brook, a fountain of wisdom. The “bubbling brook” would refer to the supply and “deep waters” to their insightfulness, or what is beneath the surface. See also Prov 20:5 for the metaphor “deep waters.”
  4. Proverbs 18:4 tn There is debate about the nature of the parallelism between lines 4a and 4b. The major options are: (1) synonymous parallelism, (2) antithetical parallelism (e.g., NAB, NIV, NCV) or (3) formal parallelism. Normally a vav (ו) would begin an antithetical clause; the structure and the ideas suggest that the second colon continues the idea of the first half, but in a parallel way rather than as additional predicates. The metaphors used in the proverb elsewhere describe the wise.
  5. Proverbs 18:4 sn This is an implied comparison (hypocatastasis), the fountain of wisdom being the person who speaks. The Greek version has “fountain of life” instead of “wisdom,” probably influenced from 10:11.
  6. Proverbs 18:4 tn The comparative “like” does not appear in the Hebrew text, but is implied by the metaphor; it is supplied for the sake of clarity.
  7. Proverbs 18:4 sn The point of this metaphor is that the wisdom is a continuous source of refreshing and beneficial ideas.
  8. Proverbs 18:5 tn Heb “not good.” This is a figure known as tapeinosis, a deliberate understatement to emphasize a worst-case scenario: “it is terrible!”
  9. Proverbs 18:5 tn The idiom “lifting up the face of” (שְׂאֵת פְּנֵי, seʾet pene) means “to show partiality” in decisions (e.g., Deut 10:17; Mal 2:9); cf. CEV, NLT “to favor.” The verbal form is the Qal infinitive construct from נָשָׂא (nasaʾ), which functions as the subject of the clause.
  10. Proverbs 18:5 tn Or “the guilty,” since in the second colon “righteous” can also be understood in contrast as “innocent” (cf. NRSV, TEV, NLT).
  11. Proverbs 18:5 tn Heb “to turn aside” (so ASV); NASB “to thrust aside.” The second half of the verse may illustrate this reprehensible action. The Hiphil infinitive construct לְהַטּוֹת (lehattot) may serve either (1) as result, “showing partiality…so that the righteous are turned away,” or (2) as epexegetical infinitive, “showing partiality…by turning the righteous away.” The second is preferred in the translation. Depriving the innocent of their rights is a perversion of justice.
New English Translation (NET)

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The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Friday June 28, 2024 (NIV)

2 Kings 13-14

Jehoahaz’s Reign over Israel

13 In the twenty-third year of the reign of Judah’s King Joash son of Ahaziah, Jehu’s son Jehoahaz became king over Israel. He reigned in Samaria for seventeen years. He did evil in the sight of[a] the Lord. He continued in[b] the sinful ways of Jeroboam son of Nebat who had encouraged Israel to sin; he did not repudiate those sins.[c] The Lord was furious with[d] Israel and handed them over to[e] King Hazael of Syria and to Hazael’s son Ben Hadad for many years.[f]

Jehoahaz asked for the Lord’s mercy,[g] and the Lord responded favorably,[h] for he saw that Israel was oppressed by the king of Syria.[i] The Lord provided a deliverer[j] for Israel, and they were freed from Syria’s power.[k] The Israelites once more lived in security.[l] But they did not repudiate[m] the sinful ways of the family[n] of Jeroboam, who encouraged Israel to sin; they continued in those sins.[o] There was even an Asherah pole[p] standing in Samaria. Jehoahaz had no army left[q] except for 50 horsemen, 10 chariots, and 10,000 foot soldiers. The king of Syria had destroyed his troops[r] and trampled on them as dust.[s]

The rest of the events of Jehoahaz’s reign, including all his accomplishments and successes, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Israel.[t] Jehoahaz passed away[u] and was buried[v] in Samaria. His son Jehoash[w] replaced him as king.

Jehoash’s Reign over Israel

10 In the thirty-seventh year of King Jehoash’s reign over Judah, Jehoahaz’s son Jehoash became king over Israel. He reigned in Samaria for sixteen years. 11 He did evil in the sight of[x] the Lord. He did not repudiate[y] the sinful ways of Jeroboam son of Nebat who encouraged Israel to sin; he continued in those sins.[z] 12 The rest of the events of Jehoash’s[aa] reign, including all his accomplishments and his successful war with King Amaziah of Judah, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Israel.[ab] 13 Jehoash passed away[ac] and Jeroboam succeeded him on the throne.[ad] Jehoash was buried in Samaria with the kings of Israel.

Elisha Makes One Final Prophecy

14 Now Elisha had a terminal illness.[ae] King Jehoash of Israel went down to visit him.[af] He wept before him and said, “My father, my father! The chariot[ag] and horsemen of Israel!”[ah] 15 Elisha told him, “Take a bow and some arrows,” and he did so.[ai] 16 Then Elisha[aj] told the king of Israel, “Aim the bow.”[ak] He did so,[al] and Elisha placed his hands on the king’s hands. 17 Elisha[am] said, “Open the east window,” and he did so.[an] Elisha said, “Shoot!” and he did so.[ao] Elisha[ap] said, “This arrow symbolizes the victory the Lord will give you over Syria.[aq] You will annihilate Syria in Aphek!”[ar] 18 Then Elisha[as] said, “Take the arrows,” and he did so.[at] He told the king of Israel, “Strike the ground!” He struck the ground three times and stopped. 19 The prophet[au] got angry at him and said, “If you had struck the ground five or six times, you would have annihilated Syria![av] But now, you will defeat Syria only three times.”

20 Elisha died and was buried.[aw] Moabite raiding parties invaded[ax] the land at the beginning of the year.[ay] 21 One day some men[az] were burying a man when they spotted[ba] a raiding party. So they threw the dead man[bb] into Elisha’s tomb. When the body[bc] touched Elisha’s bones, the dead man[bd] came to life and stood on his feet.

22 Now King Hazael of Syria oppressed Israel throughout Jehoahaz’s reign.[be] 23 But the Lord had mercy on them and felt pity for them.[bf] He extended his favor to them[bg] because of the promise he had made[bh] to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. He has been unwilling to destroy them or remove them from his presence to this very day.[bi] 24 When King Hazael of Syria died, his son Ben Hadad replaced him as king. 25 Jehoahaz’s son Jehoash took back from[bj] Ben Hadad son of Hazael the cities that he had taken from his father Jehoahaz in war. Jehoash defeated him three times and recovered the Israelite cities.

Amaziah’s Reign over Judah

14 In the second year of the reign of Israel’s King Joash son of Joahaz,[bk] Joash’s[bl] son Amaziah became king over Judah. He was twenty-five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned for twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. His mother[bm] was Jehoaddan, who was from Jerusalem. He did what the Lord approved,[bn] but not like David his ancestor had done. He followed the example of his father Joash.[bo] But the high places were not eliminated; the people continued to offer sacrifices and burn incense on the high places.

When he had secured control of the kingdom,[bp] he executed the servants who had assassinated his father.[bq] But he did not execute the sons of the assassins. He obeyed the Lord’s commandment as recorded in the scroll of the law of Moses, “Fathers must not be put to death for what their sons do,[br] and sons must not be put to death for what their fathers do.[bs] A man must be put to death only for his own sin.”[bt]

He defeated[bu] 10,000 Edomites in the Salt Valley; he captured Sela in battle and renamed it Joktheel, a name it has retained to this very day. Then Amaziah sent messengers to Jehoash son of Jehoahaz son of Jehu, king of Israel. He said, “Come, let’s meet face to face.”[bv] King Jehoash of Israel sent this message back to King Amaziah of Judah, “A thornbush in Lebanon sent this message to a cedar in Lebanon, ‘Give your daughter to my son as a wife.’ Then a wild animal[bw] of Lebanon came by and trampled down the thorn.[bx] 10 You thoroughly defeated Edom,[by] and it has gone to your head![bz] Gloat over your success,[ca] but stay in your palace. Why bring calamity on yourself? Why bring down yourself and Judah along with you?”[cb] 11 But Amaziah would not heed the warning,[cc] so King Jehoash of Israel attacked.[cd] He and King Amaziah of Judah met face to face[ce] in Beth Shemesh of Judah. 12 Judah was defeated by Israel, and each man ran back home.[cf] 13 King Jehoash of Israel captured King Amaziah of Judah, son of Jehoash son of Ahaziah, in Beth Shemesh. He[cg] attacked[ch] Jerusalem and broke down the wall of Jerusalem from the Gate of Ephraim to the Corner Gate—a distance of about 600 feet.[ci] 14 He took away all the gold and silver, all the items found in the Lord’s temple and in the treasuries of the royal palace, and some hostages.[cj] Then he went back to Samaria.

15 The rest of the events of Jehoash’s[ck] reign, including all his accomplishments and his successful war with King Amaziah of Judah, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Israel.[cl] 16 Jehoash passed away[cm] and was buried in Samaria with the kings of Israel. His son Jeroboam replaced him as king.

17 King Amaziah son of Joash of Judah lived for fifteen years after the death of King Jehoash son of Jehoahaz of Israel. 18 The rest of the events of Amaziah’s reign are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Judah.[cn] 19 Conspirators plotted against him in Jerusalem,[co] so he fled to Lachish. But they sent assassins after him,[cp] and they killed him there. 20 His body was carried back by horses,[cq] and he was buried in Jerusalem with his ancestors in the City of David. 21 All the people of Judah took Azariah, who was sixteen years old, and made him king in his father Amaziah’s place. 22 Azariah[cr] built up Elat and restored it to Judah after the king[cs] had passed away.[ct]

Jeroboam II’s Reign over Israel

23 In the fifteenth year of the reign of Judah’s King Amaziah son of Joash, Jeroboam son of Joash became king over Israel. He reigned for forty-one years in Samaria. 24 He did evil in the sight of[cu] the Lord; he did not repudiate[cv] the sinful ways of Jeroboam son of Nebat who encouraged Israel to sin. 25 He restored the border of Israel from Lebo Hamath[cw] in the north to the sea of the rift valley[cx] in the south,[cy] just as in the message from the Lord God of Israel that he had announced through his servant Jonah son of Amittai, the prophet from Gath Hepher. 26 The Lord saw Israel’s intense suffering;[cz] everyone was weak and incapacitated and Israel had no deliverer.[da] 27 The Lord had not decreed that he would blot out Israel’s memory[db] from under heaven,[dc] so he delivered them through Jeroboam son of Joash.

28 The rest of the events of Jeroboam’s reign, including all his accomplishments, his military success in restoring Israelite control over Damascus and Hamath, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Israel.[dd] 29 Jeroboam passed away[de] and was buried in Samaria with the kings of Israel.[df] His son Zechariah replaced him as king.

Footnotes:

  1. 2 Kings 13:2 tn Heb “in the eyes of.”
  2. 2 Kings 13:2 tn Heb “walked after.”
  3. 2 Kings 13:2 tn Heb “he did not turn aside from it.”
  4. 2 Kings 13:3 tn Heb “and the anger of the Lord burned against.”
  5. 2 Kings 13:3 tn Heb “he gave them into the hand of.”
  6. 2 Kings 13:3 tn Heb “all the days.”
  7. 2 Kings 13:4 tn Heb “appeased the face of the Lord.”
  8. 2 Kings 13:4 tn Heb “and the Lord listened to him.”
  9. 2 Kings 13:4 tn Heb “for he saw the oppression of Israel, for the king of Syria oppressed them.”
  10. 2 Kings 13:5 sn The identity of this unnamed “deliverer” is debated. For options see M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 143.
  11. 2 Kings 13:5 tn Heb “and they went from under the hand of Syria.”
  12. 2 Kings 13:5 tn Heb “and the sons of Israel lived in their tents as before.”
  13. 2 Kings 13:6 tn Heb “they did not turn away from.”
  14. 2 Kings 13:6 tn Heb “house.”
  15. 2 Kings 13:6 tc Heb “in it he walked.” The singular verb (הָלַךְ, halakh) is probably due to an error of haplography and should be emended to the plural (הָלְכוּ, halekhu). Note that a vav immediately follows (on the form וְגַם, vegam).
  16. 2 Kings 13:6 tn Or “an image of Asherah”; ASV, NASB “the Asherah”; NCV “the Asherah idol.”sn Asherah was a leading deity of the Canaanite pantheon, wife/sister of El and goddess of fertility. She was commonly worshiped at shrines in or near groves of evergreen trees, or, failing that, at places marked by wooden poles. These were to be burned or cut down (Deut 12:3; 16:21; Judg 6:25, 28, 30; 2 Kgs 18:4).
  17. 2 Kings 13:7 tn Heb “Indeed he did not leave to Jehoahaz people.” The identity of the subject is uncertain, but the king of Syria, mentioned later in the verse, is a likely candidate.
  18. 2 Kings 13:7 tn Heb “them,” i.e., the remainder of this troops.
  19. 2 Kings 13:7 tn Heb “and made them like dust for trampling.”
  20. 2 Kings 13:8 tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Jehoahaz, and all which he did and his strength, are they not written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Israel?”
  21. 2 Kings 13:9 tn Heb “lay down with his fathers.”
  22. 2 Kings 13:9 tn Heb “and they buried him.”
  23. 2 Kings 13:9 tn Heb “Joash,” an alternate form of the name “Jehoash.” For clarity, the translation consistently uses “Jehoash” for the son of Jehoahaz King of Israel in 13:9, 12, 13, 14, 25.
  24. 2 Kings 13:11 tn Heb “in the eyes of.”
  25. 2 Kings 13:11 tn Heb “turn away from all.”
  26. 2 Kings 13:11 tn Heb “in it he walked.”
  27. 2 Kings 13:12 tn “Joash”; Jehoash and Joash are alternate forms of the same name.
  28. 2 Kings 13:12 tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Joash, and all which he did and his strength, [and] how he fought with Amaziah king of Judah, are they not written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Israel?”
  29. 2 Kings 13:13 tn Heb “lay down with his fathers.”
  30. 2 Kings 13:13 tn Heb “sat on his throne.”
  31. 2 Kings 13:14 tn Heb “Now Elisha was ill with the illness by which he would die.”
  32. 2 Kings 13:14 tn Heb “went down to him.”
  33. 2 Kings 13:14 tn Though the noun is singular here, it may be collective, in which case it could be translated “chariots.”
  34. 2 Kings 13:14 sn By comparing Elisha to a one-man army, the king emphasizes the power of the prophetic word. See the note at 2:12.
  35. 2 Kings 13:15 tn Heb “and he took a bow and some arrows.”
  36. 2 Kings 13:16 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Elisha) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  37. 2 Kings 13:16 tn Heb “Cause your hand to ride on the bow.”
  38. 2 Kings 13:16 tn Heb “and he caused his hand to ride.”
  39. 2 Kings 13:17 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Elisha) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  40. 2 Kings 13:17 tn Heb “He opened [it].”
  41. 2 Kings 13:17 tn Heb “and he shot.”
  42. 2 Kings 13:17 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Elisha) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  43. 2 Kings 13:17 tn Heb “The arrow of victory of the Lord and the arrow of victory over Syria.”
  44. 2 Kings 13:17 tn Heb “you will strike down Syria in Aphek until destruction.”
  45. 2 Kings 13:18 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Elisha) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  46. 2 Kings 13:18 tn Heb “and he took [them].”
  47. 2 Kings 13:19 tn Heb “man of God.”
  48. 2 Kings 13:19 tn Heb “[It was necessary] to strike five or six times, then you would strike down Syria until destruction.” On the syntax of the infinitive construct, see GKC 349 §114.k.
  49. 2 Kings 13:20 tn Heb “and they buried him.”
  50. 2 Kings 13:20 tn Heb “entered.”
  51. 2 Kings 13:20 tc The MT reading בָּא שָׁנָה (baʾ shanah), “it came, year,” should probably be emended to בְּבָא הַשָּׁנָה (bevaʾ hashanah), “at the coming [i.e., ‘beginning’] of the year.” See M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 148.
  52. 2 Kings 13:21 tn Heb “and it so happened [that] they.”
  53. 2 Kings 13:21 tn Heb “and look, they saw.”
  54. 2 Kings 13:21 tn Heb “the man”; the adjective “dead” has been supplied in the translation for clarity.
  55. 2 Kings 13:21 tn Heb “the man.”
  56. 2 Kings 13:21 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the dead man) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Otherwise the reader might think it was Elisha rather than the unnamed dead man who came back to life.
  57. 2 Kings 13:22 tn Heb “all the days of Jehoahaz.”
  58. 2 Kings 13:23 tn Or “showed them compassion.”
  59. 2 Kings 13:23 tn Heb “he turned to them.”
  60. 2 Kings 13:23 tn Heb “because of his covenant with.”
  61. 2 Kings 13:23 tn Heb “until now.”
  62. 2 Kings 13:25 tn Heb “from the hand of.”
  63. 2 Kings 14:1 sn The name Joahaz is an alternate form of Jehoahaz.
  64. 2 Kings 14:1 sn The referent here is Joash of Judah (see 12:21), not Joash of Israel, mentioned earlier in the verse.
  65. 2 Kings 14:2 tn Heb “the name of his mother.”
  66. 2 Kings 14:3 tn Heb “he did what was proper in the eyes of the Lord.”
  67. 2 Kings 14:3 tn Heb “according to all which Joash his father had done, he did.”
  68. 2 Kings 14:5 tn Heb “when the kingdom was secure in his hand.”
  69. 2 Kings 14:5 tn Heb “he struck down his servants, the ones who had struck down the king, his father.”
  70. 2 Kings 14:6 tn Heb “on account of sons.”
  71. 2 Kings 14:6 tn Heb “on account of fathers.”
  72. 2 Kings 14:6 sn This law is recorded in Deut 24:16.
  73. 2 Kings 14:7 tn Or “struck down.”
  74. 2 Kings 14:8 tn Heb “let us look at each other [in the] face.” The expression refers here to meeting in battle. See v. 11.
  75. 2 Kings 14:9 tn Heb “the animal of the field.”
  76. 2 Kings 14:9 sn Judah is the thorn in the allegory. Amaziah’s success has deceived him into thinking he is on the same level as the major powers in the area (symbolized by the cedar). In reality he is not capable of withstanding an attack by a real military power such as Israel (symbolized by the wild animal).
  77. 2 Kings 14:10 tn Or “you have indeed defeated Edom.”
  78. 2 Kings 14:10 tn Heb “and your heart has lifted you up.”
  79. 2 Kings 14:10 tn Heb “be glorified.”
  80. 2 Kings 14:10 tn Heb “Why get involved in calamity and fall, you and Judah with you?”
  81. 2 Kings 14:11 tn Heb “did not listen.”
  82. 2 Kings 14:11 tn Heb “went up.”
  83. 2 Kings 14:11 tn Heb “looked at each other [in the] face.”
  84. 2 Kings 14:12 tn Heb “and Judah was struck down before Israel and they fled, each to his tent.”
  85. 2 Kings 14:13 tc The MT has the plural form of the verb, but the final vav (ו) is virtually dittographic. The word that immediately follows in the Hebrew text begins with a yod (י). The form should be emended to the singular, which is consistent in number with the verb (“he broke down”) that follows.
  86. 2 Kings 14:13 tn Heb “came to.”
  87. 2 Kings 14:13 tn Heb “400 cubits.” The standard cubit in the OT is assumed by most authorities to be about 18 inches (45 cm) long.
  88. 2 Kings 14:14 tn Heb “the sons of the pledges.”
  89. 2 Kings 14:15 sn Jehoash and Joash are alternate forms of the same name.
  90. 2 Kings 14:15 tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Jehoash, and all which he did and his strength, [and] how he fought with Amaziah king of Judah, are they not written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Israel?”
  91. 2 Kings 14:16 tn Heb “lay down with his fathers.”
  92. 2 Kings 14:18 tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Amaziah, are they not written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Judah?”
  93. 2 Kings 14:19 tn Heb “and they conspired against him [with] a conspiracy in Jerusalem.”
  94. 2 Kings 14:19 tn Heb “and they sent after him to Lachish.”
  95. 2 Kings 14:20 tn Heb “and they carried him on horses.”
  96. 2 Kings 14:22 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Azariah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  97. 2 Kings 14:22 sn This must refer to Amaziah.
  98. 2 Kings 14:22 tn Heb “lay with his fathers.”
  99. 2 Kings 14:24 tn Heb “in the eyes of.”
  100. 2 Kings 14:24 tn Heb “turn away from all.”
  101. 2 Kings 14:25 tn Or “entrance of Hamath” (so NASB and cf. KJV). This may be a site some 44 miles north of Damascus (see T. R. Hobbs, 2 Kings [WBC], 182).
  102. 2 Kings 14:25 tn The “sea of the rift valley” is the Dead Sea.
  103. 2 Kings 14:25 tn The phrases “in the north” and “in the south” are added in the translation for clarification.
  104. 2 Kings 14:26 tc Heb “for the Lord saw the very bitter affliction of Israel.” This translation assumes an emendation of מֹרֶה (moreh), which is meaningless here, to הַמַּר (hammar), the adjective “bitter” functioning attributively with the article prefixed. This emendation is supported by the LXX, Syriac Peshitta, and Vulgate. Another option would be מַר הוּא (mar huʾ), “it was bitter.”
  105. 2 Kings 14:26 tn Heb “[there was] none but the restrained, and [there was] none but the abandoned, and there was no deliverer for Israel.” On the meaning of the terms עָצוּר (ʿatsur) and עָזוּב (ʿazur), see the note at 1 Kgs 14:10.
  106. 2 Kings 14:27 tn Heb “name.”
  107. 2 Kings 14:27 tn The phrase “from under heaven” adds emphasis to the verb “blot out” and suggest total annihilation. For other examples of the verb מָחָה (makhah), “blot out,” combined with “from under heaven,” see Exod 17:14; Deut 9:14; 25:19; 29:20.
  108. 2 Kings 14:28 tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Jeroboam, and all which he did and his strength, [and] how he fought and how he restored Damascus and Hamath to Judah in Israel, are they not written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Israel?” The phrase “to Judah” is probably not original; it may be a scribal addition by a Judahite scribe who was trying to link Jeroboam’s conquests with the earlier achievements of David and Solomon, who ruled in Judah. The Syriac Peshitta has simply “to Israel.” M. Cogan and H. Tadmor (II Kings [AB], 162) offer this proposal, but acknowledge that it is “highly speculative.”
  109. 2 Kings 14:29 tn Heb “lay down with his fathers.”
  110. 2 Kings 14:29 tn The MT has simply “with the kings of Israel,” which appears to stand in apposition to the immediately preceding “with his fathers.” But it is likely that the words “and he was buried in Samaria” have been accidentally omitted from the text. See 13:13 and 14:16.
New English Translation (NET)

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Acts 18:23-19:12

23 After he spent[a] some time there, Paul left and went through the region of Galatia[b] and Phrygia,[c] strengthening all the disciples.

Apollos Begins His Ministry

24 Now a Jew named Apollos, a native of Alexandria, arrived in Ephesus. He was an eloquent speaker,[d] well-versed[e] in the scriptures. 25 He had been instructed in[f] the way of the Lord, and with great enthusiasm[g] he spoke and taught accurately the facts[h] about Jesus, although he knew[i] only the baptism of John. 26 He began to speak out fearlessly[j] in the synagogue,[k] but when Priscilla and Aquila[l] heard him, they took him aside[m] and explained the way of God to him more accurately. 27 When Apollos[n] wanted to cross over to Achaia,[o] the brothers encouraged[p] him[q] and wrote to the disciples to welcome him. When he arrived, he[r] assisted greatly those who had believed by grace, 28 for he refuted the Jews vigorously[s] in public debate,[t] demonstrating from the scriptures that the Christ[u] was Jesus.[v]

Disciples of John the Baptist at Ephesus

19 While[w] Apollos was in Corinth, Paul went through the inland[x] regions[y] and came to Ephesus. He[z] found some disciples there[aa] and said to them, “Did you receive the Holy Spirit when you believed?”[ab] They replied,[ac] “No, we have not even[ad] heard that there is a Holy Spirit.” So Paul[ae] said, “Into what then were you baptized?” “Into John’s baptism,” they replied.[af] Paul said, “John baptized with a baptism of repentance, telling the people to believe in the one who was to come after him,[ag] that is, in Jesus.” When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus, and when Paul placed[ah] his hands on them, the Holy Spirit came[ai] upon them, and they began to speak[aj] in tongues and to prophesy.[ak] (Now there were about twelve men in all.)[al]

Paul Continues to Minister at Ephesus

So Paul[am] entered[an] the synagogue[ao] and spoke out fearlessly[ap] for three months, addressing[aq] and convincing[ar] them about the kingdom of God.[as] But when[at] some were stubborn[au] and refused to believe, reviling[av] the Way[aw] before the congregation, he left[ax] them and took the disciples with him,[ay] addressing[az] them every day[ba] in the lecture hall[bb] of Tyrannus. 10 This went on for two years, so that all who lived in the province of Asia,[bc] both Jews and Greeks, heard the word of the Lord.[bd]

The Seven Sons of Sceva

11 God was performing extraordinary[be] miracles by Paul’s hands, 12 so that when even handkerchiefs or aprons that had touched his body[bf] were brought[bg] to the sick, their diseases left them and the evil spirits went out of them.[bh]

Footnotes:

  1. Acts 18:23 tn Grk “Having spent”; the participle ποιήσας (poiēsas) is taken temporally.
  2. Acts 18:23 sn Galatia refers to either (1) the region of the old kingdom of Galatia in the central part of Asia Minor, or (2) the Roman province of Galatia, whose principal cities in the 1st century were Ancyra and Pisidian Antioch. The exact extent and meaning of this area has been a subject of considerable controversy in modern NT studies.
  3. Acts 18:23 sn Phrygia was a district in central Asia Minor west of Pisidia. See Acts 16:6.
  4. Acts 18:24 tn Or “was a learned man.” In this verse λόγιος (logios) can refer to someone who was an attractive and convincing speaker, a rhetorician (L&N 33.32), or it can refer to the person who has acquired a large part of the intellectual heritage of a given culture (“learned” or “cultured,” L&N 27.20, see also BDAG 598 s.v. λόγιος which lists both meanings as possible here). The description of Apollos’ fervent speaking in the following verses, as well as implications from 1 Cor 1-4, where Paul apparently compares his style and speaking ability with that of Apollos, suggests that eloquent speaking ability or formal rhetorical skill are in view here. This clause has been moved from its order in the Greek text (Grk “a certain Jew named Apollos, a native of Alexandria, an eloquent speaker, arrived in Ephesus, who was powerful in the scriptures”) and paired with the last element (“powerful in the scriptures”) due to the demands of clarity and contemporary English style.
  5. Acts 18:24 tn Grk “powerful.” BDAG 264 s.v. δυνατός 1.b has “in the Scriptures = well-versed 18:24.”
  6. Acts 18:25 tn Or “had been taught.”
  7. Acts 18:25 tn Grk “and boiling in spirit” (an idiom for great eagerness or enthusiasm; BDAG 426 s.v. ζέω).
  8. Acts 18:25 tn Grk “the things.”
  9. Acts 18:25 tn Grk “knowing”; the participle ἐπιστάμενος (epistamenos) has been translated as a concessive adverbial participle.
  10. Acts 18:26 tn Or “boldly.” This is a frequent term in Acts (9:27-28; 13:46; 14:3; 19:8; 26:26).
  11. Acts 18:26 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.
  12. Acts 18:26 sn Priscilla and Aquila. This key couple, of which Priscilla was an important enough figure to be mentioned by name, instructed Apollos about the most recent work of God. See also the note on Aquila in 18:2.
  13. Acts 18:26 tn BDAG 883 s.v. προσλαμβάνω 3 has “take aside, mid. τινά someone…So prob. also Ac 18:26: Priscilla and Aquila take Apollos aside to teach him undisturbed.”
  14. Acts 18:27 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Apollos) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  15. Acts 18:27 sn To cross over to Achaia. Achaia was organized by the Romans as a separate province of Greece in 27 b.c. and was located across the Aegean Sea from Ephesus. The city of Corinth was in Achaia.
  16. Acts 18:27 tn Grk “encouraging [him], the brothers wrote.” The participle προτρεψάμενοι (protrepsamenoi) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. This was the typical letter of commendation from the Ephesians to the Achaeans.
  17. Acts 18:27 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.
  18. Acts 18:27 tn Grk “who, when he arrived.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“who”) was replaced with the pronoun “he” and a new sentence begun in the translation.
  19. Acts 18:28 tn Or “vehemently.” BDAG 414 s.v. εὐτόνως has “vigorously, vehementlyεὐ. διακατελέγχεσθαί τινι refute someone vigorously Ac 18:28.”
  20. Acts 18:28 tn L&N 33.442 translates the phrase τοῖς ᾿Ιουδαίοις διακατηλέγχετο δημοσίᾳ (tois Ioudaiois diakatēlencheto dēmosia) as “he defeated the Jews in public debate.” On this use of the term δημόσιος (dēmosios) see BDAG 223 s.v. 2.
  21. Acts 18:28 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.” Again the issue is identifying the Christ as Jesus (see 5:42; 8:5; 9:22; 18:5).sn See the note on Christ in 2:31.
  22. Acts 18:28 tn Although many English translations have here “that Jesus was the Christ,” in the case of two accusatives following a copulative infinitive, the first would normally be the subject and the second the predicate nominative. Additionally, the first accusative here (τὸν χριστόν, ton christon) has the article, a further indication that it should be regarded as subject of the infinitive.
  23. Acts 19:1 tn Grk “It happened that while.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  24. Acts 19:1 tn Or “interior.”
  25. Acts 19:1 tn BDAG 92 s.v. ἀνωτερικός has “upper τὰ ἀ. μέρη the upper (i.e., inland) country, the interior Ac 19:1.”
  26. Acts 19:1 tn Grk “and found.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence and the sequencing with the following verse the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun.
  27. Acts 19:1 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text but is implied.
  28. Acts 19:2 tn The participle πιστεύσαντες (pisteusantes) is taken temporally.
  29. Acts 19:2 tn Grk “they [said] to him” (the word “said” is implied in the Greek text).
  30. Acts 19:2 tn This use of ἀλλά (alla) is ascensive and involves an ellipsis (BDAG 45 s.v. ἀλλά 3): “No, [not only did we not receive the Spirit,] but also we have not heard that there is a Holy Spirit.” However, this is lengthy and somewhat awkward in English, and the ascensive meaning can be much more easily represented by including the word “even” after the negation. Apparently these disciples were unaware of the provision of the Spirit that is represented in baptism. The language sounds like they did not know about a Holy Spirit, but this seems to be only linguistic shorthand for not knowing about the Spirit’s presence (Luke 3:15-18). The situation is parallel to that of Apollos. Apollos and these disciples represent those who “complete” their transition to messianic faith as Jews.
  31. Acts 19:3 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  32. Acts 19:3 tn Grk “they said.”
  33. Acts 19:4 sn These disciples may have had their contact with John early on in the Baptist’s ministry before Jesus had emerged. This is the fifth time Luke links John the Baptist and Jesus (Acts 1:5; 11:16; 13:25; 18:25).
  34. Acts 19:6 tn Or “laid.”
  35. Acts 19:6 sn The coming of the Holy Spirit here is another case where the Spirit comes and prophecy results in Acts (see Acts 2). Paul’s action parallels that of Peter (Acts 8) and not just with Gentiles.
  36. Acts 19:6 tn The imperfect verb ἐλάλουν (elaloun) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.
  37. Acts 19:6 tn The imperfect verb ἐπροφήτευον (eprophēteuon) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.
  38. Acts 19:7 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.
  39. Acts 19:8 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  40. Acts 19:8 tn Grk “So entering the synagogue, he spoke out fearlessly.” The participle εἰσελθών (eiselthōn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  41. Acts 19:8 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.
  42. Acts 19:8 tn Or “boldly.”
  43. Acts 19:8 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 19:8. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.
  44. Acts 19:8 tn Or “addressing them persuasively.” The two participles διαλεγόμενος and πείθων (dialegomenos and peithōn) can be understood as a hendiadys (so NIV, NRSV), thus, “addressing them persuasively.”
  45. Acts 19:8 sn To talk about Jesus as the Christ who has come is to talk about the kingdom of God. This is yet another summary of the message like that in 18:28. The nature of the kingdom of God in the NT and in Jesus’ teaching (along with Paul’s teaching here) has long been debated by interpreters and scholars, with discussion primarily centering around the nature of the kingdom (earthly, heavenly, or both) and the kingdom’s arrival (present, future, or both). An additional major issue concerns the relationship between the kingdom of God and the person and work of Jesus himself. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21; Acts 1:3.
  46. Acts 19:9 tn BDAG 1105-6 s.v. ὡς 8.b lists this use as a temporal conjunction.
  47. Acts 19:9 tn Or “some became hardened.” See BDAG 930 s.v. σκληρύνω b and Acts 7:51-53.
  48. Acts 19:9 tn Or “speaking evil of.” BDAG 500 s.v. κακολογέω has “speak evil of, revile, insultτὶ someth. τὴν ὁδόν the Way (i.e. Christian way of life) Ac 19:9.”
  49. Acts 19:9 sn The Way refers to the Christian movement (Christianity). Luke frequently refers to it as “the Way” (Acts 9:2; 18:25-26; 19:23; 22:4; 24:14, 22).
  50. Acts 19:9 tn Grk “leaving them, he took.” The participle ἀποστάς (apostas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  51. Acts 19:9 tn The words “with him” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.
  52. Acts 19:9 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 19:9. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.
  53. Acts 19:9 tn BDAG 437 s.v. ἡμέρα 2.c has “every day” for this phrase in this verse.
  54. Acts 19:9 tn The “lecture hall” was a place where teachers and pupils met. The term is a NT hapax legomenon (BDAG 982 s.v. σχολή). L&N 7.14 notes, “it is better to use a translation such as ‘lecture hall’ rather than ‘school,’ since one does not wish to give the impression of the typical classroom situation characteristic of present-day schools.”
  55. Acts 19:10 tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia. The Roman province of Asia made up about one-third of modern Asia Minor and was on the western side of it. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.sn The expression all who lived in the province of Asia is good Semitic hyperbole (see Col 1:7, “all the world”). The message was now available to the region.
  56. Acts 19:10 sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rhēma tou kuriou; Luke 22:61, Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logos tou kuriou; here and in Acts 8:25; 13:44, 48, 49; 15:35, 36; 16:32; 19:20; 1 Thess 1:8; 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said.
  57. Acts 19:11 tn BDAG 1019 s.v. τυγχάνω 2.d states, “δυνάμεις οὐ τὰς τυχούσας extraordinary miracles Ac 19:11.”
  58. Acts 19:12 tn Or “skin” (the outer surface of the body).
  59. Acts 19:12 tn Or “were taken.” It might be that as word went out into the region that since the sick could not come to Paul, healing was brought to them this way. The “handkerchiefs” are probably face cloths for wiping perspiration (see BDAG 934 s.v. σουδάριον) while the “aprons” might be material worn by workmen (BDAG 923-24 s.v. σιμικίνθιον).
  60. Acts 19:12 tn The words “of them” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.
New English Translation (NET)

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Psalm 146

Psalm 146[a]

146 Praise the Lord.
Praise the Lord, O my soul.
I will praise the Lord as long as I live.
I will sing praises to my God as long as I exist.
Do not trust in princes,
or in human beings, who cannot deliver.[b]
Their life’s breath departs, they return to the ground.
On that day their plans die.[c]
How blessed is the one whose helper is the God of Jacob,
whose hope is in the Lord his God,
the one who made heaven and earth,
the sea, and all that is in them,
who remains forever faithful,[d]
vindicates the oppressed,[e]
and gives food to the hungry.
The Lord releases the imprisoned.
The Lord gives sight to the blind.
The Lord lifts up all who are bent over.[f]
The Lord loves the godly.
The Lord protects the resident foreigner.
He lifts up the fatherless and the widow,[g]
but he opposes the wicked.[h]
10 The Lord rules forever,
your God, O Zion, throughout the generations to come.[i]
Praise the Lord!

Footnotes:

  1. Psalm 146:1 sn Psalm 146. The psalmist urges his audience not to trust in men, but in the Lord, the just king of the world who cares for the needy.
  2. Psalm 146:3 tn Heb “in a son of man, to whom there is no deliverance.”
  3. Psalm 146:4 tn Heb “his spirit goes out, it returns to his ground; in that day his plans die.” The singular refers to the representative man mentioned in v. 3b.
  4. Psalm 146:6 tn Heb “the one who guards faithfulness forever.”
  5. Psalm 146:7 tn Heb “executes justice for the oppressed.”
  6. Psalm 146:8 tn Perhaps “discouraged” (see Ps 57:6).
  7. Psalm 146:9 sn God is depicted here as a just ruler. In the ancient Near Eastern world a king was responsible for promoting justice, including caring for the weak and vulnerable, epitomized by resident foreigners, the fatherless, and widows. Cf. Exod 22:21; Lev 19:33-34; Deut 10:18-19; 24:14, 17; 27:19; Jer 22:3; Zech 7:10; Mal 3:5.
  8. Psalm 146:9 tn Heb “he makes the way of the wicked twisted.” The “way of the wicked” probably refers to their course of life (see Prov 4:19; Jer 12:1). God makes their path tortuous in the sense that he makes them pay the harmful consequences of their actions.
  9. Psalm 146:10 tn Heb “for a generation and a generation.”
New English Translation (NET)

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Proverbs 18:2-3

A fool takes no pleasure[a] in understanding
but only in disclosing[b] what is on his mind.[c]
When a wicked person[d] arrives, contempt[e] shows up with him,[f]
and with shame comes[g] a reproach.

Footnotes:

  1. Proverbs 18:2 sn This expression forms an understatement (tapeinosis); the opposite is the point—he detests understanding or discernment.
  2. Proverbs 18:2 tn The Hitpael infinitive construct בְּהִתְגַּלּוֹת (behitgallot) functions nominally as the object of the preposition. The term means “reveal, uncover, betray.” So the fool takes pleasure “in uncovering” his heart.
  3. Proverbs 18:2 tn Heb “his heart.” This is a metonymy meaning “what is on his mind” (cf. NAB “displaying what he thinks”; NRSV “expressing personal opinion”). This kind of person is in love with his own ideas and enjoys spewing them out (W. McKane, Proverbs [OTL], 515). It is the kind of person who would ask a question, not to learn, but to show everyone how clever he is (cf. TEV).
  4. Proverbs 18:3 tc The MT has “a wicked [person].” Many commentators emend the text to רֶשַׁע (reshaʿ, “wickedness”) which makes better parallelism with “shame” (W. McKane, Proverbs [OTL], 521; R. B. Y. Scott, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes [AB], 112; C. H. Toy, Proverbs [ICC], 355; cf. NAB, NIV, NRSV). However, there is no external evidence for this emendation.
  5. Proverbs 18:3 sn “Contempt” (בּוּז, buz) accompanies the wicked; “reproach” (חֶרְפָּה, kherpah) goes with shame. This reproach either further characterizes the behaviors expected of the wicked or possibly the critical rebukes and taunts of the community against a wicked person.
  6. Proverbs 18:3 tn Heb “contempt also comes/has come.” The verb form בָּא (baʾ) may either be a perfect verb “has come” (cf. Prov 11:2) or a participle “comes.”
  7. Proverbs 18:3 tn The term “comes” does not appear in the Hebrew but is supplied in the translation for the sake of clarity and smoothness.
New English Translation (NET)

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The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Thursday June 27, 2024 (NIV)

2 Kings 10:32-12:21

32 In those days the Lord began to reduce the size of Israel’s territory.[a] Hazael attacked their eastern border.[b] 33 He conquered all the land of Gilead, including the territory of Gad, Reuben, and Manasseh, extending all the way from the Aroer in the Arnon Valley through Gilead to Bashan.[c]

34 The rest of the events of Jehu’s reign, including all his accomplishments and successes, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Israel.[d] 35 Jehu passed away[e] and was buried in Samaria. His son Jehoahaz replaced him as king. 36 Jehu reigned over Israel for twenty-eight years in Samaria.

Athaliah is Eliminated

11 When Athaliah, the mother of Ahaziah, saw that her son was dead, she was determined to destroy the entire royal line.[f] So Jehosheba, the daughter of King Jehoram[g] and sister of Ahaziah, took Ahaziah’s son Joash and stole him away from the rest of the royal descendants who were to be executed. She hid him and his nurse in the room where the bed covers were stored.[h] So he was hidden from Athaliah and escaped execution.[i] He hid out with his nurse in the Lord’s temple[j] for six years, while Athaliah was ruling over the land.

In the seventh year Jehoiada summoned[k] the officers of the units of hundreds of the Carians[l] and the royal bodyguard.[m] He met with them[n] in the Lord’s temple. He made an agreement[o] with them and made them swear an oath of allegiance in the Lord’s temple. Then he showed them the king’s son. He ordered them, “This is what you must do. One third of the unit that is on duty during the Sabbath will guard the royal palace. Another third of you will be stationed at the Foundation[p] Gate. Still another third of you will be stationed at the gate behind the royal guard.[q] You will take turns guarding the palace.[r] The two units who are off duty on the Sabbath will guard the Lord’s temple and protect the king.[s] You must surround the king. Each of you must hold his weapon in his hand. Whoever approaches your ranks must be killed. You must accompany the king wherever he goes.”[t]

The officers of the units of hundreds did just as[u] Jehoiada the priest ordered. Each of them took his men, those who were on duty during the Sabbath as well as those who were off duty on the Sabbath, and reported[v] to Jehoiada the priest. 10 The priest gave to the officers of the units of hundreds King David’s spears and the shields that were kept in the Lord’s temple. 11 The royal bodyguard[w] took their stations, each holding his weapon in his hand. They lined up from the south side of the temple to the north side and stood near the altar and the temple, surrounding the king.[x] 12 Jehoiada[y] led out the king’s son and placed on him the crown and the royal insignia.[z] They proclaimed him king and poured olive oil on his head.[aa] They clapped their hands and cried out, “Long live the king!”

13 When Athaliah heard the royal guard[ab] shout, she joined the crowd[ac] at the Lord’s temple. 14 Then she saw[ad] the king standing by the pillar, according to custom. The officers stood beside the king with their trumpets, and all the people of the land were celebrating and blowing trumpets. Athaliah tore her clothes and screamed, “Treason, treason!”[ae] 15 Jehoiada the priest ordered the officers of the units of hundreds, who were in charge of the army,[af] “Bring her outside the temple to the guards.[ag] Put to death by the sword anyone who follows her.” The priest gave this order because he had decided she should not be executed in the Lord’s temple.[ah] 16 They seized her and took her into the precincts of the royal palace through the horses’ entrance.[ai] There she was executed.

17 Jehoiada then drew up a covenant between the Lord and the king and people, stipulating that they should be loyal to the Lord.[aj] 18 All the people of the land went and demolished[ak] the temple of Baal. They smashed its altars and idols[al] to bits.[am] They killed Mattan the priest of Baal in front of the altar. Jehoiada the priest[an] then placed guards at the Lord’s temple. 19 He took the officers of the units of hundreds, the Carians, the royal bodyguard, and all the people of the land, and together they led the king down from the Lord’s temple. They entered the royal palace through the Gate of the Royal Bodyguard,[ao] and the king[ap] sat down on the royal throne. 20 All the people of the land celebrated, for the city had rest now that they had killed Athaliah with the sword in the royal palace.

Joash’s Reign over Judah

21 (12:1)[aq] Jehoash[ar] was seven years old when he began to reign. 12 (12:2) In Jehu’s seventh year Jehoash became king; he reigned for forty years in Jerusalem. His mother was Zibiah, who was from Beer Sheba. Jehoash did what the Lord approved[as] all his days when[at] Jehoiada the priest taught him. But the high places were not eliminated; the people continued to offer sacrifices and burn incense on the high places.

Jehoash said to the priests, “I place at your disposal[au] all the consecrated silver that has been brought to the Lord’s temple, including the silver collected from the census tax,[av] the silver received from those who have made vows,[aw] and all the silver that people have voluntarily contributed to the Lord’s temple.[ax] The priests should receive the silver they need from the treasurers and repair any damage to the temple they discover.”[ay]

By the twenty-third year of King Jehoash’s reign the priests had still not repaired the damage to the temple. So King Jehoash summoned Jehoiada the priest along with the other priests, and said to them, “Why have you not repaired the damage to the temple? Now, take no more silver from your treasurers unless you intend to use it to repair the damage.”[az] The priests agreed[ba] not to collect silver from the people and relieved themselves of personal responsibility for the temple repairs.[bb]

Jehoiada the priest took a chest and drilled a hole in its lid. He placed it on the right side of the altar near the entrance of[bc] the Lord’s temple. The priests who guarded the entrance would put into it all the silver brought to the Lord’s temple. 10 When they saw the chest was full of silver, the royal secretary[bd] and the high priest counted the silver that had been brought to the Lord’s temple and bagged it up.[be] 11 They would then hand over[bf] the silver that had been weighed to the construction foremen[bg] assigned to the Lord’s temple. They hired carpenters and builders to work on the Lord’s temple, 12 as well as masons and stonecutters. They bought wood and chiseled stone to repair the damage to the Lord’s temple and also paid for all the other expenses.[bh] 13 The silver brought to the Lord’s temple was not used for silver bowls, trimming shears, basins, trumpets, or any kind of gold or silver implements. 14 It was handed over[bi] to the foremen who used it to repair the Lord’s temple. 15 They did not audit the treasurers who disbursed[bj] the funds to the foremen, for they were honest.[bk] 16 (The silver collected in conjunction with reparation offerings and sin offerings was not brought to the Lord’s temple; it belonged to the priests.)

17 At that time King Hazael of Syria attacked[bl] Gath and captured it. Hazael then decided to attack Jerusalem.[bm] 18 King Jehoash of Judah collected all the sacred items that his ancestors Jehoshaphat, Jehoram, and Ahaziah, kings of Judah, had consecrated, as well as his own sacred items and all the gold that could be found in the treasuries of the Lord’s temple and the royal palace. He sent it all[bn] to King Hazael of Syria, who then withdrew[bo] from Jerusalem.

19 The rest of the events of Joash’s reign, including all his accomplishments, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Judah.[bp] 20 His servants conspired against him[bq] and murdered Joash at Beth Millo, on the road that goes down to Silla.[br] 21 His servants Jozabad son of Shimeath and Jehozabad son of Shomer murdered him.[bs] He was buried[bt] with his ancestors in the City of David. His son Amaziah replaced him as king.

Footnotes:

  1. 2 Kings 10:32 tn Heb “began to cut off Israel.”
  2. 2 Kings 10:32 tn Heb “Hazael struck them down in all the territory of Israel, from the Jordan on the east.” In the Hebrew text the phrase “from the Jordan on the east” begins v. 33.
  3. 2 Kings 10:33 tn Heb “all the land of Gilead, the Gadites, and the Reubenites, and the Manassehites, from Aroer which is near the Arnon Valley, and Gilead, and Bashan.”
  4. 2 Kings 10:34 tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Jehu, and all which he did and all his strength, are they not written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Israel?”
  5. 2 Kings 10:35 tn Heb “lay down with his fathers.”
  6. 2 Kings 11:1 tn Heb “she arose and she destroyed all the royal offspring.” The verb קוּם (qum) “arise,” is here used in an auxiliary sense to indicate that she embarked on a campaign to destroy the royal offspring. See M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 125.
  7. 2 Kings 11:2 tn Heb “Joram,” which is a short form of the name Jehoram.
  8. 2 Kings 11:2 tn Heb “him and his nurse in an inner room of beds.” The verb is missing in the Hebrew text. The parallel passage in 2 Chr 22:11 has “and she put” at the beginning of the clause. M. Cogan and H. Tadmor (II Kings [AB], 126) regard the Chronicles passage as an editorial attempt to clarify the difficulty of the original text. They prefer to take “him and his nurse” as objects of the verb “stole” and understand “in the bedroom” as the place where the royal descendants were executed. The phrase בַּחֲדַר הַמִּטּוֹת (bakhadar hammittot), “an inner room of beds,” is sometimes understood as referring to a bedroom (HALOT 293 s.v. חֶדֶר), though some prefer to see here a “room where the covers and cloths were kept” for the beds (HALOT 573 s.v. מִטָּת). In either case, it may have been a temporary hideout, for v. 3 indicates that the child hid at the temple for six years.
  9. 2 Kings 11:2 tn Heb “and they hid him from Athaliah and he was not put to death.” The subject of the plural verb (“they hid”) is probably indefinite.
  10. 2 Kings 11:3 tn Heb “and he was with her [in] the house of the Lord hiding.”
  11. 2 Kings 11:4 tn Heb “Jehoiada sent and took.”
  12. 2 Kings 11:4 sn The Carians were apparently a bodyguard, probably comprised of foreigners. See HALOT 497 s.v. כָּרִי and M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 126.
  13. 2 Kings 11:4 tn Heb “the runners.”
  14. 2 Kings 11:4 tn Heb “he brought them to himself.”
  15. 2 Kings 11:4 tn Or “covenant.”
  16. 2 Kings 11:6 tn Heb “the gate of Sur” (followed by many English versions) but no such gate is mentioned elsewhere in the OT. The parallel account in 2 Chr 23:5 has “Foundation Gate.” סוּר (sur), “Sur,” may need to be emended to יְסוֹד (yesod) “foundation,” involving in part dalet-resh confusion.
  17. 2 Kings 11:6 tn Heb “the runners.”
  18. 2 Kings 11:6 tn The meaning of מַסָּח (massakh) is not certain. The translation above, rather than understanding it as a genitive modifying “house,” takes it as an adverb describing how the groups will guard the palace. See HALOT 605 s.v. מַסָּח for the proposed meaning “alternating” (i.e., “in turns”).
  19. 2 Kings 11:7 tn Verses 5b-7 read literally, “the third of you, the ones entering [on] the Sabbath and the ones guarding the guard of the house of the king, and the third in the gate of Sur, and the third in the gate behind the runners, and you will guard the guard of the house, alternating. And the two units of you, all the ones going out [on] the Sabbath, and they will guard the guard of the house of the Lord for the king.” The precise meaning of this text is impossible to determine. It would appear that the Carians and royal bodyguard were divided into three units. One unit would serve during the Sabbath; the other two would be off duty on the Sabbath. Jehoiada divided the first unit into three groups and assigned them different locations. The two off duty units were assigned the task of guarding the king.
  20. 2 Kings 11:8 tn Heb “and be with the king in his going out and in his coming in.”
  21. 2 Kings 11:9 tn Heb “according to all that.”
  22. 2 Kings 11:9 tn Heb “came.”
  23. 2 Kings 11:11 tn Heb “the runners” (also in v. 19).
  24. 2 Kings 11:11 tn Heb “and the runners stood, each with his weapons in his hand, from the south shoulder of the house to the north shoulder of the house, at the altar and at the house, near the king all around.”
  25. 2 Kings 11:12 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Jehoiada) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  26. 2 Kings 11:12 tn The Hebrew term עֵדוּת (ʿedut) normally means “witness” or “testimony.” Here it probably refers to some tangible symbol of kingship, perhaps a piece of jewelry such as an amulet or neck chain. See the discussion in M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 128. Some suggest that a document is in view, perhaps a copy of the royal protocol or of the stipulations of the Davidic covenant. See HALOT 790-91 s.v. עֵדוּת.
  27. 2 Kings 11:12 tn Or “they made him king and anointed him.”
  28. 2 Kings 11:13 tc The MT reads, “and Athaliah heard the sound of the runners, the people.” The term הָעָם (haʿam), “the people,” is probably a scribal addition anticipating the reference to the people later in the verse and in v. 14.
  29. 2 Kings 11:13 tn Heb “she came to the people.”
  30. 2 Kings 11:14 tn Heb “and she saw, and look.”
  31. 2 Kings 11:14 tn Or “conspiracy, conspiracy.”
  32. 2 Kings 11:15 tn The Hebrew text also has, “and said to them.” This is redundant in English and has not been translated.
  33. 2 Kings 11:15 tn Heb “ranks.”
  34. 2 Kings 11:15 tn Heb “for the priest had said, ‘Let her not be put to death in the house of the Lord.’”
  35. 2 Kings 11:16 tn Heb “and they placed hands on her, and she went the way of the entrance of the horses [into] the house of the king.”
  36. 2 Kings 11:17 tn Heb “and Jehoiada made a covenant between the Lord and [between] the king and [between] the people, to become a people for the Lord, and between the king and [between] the people.” The final words of the verse (“and between the king and [between] the people”) are probably accidentally repeated from earlier in the verse. They do not appear in the parallel account in 2 Chr 23:16. If retained, they probably point to an agreement governing how the king and people should relate to one another.
  37. 2 Kings 11:18 tn Or “tore down.”
  38. 2 Kings 11:18 tn Or “images.”
  39. 2 Kings 11:18 tn The Hebrew construction translated “smashed…to bits” is emphatic. The adverbial infinitive absolute (הֵיטֵב [hetev], “well”) accompanying the Piel form of the verb שָׁבַר (shavar), “break,” suggests thorough demolition.
  40. 2 Kings 11:18 tn Heb “the priest.” Jehoiada’s name is added for clarification.
  41. 2 Kings 11:19 tn Heb “the Gate of the Runners of the House of the King.”
  42. 2 Kings 11:19 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the king) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  43. 2 Kings 11:21 sn Beginning with 11:21, the verse numbers through 12:21 in the English Bible differ from the verse numbers in the Hebrew text (BHS), with 11:21 ET = 12:1 HT, 12:1 ET = 12:2 HT, 12:2 ET = 12:3 HT, etc., through 12:21 ET = 12:22 HT. With 13:1 the verse numbers in the ET and HT are again the same.
  44. 2 Kings 11:21 tn Heb “Jehoash”; Jehoash is an alternate version of the name Joash (see 11:2) used through 12:18 in the Hebrew text. The name Joash reappears in 12:19.
  45. 2 Kings 12:2 tn Heb “what was proper in the eyes of the Lord.”
  46. 2 Kings 12:2 tn The MT reads יָמָיו אֲשֶׁר (yamayv ʾasher, “all his days which…”). The LXX says “all the days which Jehoiada the priest enlightened him,” implying either יָמִים (yamim, “days”) or יְמֵי (yeme, “days of”), without the pronominal suffix. Lev 13:46 demonstrates that יְמֵי can be in construct with an אֲשֶׁר clause, but an אֲשֶׁר clause can also follow יוֹם (yom “day”) when it has a pronominal suffix. In either case the אֲשֶׁר clause restricts the time period that יוֹם describes. Therefore this verse does not contradict 2 Chr 24:2 which limits its praise of the king to “all the days of Jehoiada the priest.”
  47. 2 Kings 12:4 tn The words “I place at your disposal” are added in the translation for clarification.
  48. 2 Kings 12:4 tn Heb “the silver of passing over a man.” The precise meaning of the phrase is debated, but עָבַר (ʿavar), “pass over,” probably refers here to counting, suggesting the reference is to a census conducted for taxation purposes. See M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 137.
  49. 2 Kings 12:4 tn Heb “the silver of persons, his valuation.” The precise meaning of the phrase is uncertain, but parallels in Lev 27 suggest that personal vows are referred to here. See M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 137.
  50. 2 Kings 12:4 tn Heb “all the silver which goes up on the heart of a man to bring to the house of the Lord.”
  51. 2 Kings 12:5 tn Heb “Let the priests take for themselves, each from his treasurer, and let them repair the damage of the temple, with respect to all the damage that is found there.” The word מַכָּר (makar), translated here “treasurer,” occurs only in this passage. Some suggest it means “merchant” or “benefactor.” Its usage in Ugaritic texts, where it appears in a list of temple officials, suggests that it refers in this context to individuals who were in charge of disbursing temple funds.
  52. 2 Kings 12:7 tn Heb “Now, do not take silver from your treasurers, because for the damages to the temple you must give it.”
  53. 2 Kings 12:8 tn Outside of this passage the verb אוּת (ʾut) appears only in Gen 34:15-22.
  54. 2 Kings 12:8 tn Heb “and not to repair the damages to the temple.” This does not mean that the priests were no longer interested in repairing the temple. As the following context makes clear, the priests decided to hire skilled workers to repair the damage to the temple, rather than trying to make the repairs themselves.
  55. 2 Kings 12:9 tn Heb “on the right of the altar as a man enters.”
  56. 2 Kings 12:10 tn Heb “the king’s scribe.”
  57. 2 Kings 12:10 tn Heb “went up and tied [it] and counted the silver that was found in the house of the Lord.” The order of the clauses has been rearranged in the translation to make better sense in English, since it seems more logical to count the money before bagging it (cf. NIV, NCV, NRSV, NLT).
  58. 2 Kings 12:11 tn Heb “would give.”
  59. 2 Kings 12:11 tn Heb “doers of the work.”
  60. 2 Kings 12:12 tn Heb “and for all that which was going out concerning the house for repair.”
  61. 2 Kings 12:14 tn Heb “was given.”
  62. 2 Kings 12:15 tn Heb “gave.”
  63. 2 Kings 12:15 tn Heb “and they did not conduct a reckoning of the men who gave the silver into their hand to give to the doers of the work, for in honesty they were working.”
  64. 2 Kings 12:17 tn Heb “went up and fought against.”
  65. 2 Kings 12:17 tn Heb “Hazael set his face to go up against Jerusalem.”
  66. 2 Kings 12:18 tn The object (“it all”) is supplied in the translation for clarification.
  67. 2 Kings 12:18 tn Heb “went up.”
  68. 2 Kings 12:19 tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Joash, and all which he did, are they not written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Judah?”
  69. 2 Kings 12:20 tn Heb “rose up and conspired [with] a conspiracy.”
  70. 2 Kings 12:20 tn Heb “Beth Millo which goes down [toward] Silla.”
  71. 2 Kings 12:21 tn Heb “struck him down and he died.”
  72. 2 Kings 12:21 tn Heb “they buried him.”
New English Translation (NET)

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Acts 18:1-22

Paul at Corinth

18 After this[a] Paul[b] departed from[c] Athens and went to Corinth.[d] There he[e] found[f] a Jew named Aquila,[g] a native of Pontus,[h] who had recently come from Italy with his wife Priscilla, because Claudius[i] had ordered all the Jews to depart from[j] Rome. Paul approached[k] them, and because he worked at the same trade, he stayed with them and worked with them[l] (for they were tentmakers[m] by trade).[n] He addressed[o] both Jews and Greeks in the synagogue[p] every Sabbath, attempting to persuade[q] them.

Now when Silas and Timothy arrived[r] from Macedonia,[s] Paul became wholly absorbed with proclaiming[t] the word, testifying[u] to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ.[v] When they opposed him[w] and reviled him,[x] he protested by shaking out his clothes[y] and said to them, “Your blood[z] be on your own heads! I am guiltless![aa] From now on I will go to the Gentiles!” Then Paul[ab] left[ac] the synagogue[ad] and went to the house of a person named Titius Justus, a Gentile who worshiped God,[ae] whose house was next door to the synagogue. Crispus, the president of the synagogue,[af] believed in the Lord together with his entire household, and many of the Corinthians who heard about it[ag] believed and were baptized. The Lord said to Paul by a vision[ah] in the night,[ai] “Do not be afraid,[aj] but speak and do not be silent, 10 because I am with you, and no one will assault[ak] you to harm[al] you, because I have many people in this city.” 11 So he stayed there[am] a year and six months, teaching the word of God among them.[an]

Paul Before the Proconsul Gallio

12 Now while Gallio[ao] was proconsul[ap] of Achaia,[aq] the Jews attacked Paul together[ar] and brought him before the judgment seat,[as] 13 saying, “This man is persuading[at] people to worship God in a way contrary to[au] the law!” 14 But just as Paul was about to speak,[av] Gallio said to the Jews, “If it were a matter of some crime or serious piece of villainy,[aw] I would have been justified in accepting the complaint[ax] of you Jews,[ay] 15 but since it concerns points of disagreement[az] about words and names and your own law, settle[ba] it yourselves. I will not be[bb] a judge of these things!” 16 Then he had them forced away[bc] from the judgment seat.[bd] 17 So they all seized Sosthenes, the president of the synagogue,[be] and began to beat[bf] him in front of the judgment seat.[bg] Yet none of these things were of any concern[bh] to Gallio.

Paul Returns to Antioch in Syria

18 Paul, after staying[bi] many more days in Corinth, said farewell to[bj] the brothers and sailed away to Syria accompanied by[bk] Priscilla and Aquila.[bl] He[bm] had his hair cut off[bn] at Cenchrea[bo] because he had made a vow.[bp] 19 When they reached Ephesus,[bq] Paul[br] left Priscilla and Aquila[bs] behind there, but he himself went[bt] into the synagogue[bu] and addressed[bv] the Jews. 20 When they asked him to stay longer, he would not consent,[bw] 21 but said farewell to[bx] them and added,[by] “I will come back[bz] to you again if God wills.”[ca] Then[cb] he set sail from Ephesus, 22 and when he arrived[cc] at Caesarea,[cd] he went up and greeted[ce] the church at Jerusalem[cf] and then went down to Antioch.[cg]

Footnotes:

  1. Acts 18:1 tn Grk “After these things.”
  2. Acts 18:1 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  3. Acts 18:1 tn Or “Paul left.”
  4. Acts 18:1 sn Corinth was the capital city of the senatorial province of Achaia and the seat of the Roman proconsul. It was located 55 mi (88 km) west of Athens. Corinth was a major rival to Athens and was the largest city in Greece at the time.
  5. Acts 18:2 tn Grk “And he.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here. The word “there” is not in the Greek text but is implied.
  6. Acts 18:2 tn Grk “finding.” The participle εὑρών (heurōn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  7. Acts 18:2 sn On Aquila and his wife Priscilla see also Acts 18:18, 26; Rom 16:3-4; 1 Cor 16:19; 2 Tim 4:19. In the NT “Priscilla” and “Prisca” are the same person. Paul uses the name Prisca, while the author of Acts uses the diminutive form of the name Priscilla.
  8. Acts 18:2 sn Pontus was a region in the northeastern part of Asia Minor. It was a Roman province.
  9. Acts 18:2 sn Claudius refers to the Roman emperor Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus, known as Claudius, who ruled from a.d. 41-54. The edict expelling the Jews from Rome was issued in a.d. 49 (Suetonius, Claudius 25.4).
  10. Acts 18:2 tn Or “to leave.”
  11. Acts 18:2 tn Or “went to.”
  12. Acts 18:3 tn The prepositional phrase “with them” occurs only once in the Greek text, but since it occurs between the two finite verbs (ἔμενεν, emenen, and ἠργάζετο, ērgazeto) it relates (by implication) to both of them.
  13. Acts 18:3 tn On the term translated “tentmakers,” see BDAG 928-29 s.v. σκηνοποιός. Paul apparently manufactured tents. In contrast to the Cynic philosophers, Paul at times labored to support himself (see also v. 5).
  14. Acts 18:3 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.
  15. Acts 18:4 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 18:4. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.
  16. Acts 18:4 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.
  17. Acts 18:4 tn Grk “Addressing in the synagogue every Sabbath, he was attempting to persuade both Jews and Greeks.” Because in English the verb “address” is not used absolutely but normally has an object specified, the direct objects of the verb ἔπειθεν (epeithen) have been moved forward as the objects of the English verb “addressed,” and the pronoun “them” repeated in the translation as the object of ἔπειθεν. The verb ἔπειθεν has been translated as a conative imperfect.
  18. Acts 18:5 tn Grk “came down.”
  19. Acts 18:5 sn Macedonia was the Roman province of Macedonia in Greece.
  20. Acts 18:5 tn BDAG 971 s.v. συνέχω 6 states, “συνείχετο τῷ λόγῳ (Paul) was wholly absorbed in preaching Ac 18:5…in contrast to the activity cited in vs. 3.” The imperfect συνείχετο (suneicheto) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect (“became wholly absorbed…”), stressing the change in Paul’s activity once Silas and Timothy arrived. At this point Paul apparently began to work less and preach more.
  21. Acts 18:5 tn BDAG 233 s.v. διαμαρτύρομαι 1 has “testify of, bear witness to solemnly (orig. under oath)…W. acc. and inf. foll. Ac 18:5.”
  22. Acts 18:5 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 2:31.
  23. Acts 18:6 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.
  24. Acts 18:6 tn The participle βλασφημούντων (blasphēmountōn) has been taken temporally. The direct object (“him”) is implied rather than expressed and could be impersonal (“it,” referring to what Paul was saying rather than Paul himself), but the verb occurs more often in contexts involving defamation or slander against personal beings (not always God). For a very similar context to this one, compare Acts 13:45. The translation “blaspheme” is not used because in contemporary English its meaning is more narrowly defined and normally refers to blasphemy against God (not what Paul’s opponents were doing here). What they were doing was more like slander or defamation of character.
  25. Acts 18:6 tn Grk “shaking out his clothes, he said to them.” L&N 16:8 translates Acts 18:6 “when they opposed him and said evil things about him, he protested by shaking the dust from his clothes.” The addition of the verb “protested by” in the translation is necessary to clarify for the modern reader that this is a symbolic action. It is similar but not identical to the phrase in Acts 13:51, where the dust from the feet is shaken off. The participle ἐκτιναξάμενος (ektinaxamenos) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.sn He protested by shaking out his clothes. A symbolic action of protest, similar but not identical to the practice of shaking the dust off one’s feet (see Acts 13:51). The two symbolic actions are related, however, since what is shaken off here is the dust raised by the feet and settling in the clothes. The meaning is, “I am done with you! You are accountable to God.”
  26. Acts 18:6 sn Your blood be on your own heads! By invoking this epithet Paul declared himself not responsible for their actions in rejecting Jesus whom Paul preached (cf. Ezek 33:4; 3:6-21; Matt 23:35; 27:25).
  27. Acts 18:6 tn Or “innocent.” BDAG 489 s.v. καθαρός 3.a has “guiltless Ac 18:6.”
  28. Acts 18:7 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  29. Acts 18:7 tn Grk “Then leaving from there he went.” The participle μεταβάς (metabas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  30. Acts 18:7 tn Grk “from there”; the referent (the synagogue) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  31. Acts 18:7 tn Grk “a worshiper of God.” The clarifying phrase “a Gentile” has been supplied for clarity, and is indicated by the context, since Paul had parted company with the Jews in the previous verse. The participle σεβομένου (sebomenou) is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44.sn Here yet another Gentile is presented as responsive to Paul’s message in Acts.
  32. Acts 18:8 tn That is, “the official in charge of the synagogue”; ἀρχισυνάγωγος (archisunagōgos) refers to the “leader/president of a synagogue” (so BDAG 139 s.v. and L&N 53.93).
  33. Acts 18:8 tn Or “who heard him,” or “who heard Paul.” The ambiguity here results from the tendency of Greek to omit direct objects, which must be supplied from the context. The problem is that no less than three different ones may be supplied here: (1) “him,” referring to Crispus, but this is not likely because there is no indication in the context that Crispus began to speak out about the Lord; this is certainly possible and even likely, but more than the text here affirms; (2) “Paul,” who had been speaking in the synagogue and presumably, now that he had moved to Titius Justus’ house, continued speaking to the Gentiles; or (3) “about it,” that is, the Corinthians who heard about Crispus’ conversion became believers. In the immediate context this last is most probable, since the two incidents are juxtaposed. Other, less obvious direct objects could also be supplied, such as “heard the word of God,” “heard the word of the Lord,” etc., but none of these are obvious in the immediate context.
  34. Acts 18:9 sn Frequently in Acts such a vision will tell the reader where events are headed. See Acts 10:9-16 and 16:9-10 for other accounts of visions.
  35. Acts 18:9 tn BDAG 682 s.v. νύξ 1.c has “W. prep. ἐν ν. at night, in the nightAc 18:9.”
  36. Acts 18:9 tn The present imperative here (with negation) is used (as it normally is) of a general condition (BDF §335).
  37. Acts 18:10 tn BDAG 384 s.v. ἐπιτίθημι 2 has “to set upon, attack, lay a hand on” here, but “assault” is a contemporary English equivalent very close to the meaning of the original.
  38. Acts 18:10 tn Or “injure.”
  39. Acts 18:11 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.
  40. Acts 18:11 tn See BDAG 326-27 s.v. ἐν 1.d. However, it is also possible that ἐν (en) followed by the dative here stands for the ordinary dative (“to them”).
  41. Acts 18:12 sn Gallio was proconsul of Achaia from a.d. 51-52. This date is one of the firmly established dates in Acts. Lucius Junius Gallio was the son of the rhetorician Seneca and the brother of Seneca the philosopher. The date of Gallio’s rule is established from an inscription (W. Dittenberger, ed., Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum 2.3 no. 8). Thus the event mentioned here is probably to be dated July-October a.d. 51.
  42. Acts 18:12 sn The proconsul was the Roman official who ruled over a province traditionally under the control of the Roman senate.
  43. Acts 18:12 sn Achaia was a Roman province initially created in 146 b.c. that included most of Greece. In 27 b.c. it was divided into the two separate provinces of Macedonia and Achaia. At that time Achaia was composed of the most important parts of Greece (Attica, Boeotia, and the Peloponnesus).
  44. Acts 18:12 tn Grk “with one accord.”
  45. Acts 18:12 tn Although BDAG 175 s.v. βῆμα 3 gives the meaning “tribunal” for this verse and a number of modern translations use similar terms (“court,” NIV; “tribunal,” NRSV), there is no need for an alternative translation here since the bema was a standard feature in Greco-Roman cities of the time.sn The judgment seat (βῆμα, bēma) was a raised platform mounted by steps and sometimes furnished with a seat, used by officials in addressing an assembly or making pronouncements, often on judicial matters. The judgment seat was a familiar item in Greco-Roman culture, often located in the agora, the public square or marketplace in the center of a city. So this was a very public event.
  46. Acts 18:13 tn Or “inciting.”
  47. Acts 18:13 tn Grk “worship God contrary to.” BDAG 758 s.v. παρά C.6 has “against, contrary to” for Acts 18:13. The words “in a way” are not in the Greek text, but are a necessary clarification to prevent the misunderstanding in the English translation that worshiping God was in itself contrary to the law. What is under dispute is the manner in which God was being worshiped, that is, whether Gentiles were being required to follow all aspects of the Mosaic law, including male circumcision. There is a hint of creating public chaos or disturbing Jewish custom here since Jews were the ones making the complaint. Luke often portrays the dispute between Christians and Jews as within Judaism.
  48. Acts 18:14 tn Grk “about to open his mouth” (an idiom).
  49. Acts 18:14 tn BDAG 902 s.v. ῥᾳδιούργημα states, “From the sense ‘prank, knavery, roguish trick, slick deed’ it is but a short step to that of a serious misdeed, crime, villainy…a serious piece of villainy Ac 18:14 (w. ἀδίκημα).”
  50. Acts 18:14 tn According to BDAG 78 s.v. ἀνέχω 3 this is a legal technical term: “Legal t.t. κατὰ λόγον ἂν ἀνεσχόμην ὑμῶν I would have been justified in accepting your complaint Ac 18:14.”
  51. Acts 18:14 tn Grk “accepting your complaint, O Jews.”
  52. Acts 18:15 tn Or “dispute.”
  53. Acts 18:15 tn Grk “see to it” (an idiom).
  54. Acts 18:15 tn Or “I am not willing to be.” Gallio would not adjudicate their religious dispute.
  55. Acts 18:16 tn Grk “driven away,” but this could result in a misunderstanding in English (“driven” as in a cart or wagon?). “Forced away” conveys the idea; Gallio rejected their complaint. In contemporary English terminology the case was “thrown out of court.” The verb ἀπήλασεν (apēlasen) has been translated as a causative since Gallio probably did not perform this action in person, but ordered his aides or officers to remove the plaintiffs.
  56. Acts 18:16 sn See the note on the term judgment seat in 18:12.
  57. Acts 18:17 tn That is, “the official in charge of the synagogue”; ἀρχισυνάγωγος (archisunagōgos) refers to the “leader/president of a synagogue” (so BDAG 139 s.v. and L&N 53.93).sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.
  58. Acts 18:17 tn The imperfect verb ἔτυπτον (etupton) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.
  59. Acts 18:17 sn See the note on the term judgment seat in 18:12.
  60. Acts 18:17 tn L&N 25.223 has “‘none of these things were of any concern to Gallio’ Ac 18:17.”sn Rome was officially indifferent to such disputes. Gallio understood how sensitive some Jews would be about his meddling in their affairs. This is similar to the way Pilate dealt with Jesus. In the end, he let the Jewish leadership and people make the judgment against Jesus.
  61. Acts 18:18 tn The participle προσμείνας (prosmeinas) is taken temporally.
  62. Acts 18:18 tn Or “Corinth, took leave of.” Grk “saying farewell to”; the participle ἀποταξάμενος (apotaxamenos) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  63. Acts 18:18 tn Grk “Syria, and with him.”
  64. Acts 18:18 sn See the note on Aquila in 18:2.
  65. Acts 18:18 tn Or “Aquila, who.” The relationship of the participle κειράμενος (keiramenos) is difficult to determine. Traditionally it is taken to refer to Paul, meaning that Paul had his hair cut off because of the vow. However, due to the proximity of the noun ᾿Ακύλας (Akulas) and the reversal of the normal order (Aquila and Priscilla, Acts 17:34), the participle is taken as adjectival referring to Aquila by H. Greeven, TDNT 2:777, n. 11. The later references to Paul in Jerusalem (Acts 21:23) do not resolve the problem, because the cutting of Paul’s own hair, while it may be implied, is not specifically mentioned in connection with the completion of the vows made by the other four.
  66. Acts 18:18 tn The word “off” is supplied in the translation to indicate that this was not a normal haircut, but the shaving of the head connected with taking the vow (see Acts 21:24).
  67. Acts 18:18 tn That is, “before he sailed from Cenchrea.”sn Cenchrea was one of the seaports for the city of Corinth, on the eastern side of the Isthmus of Corinth, on the Aegean Sea. It was 7 mi (11 km) east of Corinth.
  68. Acts 18:18 sn He had made a vow. It is debated whether this vow is a private vow of thanksgiving or the Nazirite vow, because it is not clear whether the Nazirite vow could be taken outside Jerusalem. Some have cited the Mishnah (m. Nazir 3:6; 5:4) to argue that the shaving of the hair can occur outside Jerusalem, and Josephus, J. W. 2.15.1 (2.313) is sometimes suggested as a parallel, but these references are not clear. H. Greeven, TDNT 2:777, is certain that this refers to the Nazirite vow. Regardless, it is clear that Paul reflected his pious dependence on God.
  69. Acts 18:19 sn Ephesus was an influential city in Asia Minor. It was the location of the famous temple of Artemis. In 334 b.c. control of the city had passed to Alexander the Great, who contributed a large sum to the building of a new and more elaborate temple of Artemis, which became one of the seven wonders of the ancient world and lasted until destroyed by the Goths in a.d. 263. This major port city would be reached from Corinth by ship. It was 250 mi (400 km) east of Corinth by sea.
  70. Acts 18:19 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  71. Acts 18:19 tn Grk “left them”; the referents (Priscilla and Aquila) have been specified in the translation for clarity.
  72. Acts 18:19 tn Grk “going”; the participle εἰσελθών (eiselthōn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  73. Acts 18:19 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.
  74. Acts 18:19 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 18:19. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.
  75. Acts 18:20 sn He would not consent. Paul probably refused because he wanted to reach Jerusalem for the festival season before the seas became impassable during the winter.
  76. Acts 18:21 tn Or “but took leave of.”
  77. Acts 18:21 tn Grk “and saying”; the participle εἰπών (eipōn) has been translated as “added” rather than “said” to avoid redundancy with the previous “said farewell.” The participle εἰπών has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  78. Acts 18:21 tn Or “will return.”
  79. Acts 18:21 tn The participle θέλοντος (thelontos), a genitive absolute construction, has been translated as a conditional adverbial participle. Again Paul acts in dependence on God.
  80. Acts 18:21 tn A new sentence was begun here in the translation due to the length of the sentence in Greek and the requirements of contemporary English style, which generally uses shorter sentences.
  81. Acts 18:22 tn BDAG 531 s.v. κατέρχομαι 2 states, “arrive, put in, nautical t.t. of ships and those who sail in them, who ‘come down’ fr. the ‘high seas’…εἴς τι at someth. a harbor Ac 18:22; 21:3; 27:5.”
  82. Acts 18:22 sn Caesarea was a city on the coast of Palestine south of Mount Carmel (not Caesarea Philippi). See the note on Caesarea in Acts 10:1. This was a sea voyage of 620 mi (990 km).
  83. Acts 18:22 tn Grk “going up and greeting.” The participles ἀναβάς (anabas) and ἀσπασάμενος (aspasamenos) are translated as finite verbs due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  84. Acts 18:22 tn The words “at Jerusalem” are not in the Greek text, but are implied by the participle ἀναβάς (anabas). The expression “go up” refers almost exclusively to the direction of Jerusalem, while the corresponding “go down” (κατέβη, katebē) refers to directions away from Jerusalem. Both expressions are based on a Hebrew idiom. Assuming Jerusalem is meant, this is another indication of keeping that key church informed. If Jerusalem is not referred to here, then Caesarea is in view. Paul was trying to honor a vow, which also implies a visit to Jerusalem.
  85. Acts 18:22 sn Went down to Antioch. The city of Antioch in Syria lies due north of Jerusalem. In Western languages it is common to speak of north as “up” and south as “down,” but the NT maintains the Hebrew idiom which speaks of any direction away from Jerusalem as down (since Mount Zion was thought of in terms of altitude). This marks the end of the second missionary journey which began in Acts 15:36. From Caesarea to Antioch is a journey of 280 mi (450 km).
New English Translation (NET)

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Psalm 145

Psalm 145[a]

A psalm of praise; by David.

145 I will extol you, my God, O King.
I will praise your name continually.[b]
Every day I will praise you.
I will praise your name continually.[c]
The Lord is great and certainly worthy of praise.
No one can fathom his greatness.[d]
One generation will praise your deeds to another,
and tell about your mighty acts.[e]
I will focus on your honor and majestic splendor,
and your amazing deeds.[f]
They will proclaim[g] the power of your awesome acts.
I will declare your great deeds.
They will talk about the fame of your great kindness,[h]
and sing about your justice.[i]
The Lord is merciful and compassionate;
he is patient[j] and demonstrates great loyal love.[k]
The Lord is good to all,
and has compassion on all he has made.[l]
10 All your works will give thanks to you, Lord.
Your loyal followers will praise you.
11 They will proclaim the splendor of your kingdom;
they will tell about your power,
12 so that mankind[m] might acknowledge your mighty acts,
and the majestic splendor of your kingdom.
13 Your kingdom is an eternal kingdom,[n]
and your dominion endures through all generations.
14 [o] The Lord supports all who fall,
and lifts up all who are bent over.[p]
15 Everything looks to you in anticipation,[q]
and you provide them with food on a regular basis.[r]
16 You open your hand,
and fill every living thing with the food it desires.[s]
17 The Lord is just in all his actions,[t]
and exhibits love in all he does.[u]
18 The Lord is near all who cry out to him,
all who cry out to him sincerely.[v]
19 He satisfies the desire[w] of his loyal followers;[x]
he hears their cry for help and delivers them.
20 The Lord protects all those who love him,
but he destroys all the wicked.
21 My mouth will praise the Lord.[y]
Let all who live[z] praise his holy name forever.

Footnotes:

  1. Psalm 145:1 sn Psalm 145. The psalmist praises God because he is a just and merciful king who cares for his people.
  2. Psalm 145:1 tn Or, hyperbolically, “forever.”
  3. Psalm 145:2 tn Or, hyperbolically, “forever.”
  4. Psalm 145:3 tn Heb “and concerning his greatness there is no searching.”
  5. Psalm 145:4 tn The prefixed verbal forms in v. 4 are understood as imperfects, indicating how the psalmist expects his audience to respond to his praise. Another option is to take the forms as jussives, indicating the psalmist’s wish, “may one generation praise…and tell about.”
  6. Psalm 145:5 tn Heb “the splendor of the glory of your majesty, and the matters of your amazing deeds I will ponder.”
  7. Psalm 145:6 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood as an imperfect, indicating how the psalmist expects his audience to respond to his praise. Another option is to take the forms as a jussive, indicating the psalmist’s wish, “may they proclaim.”
  8. Psalm 145:7 tn Heb “the fame of the greatness of your goodness.”
  9. Psalm 145:7 tn The prefixed verbal forms in v. 7 are understood as imperfects, indicating how the psalmist expects his audience to respond to his praise. Another option is to take the forms as jussives, indicating the psalmist’s wish, “may they talk…and sing.”
  10. Psalm 145:8 tn Heb “slow to anger” (see Pss 86:15; 103:8).
  11. Psalm 145:8 tn Heb “and great of loyal love” (see Pss 86:15; 103:8).
  12. Psalm 145:9 tn Heb “and his compassion is over all his works.”
  13. Psalm 145:12 tn Heb “the sons of man.”
  14. Psalm 145:13 tn Heb “a kingdom of all ages.”
  15. Psalm 145:14 tc Psalm 145 is an acrostic psalm, with each successive verse beginning with a successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet. However, in the traditional Hebrew (Masoretic) text of Psalm 145 there is no verse beginning with the letter nun. One would expect such a verse to appear as the fourteenth verse, between the (מ) (mem) and (ס) (samek) verses. Several ancient witnesses, including one medieval Hebrew manuscript, the Qumran scroll from cave 11, the LXX, and the Syriac, supply the missing (נ) (nun) verse, which reads as follows: “The Lord is reliable in all his words, and faithful in all his deeds.” One might paraphrase this as follows: “The Lord’s words are always reliable; his actions are always faithful.” Scholars are divided as to the originality of this verse. L. C. Allen argues for its inclusion on the basis of structural considerations (Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 294-95), but there is no apparent explanation for why, if original, it would have been accidentally omitted. The psalm may be a partial acrostic, as in Pss 25 and 34 (see M. Dahood, Psalms [AB], 3:335). The glaring omission of the nun line would have invited a later redactor to add such a line.
  16. Psalm 145:14 tn Perhaps “discouraged” (see Ps 57:6).
  17. Psalm 145:15 tn Heb “the eyes of all wait for you.”
  18. Psalm 145:15 tn Heb “and you give to them their food in its season” (see Ps 104:27).
  19. Psalm 145:16 tn Heb “[with what they] desire.”
  20. Psalm 145:17 tn Heb “in all his ways.”
  21. Psalm 145:17 tn Heb “and [is] loving in all his deeds.”
  22. Psalm 145:18 tn Heb “in truth.”
  23. Psalm 145:19 tn In this context “desire” refers to the followers’ desire to be delivered from wicked enemies.
  24. Psalm 145:19 tn Heb “the desire of those who fear him, he does.”
  25. Psalm 145:21 tn Heb “the praise of the Lord my mouth will speak.”
  26. Psalm 145:21 tn Heb “all flesh.”
New English Translation (NET)

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Proverbs 18:1

18 One who has isolated himself[a] seeks his own desires;[b]
he rejects[c] all sound judgment.

Footnotes:

  1. Proverbs 18:1 tn The Niphal participle functions substantively and has a reflexive nuance: “one who has separated himself” (cf. KJV, ASV, NASB). He is not merely anti-social; he is a problem for society since he will defy sound judgment. The Mishnah uses the verse to teach the necessity of being part of a community because people have social responsibilities and need each other (m. Avot 2:4).
  2. Proverbs 18:1 tc The MT has “seeks [his own] desire[s].” The translation in the LXX represents a Hebrew Vorlage of לְתֹאֲנָה (letoʾanah) instead of לְתַאֲוָה (letaʾavah); this could be translated “seeks his own occasion,” that is, “his own pretext” (C. H. Toy, Proverbs [ICC], 354; cf. NAB). The MT makes sense as it stands and the emendation is not really necessary.
  3. Proverbs 18:1 tn Heb “breaks out”; NRSV “showing contempt for”; NLT “snarling at.” This individual breaks out in contention against sound judgment. He is in opposition to society (e.g., Prov 17:14; 20:3).
New English Translation (NET)

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The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Wednesday June 26, 2024 (NIV)

2 Kings 9:14-10:31

14 Then Jehu son of Jehoshaphat son of Nimshi conspired against Joram.

Jehu the Assassin

Now Joram had been in Ramoth Gilead with the whole Israelite army,[a] guarding against an invasion by King Hazael of Syria. 15 But King Joram had returned to Jezreel to recover from the wounds he received from the Syrians[b] when he fought against King Hazael of Syria.[c] Jehu told his supporters,[d] “If you really want me to be king,[e] then don’t let anyone escape from the city to go and warn Jezreel.” 16 Jehu drove his chariot[f] to Jezreel, for Joram was recuperating[g] there. (Now King Ahaziah of Judah had come down to visit[h] Joram.)

17 Now the watchman was standing on the tower in Jezreel and saw Jehu’s troops approaching.[i] He said, “I see troops!”[j] Joram[k] ordered,[l] “Send a rider out to meet them and have him ask, ‘Is everything all right?’”[m] 18 So the horseman[n] went to meet him and said, “This is what the king says, ‘Is everything all right?’”[o] Jehu replied, “None of your business![p] Follow me.” The watchman reported, “The messenger reached them, but hasn’t started back.” 19 So he sent a second horseman out to them[q] and he said, “This is what the king says, ‘Is everything all right?’”[r] Jehu replied, “None of your business! Follow me.” 20 The watchman reported, “He reached them, but hasn’t started back. The one who drives the lead chariot drives like Jehu son of Nimshi;[s] he drives recklessly.” 21 Joram ordered, “Hitch up my chariot.”[t] When his chariot had been hitched up,[u] King Joram of Israel and King Ahaziah of Judah went out in their respective chariots[v] to meet Jehu. They met up with him[w] in the plot of land that had once belonged to Naboth of Jezreel.

22 When Joram saw Jehu, he asked, “Is everything all right, Jehu?” He replied, “How can everything be all right as long as your mother Jezebel promotes idolatry and pagan practices?”[x] 23 Joram turned his chariot around and took off.[y] He said to Ahaziah, “It’s a trap,[z] Ahaziah!” 24 Jehu aimed his bow and shot an arrow right between Joram’s shoulders.[aa] The arrow went through[ab] his heart and he fell to his knees in his chariot. 25 Jehu ordered[ac] his officer Bidkar, “Pick him up and throw him into the part of the field that once belonged to Naboth of Jezreel. Remember, you and I were riding together behind his father, Ahab, when the Lord pronounced this oracle against him, 26 ‘“Know for sure that I saw the shed blood of Naboth and his sons yesterday,” says the Lord, “and that I will give you what you deserve[ad] right here in this plot of land,” says the Lord.’ So now pick him up and throw him into this plot of land, just as in the Lord’s message.”

27 When King Ahaziah of Judah saw what happened, he took off[ae] up the road to Beth Haggan. Jehu chased him and ordered, “Shoot him too.” They shot him while he was driving his chariot up the ascent of Gur near Ibleam.[af] He fled to Megiddo and died there. 28 His servants took his body[ag] back to Jerusalem and buried him in his tomb with his ancestors in the City of David. 29 Ahaziah had become king over Judah in the eleventh year of Joram son of Ahab.

30 Jehu approached Jezreel. When Jezebel heard the news, she put on some eye liner,[ah] fixed up her hair, and leaned out the window. 31 When Jehu came through the gate, she said, “Is everything all right, Zimri, murderer of his master?”[ai] 32 He looked up at the window and said, “Who is on my side? Who?” Two or three[aj] eunuchs looked down at him. 33 He said, “Throw her down!” So they threw her down, and when she hit the ground,[ak] her blood splattered against the wall and the horses, and Jehu drove his chariot over her.[al] 34 He went inside and had a meal.[am] Then he said, “Dispose of this accursed woman’s corpse. Bury her, for after all, she was a king’s daughter.”[an] 35 But when they went to bury her, they found nothing left but[ao] the skull, feet, and palms of the hands. 36 So they went back and told him. Then he said, “It is the fulfillment of the Lord’s message[ap] that he had spoken through his servant, Elijah the Tishbite, ‘In the plot of land at Jezreel, dogs will devour Jezebel’s flesh. 37 Jezebel’s corpse will be like manure on the surface of the ground in the plot of land at Jezreel. People will not be able to even recognize her.’”[aq]

Jehu Wipes Out Ahab’s Family

10 Ahab had seventy sons living in Samaria. So Jehu wrote letters and sent them to Samaria to the leading officials of Jezreel and to the guardians of Ahab’s dynasty. This is what the letters said,[ar] “You have with you the sons of your master, chariots and horses, a fortified city, and weapons. So when this letter arrives,[as] pick the best and most capable[at] of your master’s sons, place him on his father’s throne, and defend[au] your master’s dynasty.”

They were absolutely terrified[av] and said, “Look, two kings could not stop him![aw] How can we?”[ax] So the palace supervisor,[ay] the city commissioner,[az] the leaders,[ba] and the guardians sent this message to Jehu, “We are your subjects![bb] Whatever you say, we will do. We will not make anyone king. Do what you consider proper.”[bc]

He wrote them a second letter, saying, “If you are really on my side and are willing to obey me,[bd] then take the heads of your master’s sons and come to me in Jezreel at this time tomorrow.”[be] Now the king had seventy sons, and the prominent men[bf] of the city were raising them. When they received the letter, they seized the king’s sons and executed all seventy of them.[bg] They put their heads in baskets and sent them to him in Jezreel. The messenger came and told Jehu,[bh] “They have brought the heads of the king’s sons.” Jehu[bi] said, “Stack them in two piles at the entrance of the city gate until morning.” In the morning he went out and stood there. Then he said to all the people, “You are innocent. I conspired against my master and killed him. But who struck down all of these men? 10 Therefore take note that not one of the Lord’s words which he pronounced against Ahab’s dynasty[bj] will fail to materialize.[bk] The Lord has done what he announced through his servant Elijah.”[bl] 11 Then Jehu killed all who were left of Ahab’s family in Jezreel, and all his nobles, close friends, and priests. He left no survivors.

12 Jehu then left there and set out for Samaria.[bm] While he was traveling through Beth Eked of the Shepherds, 13 Jehu encountered[bn] the relatives[bo] of King Ahaziah of Judah. He asked, “Who are you?” They replied, “We are Ahaziah’s relatives. We have come down to see how[bp] the king’s sons and the queen mother’s sons are doing.” 14 He said, “Capture them alive!” So they captured them alive and then executed all forty-two of them by the cistern at Beth Eked. He left no survivors.

15 When he left there, he met[bq] Jehonadab son of Rekab who had been looking for him.[br] Jehu greeted him and asked,[bs] “Are you as committed to me as I am to you?”[bt] Jehonadab answered, “I am!” Jehu replied, “If so, give me your hand.”[bu] So he offered his hand and Jehu[bv] pulled him up into the chariot. 16 Jehu[bw] said, “Come with me and see how zealous I am for the Lord’s cause.”[bx] So he[by] took him along in his chariot. 17 He went to Samaria and killed each of Ahab’s remaining family members who were in Samaria until he destroyed them,[bz] in keeping with the Lord’s message which he had announced to Elijah.

Jehu Executes the Prophets and Priests of Baal

18 Jehu assembled all the people and said to them, “Ahab worshiped[ca] Baal a little; Jehu will worship[cb] him with great devotion.[cc] 19 So now, bring to me all the prophets of Baal, as well as all his servants and priests.[cd] None of them must be absent, for I am offering a great sacrifice to Baal. Any of them who fails to appear will lose his life.” But Jehu was tricking them[ce] so he could destroy the servants of Baal. 20 Then Jehu ordered, “Make arrangements for[cf] a celebration for Baal.” So they announced it. 21 Jehu sent invitations throughout Israel, and all the servants of Baal came; not one was absent. They arrived at the temple of Baal and filled it up from end to end.[cg] 22 Jehu ordered the one who was in charge of the wardrobe,[ch] “Bring out robes for all the servants of Baal.” So he brought out robes for them. 23 Then Jehu and Jehonadab son of Rekab went to the temple of Baal. Jehu[ci] said to the servants of Baal, “Make sure there are no servants of the Lord here with you; there must be only servants of Baal.”[cj] 24 They went inside to offer sacrifices and burnt offerings. Now Jehu had stationed eighty men outside. He had told them, “If any of the men inside gets away, you will pay with your lives!”[ck]

25 When he finished offering the burnt sacrifice, Jehu ordered the royal guard[cl] and officers, “Come in and strike them down! Don’t let any escape!” So the royal guard and officers struck them down with the sword and left their bodies lying there.[cm] Then they entered the inner sanctuary of the temple of Baal.[cn] 26 They hauled out the sacred pillar of the temple of Baal and burned it. 27 They demolished[co] the sacred pillar of Baal and[cp] the temple of Baal; it is used as[cq] a latrine[cr] to this very day. 28 So Jehu eradicated Baal worship[cs] from Israel.

A Summary of Jehu’s Reign

29 However, Jehu did not repudiate the sins that Jeroboam son of Nebat had encouraged Israel to commit; the golden calves remained in Bethel and Dan.[ct] 30 The Lord said to Jehu, “You have done well. You have accomplished my will and carried out my wishes with regard to Ahab’s dynasty. Therefore four generations of your descendants will rule over Israel.”[cu] 31 But Jehu did not carefully and wholeheartedly obey the law of the Lord God of Israel.[cv] He did not repudiate the sins which Jeroboam had encouraged Israel to commit.[cw]

Footnotes:

  1. 2 Kings 9:14 tn Heb “he and all Israel.”
  2. 2 Kings 9:15 tn Heb “which the Syrians inflicted [on] him.”
  3. 2 Kings 9:15 sn See 2 Kgs 8:28-29a.
  4. 2 Kings 9:15 tn The words “his supporters” are added for clarification.
  5. 2 Kings 9:15 tn Heb “If this is your desire.” נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh) refers here to the seat of the emotions and will. For other examples of this use of the word, see BDB 660-61 s.v.
  6. 2 Kings 9:16 tn Heb “rode [or, ‘mounted’] and went.”
  7. 2 Kings 9:16 tn Heb “lying down.”
  8. 2 Kings 9:16 tn Heb “to see.”
  9. 2 Kings 9:17 tn Heb “the quantity [of the men] of Jehu, when he approached.” Elsewhere שִׁפְעַה (shifʿah), “quantity,” is used of a quantity of camels (Isa 60:6) or horses (Ezek 26:10) and of an abundance of water (Job 22:11; 38:34).
  10. 2 Kings 9:17 tn The term שִׁפְעַת (shifʿat) appears to be a construct form of the noun, but no genitive follows.
  11. 2 Kings 9:17 tn Heb “Jehoram” here and in vv. 21, 22, 23, 24; Joram is a short form of the name Jehoram.
  12. 2 Kings 9:17 tn Heb “said.”
  13. 2 Kings 9:17 tn Heb “Get a rider and send [him] to meet him and let him ask, ‘Is there peace?’”
  14. 2 Kings 9:18 tn Heb “the rider of the horse.”
  15. 2 Kings 9:18 tn Heb “Is there peace?”
  16. 2 Kings 9:18 tn Heb “What concerning you and concerning peace?” That is, “What concern is that to you?”
  17. 2 Kings 9:19 tn Heb “and he came to them.”
  18. 2 Kings 9:19 tc The MT has simply “peace,” omitting the prefixed interrogative particle. It is likely that the particle has been accidentally omitted; several ancient witnesses include it or assume its presence.
  19. 2 Kings 9:20 tn Heb “and the driving is like the driving of Jehu son of Nimshi.”
  20. 2 Kings 9:21 tn The words “my chariot” are added for clarification.
  21. 2 Kings 9:21 tn Heb “and he hitched up his chariot.”
  22. 2 Kings 9:21 tn Heb “each in his chariot and they went out.”
  23. 2 Kings 9:21 tn Heb “they found him.”
  24. 2 Kings 9:22 tn Heb “How [can there be] peace as long as the adulterous acts of Jezebel your mother and her acts of sorcery [are] many?” In this instance “adulterous acts” is employed metaphorically for idolatry. As elsewhere in the OT, worshiping other gods is viewed as spiritual adultery and unfaithfulness to the one true God. The phrase “many acts of sorcery” could be taken literally, for Jezebel undoubtedly utilized pagan divination practices, but the phrase may be metaphorical, pointing to her devotion to pagan customs in general.
  25. 2 Kings 9:23 tn Heb “and Jehoram turned his hands and fled.” The phrase “turned his hands” refers to how he would have pulled on the reins in order to make his horses turn around.
  26. 2 Kings 9:23 tn Heb “Deceit, Ahaziah.”
  27. 2 Kings 9:24 tn Heb “and Jehu filled his hand with the bow and he struck Jehoram between his shoulders.”
  28. 2 Kings 9:24 tn Heb “went out from.”
  29. 2 Kings 9:25 tn Heb “said to.”
  30. 2 Kings 9:26 tn Heb “I will pay you back.”
  31. 2 Kings 9:27 tn Heb “and Ahaziah king of Judah saw and fled.”
  32. 2 Kings 9:27 tn After Jehu’s order (“kill him too”), the MT has simply, “to the chariot in the ascent of Gur which is near Ibleam.” The main verb in the clause, “they shot him” (וַיַּכֻּהוּ, vayyakkuhu), has been accidentally omitted by virtual haplography/homoioteleuton. Note that the immediately preceding form הַכֻּהוּ (hakkuhu), “shoot him,” ends with the same suffix.
  33. 2 Kings 9:28 tn Heb “drove him.”
  34. 2 Kings 9:30 tn Heb “she fixed her eyes with antimony.” Antimony (פּוּךְ, pukh) was used as a cosmetic. The narrator portrays her as a prostitute (see Jer 4:30), a role she has played in the spiritual realm (see the note at v. 22).
  35. 2 Kings 9:31 sn Jezebel associates Jehu with another assassin, Zimri, who approximately 44 years before had murdered King Elah, only to meet a violent death just a few days later (1 Kgs 16:9-20). On the surface Jezebel’s actions seem contradictory. On the one hand, she beautifies herself as if to seduce Jehu, but on the other hand, she insults and indirectly threatens him with this comparison to Zimri. Upon further reflection, however, her actions reveal a clear underlying motive. She wants to retain her power, not to mention her life. By beautifying herself, she appeals to Jehu’s sexual impulses; by threatening him, she reminds him that he is in the same precarious position as Zimri. But, if he makes Jezebel his queen, he can consolidate his power. In other words through her actions and words Jezebel is saying to Jehu, “You desire me, don’t you? And you need me!”
  36. 2 Kings 9:32 tn Heb “two, three.” The narrator may be intentionally vague or uncertain here, or the two numbers may represent alternate traditions.
  37. 2 Kings 9:33 tn The words “when she hit the ground” are added for stylistic reasons.
  38. 2 Kings 9:33 tn Heb “and he trampled her.”
  39. 2 Kings 9:34 tn Heb “and he went in and ate and drank.”
  40. 2 Kings 9:34 tn Heb “Attend to this accursed woman and bury her for she was the daughter of a king.”
  41. 2 Kings 9:35 tn Heb “they did not find her, except for.”
  42. 2 Kings 9:36 tn Heb “It is the Lord’s message.”
  43. 2 Kings 9:37 tn Heb “so that they will not say, ‘This is Jezebel.’”
  44. 2 Kings 10:1 tn Heb “to the officers of Jezreel, the elders, and to the guardians of Ahab, saying.” It is not certain why the officials of Jezreel would be in Samaria. They may have fled there after they heard what happened to Joram and before Jehu entered the city. They would have had time to flee while Jehu was pursuing Ahaziah.
  45. 2 Kings 10:2 tn Heb “And now when this letter comes to you—with you are the sons of your master and with you are chariots and horses and a fortified city and weapons.”
  46. 2 Kings 10:3 tn Hebrew יָשָׁר (yashar) does not have its normal moral/ethical nuance here (“upright”), but a more neutral sense of “proper, right, suitable.” For the gloss “capable,” see HALOT 450 s.v. יָשָׁר.
  47. 2 Kings 10:3 tn Or “fight for.”
  48. 2 Kings 10:4 tn Heb “they were very, very afraid.” The term מְאֹד (meʾod) “very,” is repeated for emphasis.
  49. 2 Kings 10:4 tn Heb “did not stand before him.”
  50. 2 Kings 10:4 tn Heb “How can we stand?”
  51. 2 Kings 10:5 tn Heb “the one who was over the house.”
  52. 2 Kings 10:5 tn Heb “the one who was over the city.”
  53. 2 Kings 10:5 tn Or “elders.”
  54. 2 Kings 10:5 tn Heb “servants.”
  55. 2 Kings 10:5 tn Heb “Do what is good in your eyes.”
  56. 2 Kings 10:6 tn Heb “If you are mine and you are listening to my voice.”
  57. 2 Kings 10:6 sn Jehu’s command is intentionally vague. Does he mean that they should bring the guardians (those who are “heads” over Ahab’s sons) for a meeting, or does he mean that they should bring the literal heads of Ahab’s sons with them (so reads Lucian’s Greek translation, the Syriac Peshitta, and some mss of the Targum)? The city leaders interpret his words in the literal sense, but Jehu’s command is so ambiguous he is able to deny complicity in the executions (see v. 9).
  58. 2 Kings 10:6 tn Heb “great men,” probably in wealth, position, and prestige.
  59. 2 Kings 10:7 tn Heb “and when the letter came to them, they took the sons of the king and slaughtered seventy men.”
  60. 2 Kings 10:8 tn Heb “him”; the referent (Jehu) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  61. 2 Kings 10:8 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Jehu) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  62. 2 Kings 10:10 tn Heb “the house of Ahab.”
  63. 2 Kings 10:10 tn Heb “will fall to the earth.”
  64. 2 Kings 10:10 tn Heb “by the hand of his servant Elijah.”
  65. 2 Kings 10:12 tn Heb “and he arose and went and came to Samaria.”
  66. 2 Kings 10:13 tn Heb “found.”
  67. 2 Kings 10:13 tn Or “brothers.”
  68. 2 Kings 10:13 tn Heb “for the peace of.”
  69. 2 Kings 10:15 tn Heb “found.”
  70. 2 Kings 10:15 tn Heb “and he went from there and found Jehonadab son of Rekab [who was coming] to meet him.”
  71. 2 Kings 10:15 tn Heb “and he blessed him and said to him.”
  72. 2 Kings 10:15 tn Heb “Is there with your heart [what is] right, as my heart [is] with your heart?”
  73. 2 Kings 10:15 tc Heb “Jehonadab said, ‘There is and there is. Give your hand.’” If the text is allowed to stand, there are two possible ways to understand the syntax of וָיֵשׁ (vayesh), “and there is”: (1) The repetition of יֵשׁ (yesh, “there is and there is”) could be taken as emphatic, “indeed I am.” In this case, the entire statement could be taken as Jehonadab’s words or one could understand the words “give your hand” as Jehu’s. In the latter case the change in speakers is unmarked. (2) וָיֵשׁ begins Jehu’s response and has a conditional force, “if you are.” In this case, the transition in speakers is unmarked. However, it is possible that וַיֹּאמֶר (vayyoʾmer), “and he said,” or וַיֹּאמֶר יֵהוּא (vayyoʾmer yehu), “and Jehu said,” originally appeared between יֵשׁ and וָיֵשׁ and has accidentally dropped from the text by homoioarcton (note that both the proposed וַיֹּאמֶר and וָיֵשׁ begin with vav, ו). The present translation assumes such a textual reconstruction; it is supported by the LXX, Syriac Peshitta, and Vulgate.
  74. 2 Kings 10:15 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Jehu) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  75. 2 Kings 10:16 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Jehu) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  76. 2 Kings 10:16 tn Heb “and see my zeal for the Lord.”
  77. 2 Kings 10:16 tc The MT has a plural form, but this is most likely an error. The LXX, Syriac Peshitta, and Vulgate all have the singular.
  78. 2 Kings 10:17 tn Heb “him.” The pronoun refers to Ahab who represents his entire family.
  79. 2 Kings 10:18 tn Or “served.
  80. 2 Kings 10:18 tn Or “serve.”
  81. 2 Kings 10:18 tn Heb “much” or “greatly.”
  82. 2 Kings 10:19 tn Heb “and now, all the prophets of Baal, all his servants and all his priests summon to me.”
  83. 2 Kings 10:19 tn Heb “acted with deception [or, ‘trickery’].”
  84. 2 Kings 10:20 tn Heb “set apart”; or “observe as holy.”
  85. 2 Kings 10:21 tn Heb “and the house of Baal was filled mouth to mouth.”
  86. 2 Kings 10:22 tn Heb “and he said to the one who was over the wardrobe.”
  87. 2 Kings 10:23 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Jehu) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  88. 2 Kings 10:23 tn Heb “Search carefully and observe so that there are not here with you any servants of the Lord, but only the servants of Baal.”
  89. 2 Kings 10:24 tn Heb “The man who escapes from the men whom I am bringing into your hands, [it will be] his life in place of his life.”
  90. 2 Kings 10:25 tn Heb “runners.”
  91. 2 Kings 10:25 tn Heb “and they threw.” No object appears. According to M. Cogan and H. Tadmor (II Kings [AB], 116), this is an idiom for leaving a corpse unburied.
  92. 2 Kings 10:25 tn Heb “and they came to the city of the house of Baal.” It seems unlikely that a literal city is meant. Some emend עִיר (ʿir), “city,” to דְּבִיר (devir) “holy place,” or suggest that עִיר is due to dittography of the immediately preceding עַד (ʿad) “to.” Perhaps עִיר is here a technical term meaning “fortress” or, more likely, “inner room.”
  93. 2 Kings 10:27 tn Or “pulled down.”
  94. 2 Kings 10:27 tn The verb “they demolished” is repeated in the Hebrew text.
  95. 2 Kings 10:27 tn Heb “and they made it into.”
  96. 2 Kings 10:27 tn The consonantal text (Kethib) has the hapax legomenon מַחֲרָאוֹת (makharaʾot), “places to defecate” or “dung houses” (note the related noun חֶרֶא (khereʾ)/חֲרִי (khari), “dung,” HALOT 348-49 s.v. *חֲרָאִים). The marginal reading (Qere) glosses this, perhaps euphemistically, מוֹצָאוֹת (motsaʾot), “outhouses.”
  97. 2 Kings 10:28 tn Heb “destroyed Baal.”
  98. 2 Kings 10:29 tn Heb “Except the sins of Jeroboam son of Nebat which he caused Israel to commit, Jehu did not turn aside from after them—the golden calves which [were in] Bethel and which [were] in Dan.”
  99. 2 Kings 10:30 tn Heb “Because you have done well by doing what is proper in my eyes—according to all which was in my heart you have done to the house of Ahab—sons of four generations will sit for you on the throne of Israel.” In the Hebrew text the Lord’s statement is one long sentence (with a parenthesis). The translation above divides it into shorter sentences for stylistic reasons.sn Jehu ruled over Israel from approximately 841-814 b.c. Four of his descendants (Jehoahaz, Jehoash, Jeroboam II, and Zechariah) ruled from approximately 814-753 b.c. The dynasty came to an end when Shallum assassinated Zechariah in 753 b.c. See 2 Kgs 15:8-12.
  100. 2 Kings 10:31 tn Heb “But Jehu was not careful to walk in the law of the Lord God of Israel with all his heart.”
  101. 2 Kings 10:31 tn Heb “He did not turn aside from the sins of Jeroboam which he caused Israel to commit.”
New English Translation (NET)

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Acts 17

Paul and Silas at Thessalonica

17 After they traveled through[a] Amphipolis[b] and Apollonia,[c] they came to Thessalonica,[d] where there was a Jewish synagogue.[e] Paul went to the Jews in the synagogue,[f] as he customarily did, and on three Sabbath days he addressed[g] them from the scriptures, explaining and demonstrating[h] that the Christ[i] had to suffer and to rise from the dead,[j] saying,[k] “This Jesus I am proclaiming to you is the Christ.”[l] Some of them were persuaded[m] and joined Paul and Silas, along with a large group[n] of God-fearing Greeks[o] and quite a few[p] prominent women. But the Jews became jealous,[q] and gathering together some worthless men from the rabble in the marketplace,[r] they formed a mob[s] and set the city in an uproar.[t] They attacked Jason’s house,[u] trying to find Paul and Silas[v] to bring them out to the assembly.[w] When they did not find them, they dragged[x] Jason and some of the brothers before the city officials,[y] screaming, “These people who have stirred up trouble[z] throughout the world[aa] have come here too, and[ab] Jason has welcomed them as guests! They[ac] are all acting against Caesar’s[ad] decrees, saying there is another king named[ae] Jesus!”[af] They caused confusion among[ag] the crowd and the city officials[ah] who heard these things. After[ai] the city officials[aj] had received bail[ak] from Jason and the others, they released them.

Paul and Silas at Berea

10 The brothers sent Paul and Silas off to Berea[al] at once, during the night. When they arrived,[am] they went to the Jewish synagogue.[an] 11 These Jews[ao] were more open-minded[ap] than those in Thessalonica,[aq] for they eagerly[ar] received[as] the message, examining[at] the scriptures carefully every day[au] to see if these things were so. 12 Therefore many of them believed, along with quite a few[av] prominent[aw] Greek women and men. 13 But when the Jews from Thessalonica[ax] heard that Paul had also proclaimed the word of God[ay] in Berea, they came there too, inciting[az] and disturbing[ba] the crowds. 14 Then the brothers sent Paul away to the coast[bb] at once, but Silas and Timothy remained in Berea.[bc] 15 Those who accompanied Paul escorted him as far as Athens, and after receiving an order for Silas and Timothy to come to him as soon as possible, they left.[bd]

Paul at Athens

16 While Paul was waiting for them in Athens, his spirit was greatly upset[be] because he saw[bf] the city was full of idols. 17 So he was addressing[bg] the Jews and the God-fearing Gentiles[bh] in the synagogue,[bi] and in the marketplace[bj] every day[bk] those who happened to be there. 18 Also some of the Epicurean[bl] and Stoic[bm] philosophers were conversing[bn] with him, and some were asking,[bo] “What does this foolish babbler[bp] want to say?” Others said, “He seems to be a proclaimer of foreign gods.”[bq] (They said this because he was proclaiming the good news about Jesus and the resurrection.)[br] 19 So they took Paul and[bs] brought him to the Areopagus,[bt] saying, “May we know what this new teaching is that you are proclaiming? 20 For you are bringing some surprising things[bu] to our ears, so we want to know what they[bv] mean.” 21 (All the Athenians and the foreigners who lived there used to spend their time[bw] in nothing else than telling[bx] or listening to something new.)[by]

22 So Paul stood[bz] before the Areopagus and said, “Men of Athens, I see that you are very religious[ca] in all respects.[cb] 23 For as I went around and observed closely your objects of worship,[cc] I even found an altar with this inscription:[cd] ‘To an unknown god.’ Therefore what you worship without knowing it,[ce] this I proclaim to you. 24 The God who made the world and everything in it,[cf] who is[cg] Lord of heaven and earth, does not live in temples made by human hands,[ch] 25 nor is he served by human hands, as if he needed anything,[ci] because he himself gives life and breath and everything to everyone.[cj] 26 From one man[ck] he made every nation of the human race[cl] to inhabit the entire earth,[cm] determining their set times[cn] and the fixed limits of the places where they would live,[co] 27 so that they would search for God and perhaps grope around[cp] for him and find him,[cq] though he is[cr] not far from each one of us. 28 For in him we live and move about[cs] and exist, as even some of your own poets have said, ‘For we too are his offspring.’[ct] 29 So since we are God’s offspring, we should not think the deity[cu] is like gold or silver or stone, an image[cv] made by human[cw] skill[cx] and imagination.[cy] 30 Therefore, although God has overlooked[cz] such times of ignorance,[da] he now commands all people[db] everywhere to repent,[dc] 31 because he has set[dd] a day on which he is going to judge the world[de] in righteousness, by a man whom he designated,[df] having provided proof to everyone by raising[dg] him from the dead.”

32 Now when they heard about[dh] the resurrection from the dead, some began to scoff,[di] but others said, “We will hear you again about this.” 33 So Paul left the Areopagus.[dj] 34 But some people[dk] joined him[dl] and believed. Among them[dm] were Dionysius, who was a member of the Areopagus,[dn] a woman[do] named Damaris, and others with them.

Footnotes:

  1. Acts 17:1 tn BDAG 250 s.v. διοδεύω 1 has “go, travel through” for this verse.
  2. Acts 17:1 sn Amphipolis. The capital city of the southeastern district of Macedonia (BDAG 55 s.v. ᾿Αμφίπολις). It was a military post. From Philippi this was about 33 mi (53 km).
  3. Acts 17:1 sn Apollonia was a city in Macedonia about 27 mi (43 km) west southwest of Amphipolis.
  4. Acts 17:1 sn Thessalonica (modern Salonica) was a city in Macedonia about 33 mi (53 km) west of Apollonia. It was the capital of Macedonia. The road they traveled over was called the Via Egnatia. It is likely they rode horses, given their condition in Philippi. The implication of v. 1 is that the two previously mentioned cities lacked a synagogue.
  5. Acts 17:1 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.
  6. Acts 17:2 tn Grk “he went in to them”; the referent (the Jews in the synagogue) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  7. Acts 17:2 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 17:2. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.
  8. Acts 17:3 tn BDAG 772 s.v. παρατίθημι 2.b has “demonstrate, point out” here.
  9. Acts 17:3 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 2:31.
  10. Acts 17:3 sn The Christ had to suffer and to rise from the dead. These two points (suffering and resurrection) would have been among the more controversial aspects of Paul’s messianic preaching. The term translated “had to” (δεῖ, dei) shows how divine design and scripture corresponded here.
  11. Acts 17:3 tn The Greek words used here (καὶ ὅτι, kai hoti, “and that”) mark the switch from indirect to direct discourse. Contemporary English requires the use of an introductory verb of speaking or saying to make this transition.
  12. Acts 17:3 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 2:31. The identification of the Messiah with Jesus indicates Paul was proclaiming the fulfillment of messianic promise.
  13. Acts 17:4 tn Or “convinced.”
  14. Acts 17:4 tn Or “a large crowd.”
  15. Acts 17:4 tn Or “of devout Greeks,” but this is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44. Luke frequently mentions such people (Acts 13:43, 50; 16:14; 17:17; 18:7).
  16. Acts 17:4 tn Grk “not a few”; this use of negation could be misleading to the modern English reader, however, and so has been translated as “quite a few” (which is the actual meaning of the expression).
  17. Acts 17:5 tn Grk “becoming jealous.” The participle ζηλώσαντες (zēlōsantes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. So elsewhere in Acts (5:17; 7:9; 13:45).
  18. Acts 17:5 tn Literally ἀγοραῖος (agoraios) refers to the crowd in the marketplace, although BDAG 14-15 s.v. ἀγοραῖος 1 gives the meaning, by extension, as “rabble.” Such a description is certainly appropriate in this context. L&N 15.127 translates the phrase “worthless men from the streets.”
  19. Acts 17:5 tn On this term, which is a NT hapax legomenon, see BDAG 745 s.v. ὀχλοποιέω.
  20. Acts 17:5 tn BDAG 458 s.v. θορυβέω 1 has “set the city in an uproar, start a riot in the city” for the meaning of ἐθορύβουν (ethoruboun) in this verse.
  21. Acts 17:5 sn The attack took place at Jason’s house because this was probably the location of the new house church.
  22. Acts 17:5 tn Grk “them”; the referents (Paul and Silas) have been specified in the translation for clarity.
  23. Acts 17:5 tn BDAG 223 s.v. δῆμος 2 has “in a Hellenistic city, a convocation of citizens called together for the purpose of transacting official business, popular assembly προάγειν εἰς τὸν δ. Ac 17:5.”
  24. Acts 17:6 tn See BDAG 977-78 s.v. σύρω on this verb. It was used in everyday speech of dragging in fish by a net, or dragging away someone’s (presumably) dead body (Paul in Acts 14:19).
  25. Acts 17:6 tn L&N 37.93 defines πολιτάρχης (politarchēs) as “a public official responsible for administrative matters within a town or city and a member of the ruling council of such a political unit—‘city official’” (see also BDAG 845 s.v.).
  26. Acts 17:6 tn Or “rebellion.” BDAG 72 s.v. ἀναστατόω has “disturb, trouble, upset,” but in light of the references in the following verse to political insurrection, “stirred up rebellion” would also be appropriate.
  27. Acts 17:6 tn Or “the empire.” This was a way of referring to the Roman empire (BDAG 699 s.v. οἰκουμένη 2.b).sn Throughout the world. Note how some of those present had knowledge of what had happened elsewhere. Word about Paul and his companions and their message was spreading.
  28. Acts 17:7 tn Grk “whom.” Because of the awkwardness in English of having two relative clauses follow one another (“who have stirred up trouble…whom Jason has welcomed”) the relative pronoun here (“whom”) has been replaced by the conjunction “and,” creating a clause that is grammatically coordinate but logically subordinate in the translation.
  29. Acts 17:7 tn Grk “and they.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun.
  30. Acts 17:7 tn Or “the emperor’s” (“Caesar” is a title for the Roman emperor).
  31. Acts 17:7 tn The word “named” is not in the Greek text, but is supplied for clarity.
  32. Acts 17:7 sn Acting…saying…Jesus. The charges are serious, involving sedition (Luke 23:2). If the political charges were true, Rome would have to react.
  33. Acts 17:8 tn Grk “They troubled the crowd and the city officials,” but this could be understood to mean “they bothered” or “they annoyed.” In reality the Jewish instigators managed to instill doubt and confusion into both the mob and the officials by their false charges of treason. Verse 8 suggests the charges raised again Paul, Silas, Jason, and the others were false.
  34. Acts 17:8 tn L&N 37.93 defines πολιτάρχης (politarchēs) as “a public official responsible for administrative matters within a town or city and a member of the ruling council of such a political unit—‘city official.’”
  35. Acts 17:9 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
  36. Acts 17:9 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the city officials) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  37. Acts 17:9 tn That is, “a payment” or “a pledge of security” (BDAG 472 s.v. ἱκανός 1) for which “bail” is the most common contemporary English equivalent.
  38. Acts 17:10 sn Berea (alternate spelling in NRSV Beroea; Greek Beroia) was a very old city in Macedonia on the river Astraeus about 45 mi (75 km) west of Thessalonica.
  39. Acts 17:10 tn Grk “who arriving there, went to.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (οἵτινες, hoitines) has been left untranslated and a new English sentence begun. The participle παραγενόμενοι (paragenomenoi) has been taken temporally.
  40. Acts 17:10 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.
  41. Acts 17:11 tn Grk “These”; the referent (the Jews in the synagogue at Berea) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  42. Acts 17:11 tn Or “more willing to learn.” L&N 27.48 and BDAG 404 s.v. εὐγενής 2 both use the term “open-minded” here. The point is that they were more receptive to Paul’s message.
  43. Acts 17:11 sn Thessalonica was a city in Macedonia (modern Salonica).
  44. Acts 17:11 tn Or “willingly,” “readily”; Grk “with all eagerness.”
  45. Acts 17:11 tn Grk “who received.” Here the relative pronoun (“who”) has been translated as a pronoun (“they”) preceded by a semicolon, which is less awkward in contemporary English than a relative clause at this point.
  46. Acts 17:11 tn This verb (BDAG 66 s.v. ἀνακρίνω 1) refers to careful examination.
  47. Acts 17:11 tn BDAG 437 s.v. ἡμέρα 2.c has “every day” for this phrase in this verse.
  48. Acts 17:12 tn Grk “not a few”; this use of negation could be misleading to the modern English reader, however, and so has been translated as “quite a few” (which is the actual meaning of the expression).
  49. Acts 17:12 tn Or “respected.”
  50. Acts 17:13 sn Thessalonica was a city in Macedonia (modern Salonica).
  51. Acts 17:13 tn Grk “that the word of God had also been proclaimed by Paul.” This passive construction has been converted to an active one in the translation for stylistic reasons.
  52. Acts 17:13 tn BDAG 911 s.v. σαλεύω 2 has “incite” for σαλεύοντες (saleuontes) in Acts 17:13.sn Inciting. Ironically, it was the Jews who were disturbing the peace, not the Christians.
  53. Acts 17:13 tn Or “stirring up” (BDAG 990-91 s.v. ταράσσω 2). The point is the agitation of the crowds.
  54. Acts 17:14 tn Grk “to the sea.” Here ἕως ἐπὶ τὴν θάλασσαν (heōs epi tēn thalassan) must mean “to the edge of the sea,” that is, “to the coast.” Since there is no mention of Paul taking a ship to Athens, he presumably traveled overland. The journey would have been about 340 mi (550 km).
  55. Acts 17:14 tn Grk “remained there”; the referent (Berea) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  56. Acts 17:15 sn They left. See 1 Thess 3:1-2, which shows they went from here to Thessalonica.
  57. Acts 17:16 tn Grk “greatly upset within him,” but the words “within him” were not included in the translation because they are redundant in English. See L&N 88.189. The term could also be rendered “infuriated.”sn His spirit was greatly upset. See Rom 1:18-32 for Paul’s feelings about idolatry. Yet he addressed both Jews and Gentiles with tact and reserve.
  58. Acts 17:16 tn Or “when he saw.” The participle θεωροῦντος (theōrountos) has been translated as a causal adverbial participle; it could also be translated as temporal.
  59. Acts 17:17 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 17:17. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.
  60. Acts 17:17 tn Or “and the devout,” but this is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44, and the note on the phrase “God-fearing Greeks” in 17:4.
  61. Acts 17:17 sn See the note on synagogue in Acts 6:9.
  62. Acts 17:17 sn See the note on marketplace in Acts 16:19.
  63. Acts 17:17 tn BDAG 437 s.v. ἡμέρα 2.c has “every day” for this phrase in this verse.
  64. Acts 17:18 sn An Epicurean was a follower of the philosophy of Epicurus, who founded a school in Athens about 300 b.c. Although the Epicureans saw the aim of life as pleasure, they were not strictly hedonists, because they defined pleasure as the absence of pain. Along with this, they desired the avoidance of trouble and freedom from annoyances. They saw organized religion as evil, especially the belief that the gods punished evildoers in an afterlife. In keeping with this, they were unable to accept Paul’s teaching about the resurrection.
  65. Acts 17:18 sn A Stoic was a follower of the philosophy founded by Zeno (342-270 b.c.), a Phoenician who came to Athens and modified the philosophical system of the Cynics he found there. The Stoics rejected the Epicurean ideal of pleasure, stressing virtue instead. The Stoics emphasized responsibility for voluntary actions and believed risks were worth taking, but thought the actual attainment of virtue was difficult. They also believed in providence.
  66. Acts 17:18 tn BDAG 956 s.v. συμβάλλω 1 has “converse, confer” here.
  67. Acts 17:18 tn Grk “saying.”
  68. Acts 17:18 tn Or “ignorant show-off.” The traditional English translation of σπερμολόγος (spermologos) is given in L&N 33.381 as “foolish babbler.” However, an alternate view is presented in L&N 27.19, “(a figurative extension of meaning of a term based on the practice of birds in picking up seeds) one who acquires bits and pieces of relatively extraneous information and proceeds to pass them off with pretense and show—‘ignorant show-off, charlatan.’” A similar view is given in BDAG 937 s.v. σπερμολόγος: “in pejorative imagery of persons whose communication lacks sophistication and seems to pick up scraps of information here and there scrapmonger, scavenger…Engl. synonyms include ‘gossip’, ‘babbler’, chatterer’; but these terms miss the imagery of unsystematic gathering.”
  69. Acts 17:18 tn The meaning of this phrase is not clear. Literally it reads “strange deities” (see BDAG 210 s.v. δαιμόνιον 1). The note of not being customary is important. In the ancient world what was new was suspicious. The plural δαιμονίων (daimoniōn, “deities”) shows the audience grappling with Paul’s teaching that God was working through Jesus.
  70. Acts 17:18 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.
  71. Acts 17:19 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  72. Acts 17:19 tn Or “to the council of the Areopagus.” See also the term in v. 22.sn The Areopagus has been traditionally understood as reference to a rocky hill near the Acropolis in Athens, although this place may well have been located in the marketplace at the foot of the hill (L&N 93.412; BDAG 129 s.v. ῎Αρειος πάγος). This term does not refer so much to the place, however, as to the advisory council of Athens known as the Areopagus, which dealt with ethical, cultural, and religious matters, including the supervision of education and controlling the many visiting lecturers. Thus it could be translated the council of the Areopagus. See also the term in v. 22.
  73. Acts 17:20 tn BDAG 684 s.v. ξενίζω 2 translates the substantival participle ξενίζοντα (xenizonta) as “astonishing things Ac 17:20.”
  74. Acts 17:20 tn Grk “these things,” but since the referent (“surprising things”) is so close, the repetition of “these things” sounds redundant in English, so the pronoun “they” was substituted in the translation.
  75. Acts 17:21 tn The imperfect verb ηὐκαίρουν (ēukairoun) has been translated as a customary or habitual imperfect.
  76. Acts 17:21 tn BDAG 406-7 s.v. εὐκαιρέω has “used to spend their time in nothing else than telling Ac 17:21.”
  77. Acts 17:21 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author. The reference to newness may be pejorative.
  78. Acts 17:22 tn Grk “standing…said.” The participle ζηλώσαντες (zēlōsantes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  79. Acts 17:22 tn The term δεισιδαιμονεστέρους (deisidaimonesterous) is difficult. On the one hand it can have the positive sense of “devout,” but on the other hand it can have the negative sense of “superstitious” (BDAG 216 s.v. δεισιδαίμων). As part of a laudatory introduction (the technical rhetorical term for this introduction was capatatio), the term is probably positive here. It may well be a “backhanded” compliment, playing on the ambiguity.
  80. Acts 17:22 tn BDAG 513 s.v. κατά B.6 translates the phrase κατὰ πάντα (kata panta) as “in all respects.”
  81. Acts 17:23 tn Or “your sanctuaries.” L&N 53.54 gives “sanctuary” (place of worship) as an alternate meaning for the word σεβάσματα (sebasmata).
  82. Acts 17:23 tn Grk “on which was written,” but since it would have been carved in stone, it is more common to speak of an “inscription” in English. To simplify the English the relative construction with a passive verb (“on which was inscribed”) was translated as a prepositional phrase with a substantive (“inscription”).
  83. Acts 17:23 tn BDAG 13 s.v. ἀγνοέω 1.b has “Abs. ὅ ἀγνοοῦντες εὐσεβεῖτε what you worship without knowing it (on the subject matter Maximus Tyr. 11, 5e: all sorts of philosophers ἴσασιν οὐκ ἑκόντες καὶ λέγουσιν ἄκοντες sc. τὸ θεῖον = they know and name God without intending to do so) Ac 17:23.” Paul, in typical Jewish Christian style, informs them of the true God, of whom their idols are an ignorant reflection.
  84. Acts 17:24 tn Grk “all the things that are in it.” The speech starts with God as Creator, like 14:15.
  85. Acts 17:24 tn Or “because he is.” The participle ὑπάρχων (huparchōn) could be either adjectival, modifying οὗτος (houtos, “who is Lord…”) or adverbial of cause (“because he is Lord…”). Since the participle διδούς (didous) in v. 25 appears to be clearly causal in force, it is preferable to understand ὑπάρχων as adjectival in this context.
  86. Acts 17:24 sn On the statement does not live in temples made by human hands compare Acts 7:48. This has implications for idols as well. God cannot be represented by them or, as the following clause also suggests, served by human hands.
  87. Acts 17:25 tn L&N 57.45 has “nor does he need anything more that people can supply by working for him.”
  88. Acts 17:25 tn Grk “he himself gives to all [people] life and breath and all things.”
  89. Acts 17:26 sn The one man refers to Adam (the word “man” is understood).
  90. Acts 17:26 tn Or “mankind.” BDAG 276 s.v. ἔθνος 1 has “every nation of humankind Ac 17:26.”
  91. Acts 17:26 tn Grk “to live over all the face of the earth.”
  92. Acts 17:26 tn BDAG 884-85 s.v. προστάσσω has “(οἱ) προστεταγμένοι καιροί (the) fixed times Ac 17:26” here, but since the following phrase is also translated “fixed limits,” this would seem redundant in English, so the word “set” has been used instead.
  93. Acts 17:26 tn Grk “the boundaries of their habitation.” L&N 80.5 has “fixed limits of the places where they would live” for this phrase.
  94. Acts 17:27 tn See BDAG 1097-98 s.v. ψηλαφάω, which lists “touch, handle” and “to feel around for, grope for” as possible meanings.
  95. Acts 17:27 sn Perhaps grope around for him and find him. The pagans’ struggle to know God is the point here. Conscience alone is not good enough.
  96. Acts 17:27 tn The participle ὑπάρχοντα (huparchonta) has been translated as a concessive adverbial participle.
  97. Acts 17:28 tn According to L&N 15.1, “A strictly literal translation of κινέω in Ac 17:28 might imply merely moving from one place to another. The meaning, however, is generalized movement and activity; therefore, it may be possible to translate κινούμεθα as ‘we come and go’ or ‘we move about’ or even ‘we do what we do.’”
  98. Acts 17:28 sn This quotation is from Aratus (ca. 310-245 b.c.), Phaenomena 5. Paul asserted a general relationship and accountability to God for all humanity.
  99. Acts 17:29 tn Or “the divine being.” BDAG 446 s.v. θεῖος 1.b has “divine being, divinity” here.
  100. Acts 17:29 tn Or “a likeness.” Again idolatry is directly attacked as an affront to God and a devaluation of him.
  101. Acts 17:29 tn Grk “by the skill and imagination of man,” but ἀνθρώπου (anthrōpou) has been translated as an attributive genitive.
  102. Acts 17:29 tn Or “craftsmanship” (cf. BDAG 1001 s.v. τέχνη).
  103. Acts 17:29 tn Or “thought.” BDAG 336 s.v. ἐνθύμησις has “thought, reflection, idea” as the category of meaning here, but in terms of creativity (as in the context) the imaginative faculty is in view.
  104. Acts 17:30 tn Or “has deliberately paid no attention to.”
  105. Acts 17:30 tn Or “times when people did not know.”
  106. Acts 17:30 tn Here ἀνθρώποις (anthrōpois) has been translated as a generic noun (“people”).
  107. Acts 17:30 sn He now commands all people everywhere to repent. God was now asking all mankind to turn to him. No nation or race was excluded.
  108. Acts 17:31 tn Or “fixed.”
  109. Acts 17:31 sn The world refers to the whole inhabited earth.
  110. Acts 17:31 tn Or “appointed.” BDAG 723 s.v. ὁρίζω 2.b has “of persons appoint, designate, declare: God judges the world ἐν ἀνδρὶ ᾧ ὥρισεν through a man whom he has appointed Ac 17:31.”sn A man whom he designated. Jesus is put in the position of eschatological judge. As judge of the living and the dead, he possesses divine authority (Acts 10:42).
  111. Acts 17:31 tn The participle ἀναστήσας (anastēsas) indicates means here.
  112. Acts 17:32 tn The participle ἀκούσαντες (akousantes) has been taken temporally.
  113. Acts 17:32 tn L&N 33.408 has “some scoffed (at him) Ac 17:32” for ἐχλεύαζον (echleuazon) here; the imperfect verb has been translated as an ingressive imperfect (“began to scoff”).
  114. Acts 17:33 tn Grk “left out of their midst”; the referent (the Areopagus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  115. Acts 17:34 tn Although the Greek word here is ἀνήρ (anēr), which normally refers to males, husbands, etc., in this particular context it must have a generic force similar to that of ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos), since “a woman named Damaris” is mentioned specifically as being part of this group (cf. BDAG 79 s.v. ἀνήρ 1.a).
  116. Acts 17:34 tn Grk “joining him, believed.” The participle κολληθέντες (kollēthentes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. On the use of this verb in Acts, see 5:13; 8:29; 9:26; 10:28.
  117. Acts 17:34 tn Grk “among whom.” Due to the length of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“whom”) has been translated as a third person plural pronoun (“them”) and a new sentence begun in the translation.
  118. Acts 17:34 tn Grk “the Areopagite” (a member of the council of the Areopagus). The noun “Areopagite” is not in common usage today in English. It is clearer to use a descriptive phrase “a member of the Areopagus” (L&N 11.82). However, this phrase alone can be misleading in English: “Dionysius, a member of the Areopagus, and a woman named Damaris” could be understood to refer to three people (Dionysius, an unnamed member of the Areopagus, and Damaris) rather than only two. Converting the descriptive phrase to a relative clause in English (“who was a member of the Areopagus”) removes the ambiguity.
  119. Acts 17:34 tn Grk “and a woman,” but this καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
New English Translation (NET)

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Psalm 144

Psalm 144[a]

By David.

144 The Lord, my Protector,[b] deserves praise[c]
the one who trains my hands for battle,[d]
and my fingers for war,
who loves me[e] and is my stronghold,
my refuge[f] and my deliverer,
my shield and the one in whom I take shelter,
who makes nations submit to me.[g]
O Lord, of what importance is the human race,[h] that you should notice them?
Of what importance is mankind,[i] that you should be concerned about them?[j]
People[k] are like a vapor,
their days like a shadow that disappears.[l]
O Lord, make the sky sink[m] and come down.[n]
Touch the mountains and make them smolder.[o]
Hurl lightning bolts and scatter the enemy.
Shoot your arrows and rout them.[p]
Reach down[q] from above.
Grab me and rescue me from the surging water,[r]
from the power of foreigners,[s]
who speak lies,
and make false promises.[t]
O God, I will sing a new song to you.
Accompanied by a ten-stringed instrument, I will sing praises to you,
10 the one who delivers[u] kings,
and rescued David his servant from a deadly[v] sword.
11 Grab me and rescue me from the power of foreigners,[w]
who speak lies,
and make false promises.[x]
12 Then[y] our sons will be like plants,
that quickly grow to full size.[z]
Our daughters will be like corner pillars,[aa]
carved like those in a palace.[ab]
13 Our storehouses[ac] will be full,
providing all kinds of food.[ad]
Our sheep will multiply by the thousands
and fill[ae] our pastures.[af]
14 Our cattle will be weighted down with produce.[ag]
No one will break through our walls,
no one will be taken captive,
and there will be no terrified cries in our city squares.[ah]
15 How blessed are the people who experience these things.[ai]
How blessed are the people whose God is the Lord.

Footnotes:

  1. Psalm 144:1 sn Psalm 144. The psalmist expresses his confidence in God, asks for a mighty display of divine intervention in an upcoming battle, and anticipates God’s rich blessings on the nation in the aftermath of military victory.
  2. Psalm 144:1 tn Heb “my rocky summit.” The Lord is compared to a rocky summit where one can find protection from enemies. See Ps 18:2.
  3. Psalm 144:1 tn Heb “blessed [be] the Lord, my rocky summit.”
  4. Psalm 144:1 sn The one who trains my hands for battle. The psalmist attributes his skill with weapons to divine enablement (see Ps 18:34). Egyptian reliefs picture gods teaching the king how to shoot a bow. See O. Keel, The Symbolism of the Biblical World, 265.
  5. Psalm 144:2 tn Heb “my loyal love,” which is probably an abbreviated form of “the God of my loyal love” (see Ps 59:10, 17).
  6. Psalm 144:2 tn Or “my elevated place.”
  7. Psalm 144:2 tn Heb “the one who subdues nations beneath me.”
  8. Psalm 144:3 tn Heb “What is mankind?” The singular noun אֱנוֹשׁ (ʾenosh) is used here in a collective sense and refers to the human race. See Ps 8:5.
  9. Psalm 144:3 tn Heb “and the son of man.” The phrase “son of man” is used here in a collective sense and refers to human beings. For other uses of the phrase in a collective or representative manner, see Num 23:19; Ps 146:3; Isa 51:12.
  10. Psalm 144:3 tn Heb “take account of him.” The two imperfect verbal forms in v. 4 describe God’s characteristic activity.
  11. Psalm 144:4 tn Heb “man,” or “mankind.”
  12. Psalm 144:4 tn Heb “his days [are] like a shadow that passes away,” that is, like a late afternoon shadow made by the descending sun that will soon be swallowed up by complete darkness. See Ps 102:11.
  13. Psalm 144:5 tn The Hebrew verb נָטָה (natah) can carry the sense “to [cause to] bend; to [cause to] bow down.” For example, Gen 49:15 pictures Issachar as a donkey that “bends” its shoulder or back under a burden. Here the Lord causes the sky, pictured as a dome or vault, to sink down as he descends in the storm. See Ps 18:9.
  14. Psalm 144:5 tn Heb “so you might come down.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose after the preceding imperative. The same type of construction is utilized in v. 6.
  15. Psalm 144:5 tn Heb “so they might smolder.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose after the preceding imperative.
  16. Psalm 144:6 sn Arrows and lightning bolts are associated in other texts (see Pss 18:14; 77:17-18; Zech 9:14), as well as in ancient Near Eastern art (see R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” [Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983], 187).
  17. Psalm 144:7 tn Heb “stretch out your hands.”
  18. Psalm 144:7 tn Heb “mighty waters.” The waters of the sea symbolize the psalmist’s powerful foreign enemies, as well as the realm of death they represent (see the next line and Ps 18:16-17).
  19. Psalm 144:7 tn Heb “from the hand of the sons of foreignness.”
  20. Psalm 144:8 tn Heb “who [with] their mouth speak falsehood, and their right hand is a right hand of falsehood.” The reference to the “right hand” is probably a metonymy for an oath. When making an oath, one would raise the hand as a solemn gesture. See Exod 6:8; Num 14:30; Deut 32:40. The figure thus represents the making of false oaths (false promises).
  21. Psalm 144:10 tn Heb “grants deliverance to.”
  22. Psalm 144:10 tn Heb “harmful.”
  23. Psalm 144:11 tn Heb “from the hand of the sons of foreignness.”
  24. Psalm 144:11 tn Heb “who [with] their mouth speak falsehood, and their right hand is a right hand of falsehood.” See v. 8 where the same expression occurs.
  25. Psalm 144:12 tn Some consider אֲשֶׁר (ʾasher) problematic, but here it probably indicates the anticipated consequence of the preceding request. (For other examples of אֲשֶׁר indicating purpose/result, see BDB 83 s.v. and HALOT 99 s.v.) If the psalmist—who appears to be a Davidic king preparing to fight a battle (see vv. 10-11)—is victorious, the whole nation will be spared invasion and defeat (see v. 14) and can flourish. Some prefer to emend the form to אַשְׁרֵי (“how blessed [are our sons]”). A suffixed noun sometimes follows אַשְׁרֵי (ʾashre; see 1 Kgs 10:8; Prov 20:7), but the presence of a comparative element (see “like plants”) after the suffixed noun makes the proposed reading too awkward syntactically.
  26. Psalm 144:12 tn Heb “grown up in their youth.” The translation assumes that “grown up” modifies “plants” (just as “carved” modifies “corner pillars” in the second half of the verse). Another option is to take “grown up” as a predicate in relation to “our sons,” in which case one might translate, “they will be strapping youths.”
  27. Psalm 144:12 tn The Hebrew noun occurs only here and in Zech 9:15, where it refers to the corners of an altar.
  28. Psalm 144:12 tn Heb “carved [in] the pattern of a palace.”
  29. Psalm 144:13 tn The Hebrew noun occurs only here.
  30. Psalm 144:13 tn Heb “from kind to kind.” Some prefer to emend the text to מָזוֹן עַל מָזוֹן (mazon ʿal mazon, “food upon food”).
  31. Psalm 144:13 tn Heb “they are innumerable.”
  32. Psalm 144:13 tn Heb “in outside places.” Here the term refers to pastures and fields (see Job 5:10; Prov 8:26).
  33. Psalm 144:14 tn Heb “weighted down.” This probably refers (1) to the cattle having the produce from the harvest placed on their backs to be transported to the storehouses (see BDB 687 s.v. סָבַל). Other options are (2) to take this as reference to the cattle being pregnant (see HALOT 741 s.v. סבל pu) or (3) to their being well-fed or fattened (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 288).
  34. Psalm 144:14 tn Heb “there [will be] no breach, and there [will be] no going out, and there [will be] no crying out in our broad places.”
  35. Psalm 144:15 tn Heb “[O] the happiness of the people who [it is] such to them.”
New English Translation (NET)

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Proverbs 17:27-28

27 The truly wise person[a] restrains[b] his words,
and the one who stays calm[c] is discerning.
28 Even a fool who remains silent is considered[d] wise,
and the one who holds his tongue is deemed discerning.[e]

Footnotes:

  1. Proverbs 17:27 tn Heb “the one knowing knowledge.” The cognate accusative underscores the meaning of the participle—this is a truly knowledgeable person.
  2. Proverbs 17:27 sn The participle חוֹשֵׂךְ (khosekh) means “withholds; restrains; refrains; spares; holds in check,” etc. One who has knowledge speaks carefully.
  3. Proverbs 17:27 tn Heb “cool of spirit.” This genitive of specification describes one who is “calm” (so NCV, TEV, CEV) or “even-tempered” (so NIV, NLT); he is composed.
  4. Proverbs 17:28 tn The imperfect tense here denotes possibility: One who holds his tongue [may be considered] discerning.
  5. Proverbs 17:28 tn The Niphal participle is used in the declarative/estimative sense with stative verbs: “to be discerning” (Qal) becomes “to be declared discerning” (Niphal). The proverb is teaching that silence is one evidence of wisdom, and that even a fool can thereby appear wise. D. Kidner says that a fool who takes this advice is no longer a complete fool (Proverbs [TOTC], 127). He does not, of course, become wise—he just hides his folly.
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The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Tuesday June 25, 2024 (NIV)

2 Kings 8:1-9:13

The Shunammite’s Land Restored

Now Elisha had said to the woman(A) whose son he had restored to life, “Go away with your family and stay for a while wherever you can, because the Lord has decreed a famine(B) in the land that will last seven years.”(C) The woman proceeded to do as the man of God said. She and her family went away and stayed in the land of the Philistines seven years.

At the end of the seven years she came back from the land of the Philistines and went to appeal to the king for her house and land. The king was talking to Gehazi, the servant of the man of God, and had said, “Tell me about all the great things Elisha has done.” Just as Gehazi was telling the king how Elisha had restored(D) the dead to life, the woman whose son Elisha had brought back to life came to appeal to the king for her house and land.

Gehazi said, “This is the woman, my lord the king, and this is her son whom Elisha restored to life.” The king asked the woman about it, and she told him.

Then he assigned an official to her case and said to him, “Give back everything that belonged to her, including all the income from her land from the day she left the country until now.”

Hazael Murders Ben-Hadad

Elisha went to Damascus,(E) and Ben-Hadad(F) king of Aram was ill. When the king was told, “The man of God has come all the way up here,” he said to Hazael,(G) “Take a gift(H) with you and go to meet the man of God. Consult(I) the Lord through him; ask him, ‘Will I recover from this illness?’”

Hazael went to meet Elisha, taking with him as a gift forty camel-loads of all the finest wares of Damascus. He went in and stood before him, and said, “Your son Ben-Hadad king of Aram has sent me to ask, ‘Will I recover from this illness?’”

10 Elisha answered, “Go and say to him, ‘You will certainly recover.’(J) Nevertheless,[a] the Lord has revealed to me that he will in fact die.” 11 He stared at him with a fixed gaze until Hazael was embarrassed.(K) Then the man of God began to weep.(L)

12 “Why is my lord weeping?” asked Hazael.

“Because I know the harm(M) you will do to the Israelites,” he answered. “You will set fire to their fortified places, kill their young men with the sword, dash(N) their little children(O) to the ground, and rip open(P) their pregnant women.”

13 Hazael said, “How could your servant, a mere dog,(Q) accomplish such a feat?”

“The Lord has shown me that you will become king(R) of Aram,” answered Elisha.

14 Then Hazael left Elisha and returned to his master. When Ben-Hadad asked, “What did Elisha say to you?” Hazael replied, “He told me that you would certainly recover.” 15 But the next day he took a thick cloth, soaked it in water and spread it over the king’s face, so that he died.(S) Then Hazael succeeded him as king.

Jehoram King of Judah(T)

16 In the fifth year of Joram(U) son of Ahab king of Israel, when Jehoshaphat was king of Judah, Jehoram(V) son of Jehoshaphat began his reign as king of Judah. 17 He was thirty-two years old when he became king, and he reigned in Jerusalem eight years. 18 He followed the ways of the kings of Israel, as the house of Ahab had done, for he married a daughter(W) of Ahab. He did evil in the eyes of the Lord. 19 Nevertheless, for the sake of his servant David, the Lord was not willing to destroy(X) Judah. He had promised to maintain a lamp(Y) for David and his descendants forever.

20 In the time of Jehoram, Edom rebelled against Judah and set up its own king.(Z) 21 So Jehoram[b] went to Zair with all his chariots. The Edomites surrounded him and his chariot commanders, but he rose up and broke through by night; his army, however, fled back home. 22 To this day Edom has been in rebellion(AA) against Judah. Libnah(AB) revolted at the same time.

23 As for the other events of Jehoram’s reign, and all he did, are they not written in the book of the annals of the kings of Judah? 24 Jehoram rested with his ancestors and was buried with them in the City of David. And Ahaziah his son succeeded him as king.

Ahaziah King of Judah(AC)

25 In the twelfth(AD) year of Joram son of Ahab king of Israel, Ahaziah son of Jehoram king of Judah began to reign. 26 Ahaziah was twenty-two years old when he became king, and he reigned in Jerusalem one year. His mother’s name was Athaliah,(AE) a granddaughter of Omri(AF) king of Israel. 27 He followed the ways of the house of Ahab(AG) and did evil(AH) in the eyes of the Lord, as the house of Ahab had done, for he was related by marriage to Ahab’s family.

28 Ahaziah went with Joram son of Ahab to war against Hazael king of Aram at Ramoth Gilead.(AI) The Arameans wounded Joram; 29 so King Joram returned to Jezreel(AJ) to recover from the wounds the Arameans had inflicted on him at Ramoth[c] in his battle with Hazael(AK) king of Aram.

Then Ahaziah(AL) son of Jehoram king of Judah went down to Jezreel to see Joram son of Ahab, because he had been wounded.

Jehu Anointed King of Israel

The prophet Elisha summoned a man from the company(AM) of the prophets and said to him, “Tuck your cloak into your belt,(AN) take this flask of olive oil(AO) with you and go to Ramoth Gilead.(AP) When you get there, look for Jehu son of Jehoshaphat, the son of Nimshi. Go to him, get him away from his companions and take him into an inner room. Then take the flask and pour the oil(AQ) on his head and declare, ‘This is what the Lord says: I anoint you king over Israel.’ Then open the door and run; don’t delay!”

So the young prophet went to Ramoth Gilead. When he arrived, he found the army officers sitting together. “I have a message for you, commander,” he said.

“For which of us?” asked Jehu.

“For you, commander,” he replied.

Jehu got up and went into the house. Then the prophet poured the oil(AR) on Jehu’s head and declared, “This is what the Lord, the God of Israel, says: ‘I anoint you king over the Lord’s people Israel. You are to destroy the house of Ahab your master, and I will avenge(AS) the blood of my servants(AT) the prophets and the blood of all the Lord’s servants shed by Jezebel.(AU) The whole house(AV) of Ahab will perish. I will cut off from Ahab every last male(AW) in Israel—slave or free.[d] I will make the house of Ahab like the house of Jeroboam(AX) son of Nebat and like the house of Baasha(AY) son of Ahijah. 10 As for Jezebel, dogs(AZ) will devour her on the plot of ground at Jezreel, and no one will bury her.’” Then he opened the door and ran.

11 When Jehu went out to his fellow officers, one of them asked him, “Is everything all right? Why did this maniac(BA) come to you?”

“You know the man and the sort of things he says,” Jehu replied.

12 “That’s not true!” they said. “Tell us.”

Jehu said, “Here is what he told me: ‘This is what the Lord says: I anoint you king over Israel.’”

13 They quickly took their cloaks and spread(BB) them under him on the bare steps. Then they blew the trumpet(BC) and shouted, “Jehu is king!”

Footnotes:

  1. 2 Kings 8:10 The Hebrew may also be read Go and say, ‘You will certainly not recover,’ for.
  2. 2 Kings 8:21 Hebrew Joram, a variant of Jehoram; also in verses 23 and 24
  3. 2 Kings 8:29 Hebrew Ramah, a variant of Ramoth
  4. 2 Kings 9:8 Or Israel—every ruler or leader

Cross references:

  1. 2 Kings 8:1 : 2Ki 4:8-37
  2. 2 Kings 8:1 : S Lev 26:26; S Dt 28:22; S Ru 1:1
  3. 2 Kings 8:1 : S Ge 12:10
  4. 2 Kings 8:5 : 2Ki 4:35
  5. 2 Kings 8:7 : S 2Sa 8:5
  6. 2 Kings 8:7 : S 2Ki 6:24
  7. 2 Kings 8:8 : 1Ki 19:15
  8. 2 Kings 8:8 : S Ge 32:20; S 1Sa 9:7
  9. 2 Kings 8:8 : S Jdg 18:5
  10. 2 Kings 8:10 : Isa 38:1
  11. 2 Kings 8:11 : S Jdg 3:25
  12. 2 Kings 8:11 : Lk 19:41
  13. 2 Kings 8:12 : S 1Ki 19:17
  14. 2 Kings 8:12 : Ps 137:9; Isa 13:16; Hos 13:16; Na 3:10; Lk 19:44
  15. 2 Kings 8:12 : S Ge 34:29
  16. 2 Kings 8:12 : 2Ki 15:16; Am 1:13
  17. 2 Kings 8:13 : S 1Sa 17:43; S 2Sa 3:8
  18. 2 Kings 8:13 : 1Ki 19:15
  19. 2 Kings 8:15 : S 2Ki 1:17
  20. 2 Kings 8:16 : 8:16-24pp — 2Ch 21:5-10, 20
  21. 2 Kings 8:16 : S 2Ki 1:17
  22. 2 Kings 8:16 : 2Ch 21:1-4
  23. 2 Kings 8:18 : ver 26; 2Ki 11:1
  24. 2 Kings 8:19 : S Ge 6:13
  25. 2 Kings 8:19 : S 2Sa 21:17; Rev 21:23
  26. 2 Kings 8:20 : S 1Ki 22:47
  27. 2 Kings 8:22 : Ge 27:40
  28. 2 Kings 8:22 : S Nu 33:20; Jos 21:13; 2Ki 19:8
  29. 2 Kings 8:25 : 8:25-29pp — 2Ch 22:1-6
  30. 2 Kings 8:25 : 2Ki 9:29
  31. 2 Kings 8:26 : S ver 18
  32. 2 Kings 8:26 : 1Ki 16:23
  33. 2 Kings 8:27 : 1Ki 16:30
  34. 2 Kings 8:27 : 1Ki 15:26
  35. 2 Kings 8:28 : S Dt 4:43; 2Ki 9:1, 14
  36. 2 Kings 8:29 : 1Ki 21:29; 2Ki 9:21
  37. 2 Kings 8:29 : 1Ki 19:15, 17
  38. 2 Kings 8:29 : 2Ki 10:13
  39. 2 Kings 9:1 : S 1Sa 10:5
  40. 2 Kings 9:1 : S 1Ki 18:46
  41. 2 Kings 9:1 : S 1Sa 10:1
  42. 2 Kings 9:1 : S 2Ki 8:28
  43. 2 Kings 9:3 : 1Ki 19:16
  44. 2 Kings 9:6 : 1Ki 19:16
  45. 2 Kings 9:7 : S Ge 4:24; S Rev 6:10
  46. 2 Kings 9:7 : S Dt 32:43
  47. 2 Kings 9:7 : S 1Ki 18:4
  48. 2 Kings 9:8 : 2Ki 10:17
  49. 2 Kings 9:8 : S 1Sa 25:22
  50. 2 Kings 9:9 : S 1Ki 13:34; S 14:10
  51. 2 Kings 9:9 : 1Ki 16:3
  52. 2 Kings 9:10 : S 1Ki 21:23
  53. 2 Kings 9:11 : S 1Sa 10:11; S Jn 10:20
  54. 2 Kings 9:13 : Mt 21:8; Lk 19:36
  55. 2 Kings 9:13 : S 2Sa 15:10
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Acts 16:16-40

Paul and Silas in Prison

16 Once when we were going to the place of prayer,(A) we were met by a female slave who had a spirit(B) by which she predicted the future. She earned a great deal of money for her owners by fortune-telling. 17 She followed Paul and the rest of us, shouting, “These men are servants of the Most High God,(C) who are telling you the way to be saved.” 18 She kept this up for many days. Finally Paul became so annoyed that he turned around and said to the spirit, “In the name of Jesus Christ I command you to come out of her!” At that moment the spirit left her.(D)

19 When her owners realized that their hope of making money(E) was gone, they seized Paul and Silas(F) and dragged(G) them into the marketplace to face the authorities. 20 They brought them before the magistrates and said, “These men are Jews, and are throwing our city into an uproar(H) 21 by advocating customs unlawful for us Romans(I) to accept or practice.”(J)

22 The crowd joined in the attack against Paul and Silas, and the magistrates ordered them to be stripped and beaten with rods.(K) 23 After they had been severely flogged, they were thrown into prison, and the jailer(L) was commanded to guard them carefully. 24 When he received these orders, he put them in the inner cell and fastened their feet in the stocks.(M)

25 About midnight(N) Paul and Silas(O) were praying and singing hymns(P) to God, and the other prisoners were listening to them. 26 Suddenly there was such a violent earthquake that the foundations of the prison were shaken.(Q) At once all the prison doors flew open,(R) and everyone’s chains came loose.(S) 27 The jailer woke up, and when he saw the prison doors open, he drew his sword and was about to kill himself because he thought the prisoners had escaped.(T) 28 But Paul shouted, “Don’t harm yourself! We are all here!”

29 The jailer called for lights, rushed in and fell trembling before Paul and Silas.(U) 30 He then brought them out and asked, “Sirs, what must I do to be saved?”(V)

31 They replied, “Believe(W) in the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved(X)—you and your household.”(Y) 32 Then they spoke the word of the Lord to him and to all the others in his house. 33 At that hour of the night(Z) the jailer took them and washed their wounds; then immediately he and all his household were baptized.(AA) 34 The jailer brought them into his house and set a meal before them; he(AB) was filled with joy because he had come to believe in God—he and his whole household.

35 When it was daylight, the magistrates sent their officers to the jailer with the order: “Release those men.” 36 The jailer(AC) told Paul, “The magistrates have ordered that you and Silas be released. Now you can leave. Go in peace.”(AD)

37 But Paul said to the officers: “They beat us publicly without a trial, even though we are Roman citizens,(AE) and threw us into prison. And now do they want to get rid of us quietly? No! Let them come themselves and escort us out.”

38 The officers reported this to the magistrates, and when they heard that Paul and Silas were Roman citizens, they were alarmed.(AF) 39 They came to appease them and escorted them from the prison, requesting them to leave the city.(AG) 40 After Paul and Silas came out of the prison, they went to Lydia’s house,(AH) where they met with the brothers and sisters(AI) and encouraged them. Then they left.

New International Version (NIV)

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Psalm 143

Psalm 143

A psalm of David.

Lord, hear my prayer,(A)
listen to my cry for mercy;(B)
in your faithfulness(C) and righteousness(D)
come to my relief.
Do not bring your servant into judgment,
for no one living is righteous(E) before you.
The enemy pursues me,
he crushes me to the ground;
he makes me dwell in the darkness(F)
like those long dead.(G)
So my spirit grows faint within me;
my heart within me is dismayed.(H)
I remember(I) the days of long ago;
I meditate(J) on all your works
and consider what your hands have done.
I spread out my hands(K) to you;
I thirst for you like a parched land.[a]

Answer me quickly,(L) Lord;
my spirit fails.(M)
Do not hide your face(N) from me
or I will be like those who go down to the pit.
Let the morning bring me word of your unfailing love,(O)
for I have put my trust in you.
Show me the way(P) I should go,
for to you I entrust my life.(Q)
Rescue me(R) from my enemies,(S) Lord,
for I hide myself in you.
10 Teach me(T) to do your will,
for you are my God;(U)
may your good Spirit
lead(V) me on level ground.(W)

11 For your name’s sake,(X) Lord, preserve my life;(Y)
in your righteousness,(Z) bring me out of trouble.
12 In your unfailing love, silence my enemies;(AA)
destroy all my foes,(AB)
for I am your servant.(AC)

Footnotes:

  1. Psalm 143:6 The Hebrew has Selah (a word of uncertain meaning) here.
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Proverbs 17:26

26 If imposing a fine on the innocent is not good,(A)
surely to flog honest officials is not right.

Cross references:

  1. Proverbs 17:26 : S Ps 94:21
New International Version (NIV)

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The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Monday June 24, 2024 (NIV)

2 Kings 6-7

Elisha Makes an Ax Head Float

Some of the prophets[a] said to Elisha, “Look, the place where we meet with you[b] is too cramped[c] for us. Let’s go to the Jordan. Each of us will get a log from there, and we will build a meeting place for ourselves there.” He said, “Go.” One of them said, “Please come along with your servants.” He replied, “All right, I’ll come.” So he went with them. When they arrived at the Jordan, they started cutting down trees. As one of them was felling a tree, the ax head[d] dropped into the water. He shouted, “Oh no,[e] my master! It was borrowed!” The prophet[f] asked, “Where did it drop in?” When he showed him the spot, Elisha[g] cut off a branch, threw it in at that spot, and made the ax head float. He said, “Lift it out.” So he reached out his hand and grabbed it.

Elisha Defeats an Army

Now the king of Syria was at war with Israel. He consulted his advisers, who said, “Invade[h] at such and such[i] a place.” But the prophet sent this message to the king of Israel, “Make sure you don’t pass through this place because Syria is invading there.” 10 So the king of Israel sent a message to the place the prophet had pointed out, warning it[j] to be on its guard. This happened on several occasions.[k] 11 This made the king of Syria upset.[l] So he summoned his advisers[m] and said to them, “One of us must be helping the king of Israel.”[n] 12 One of his advisers said, “No, my master, O king. The prophet Elisha who lives in Israel keeps telling the king of Israel the things you say in your bedroom.” 13 The king[o] ordered, “Go, find out where he is, so I can send some men to capture him.”[p] The king was told, “He is in Dothan.” 14 So he sent horses and chariots there, along with a good-sized army.[q] They arrived during the night and surrounded the city.

15 The prophet’s[r] attendant got up early in the morning. When he went outside there was an army surrounding the city, along with horses and chariots. He said to Elisha,[s] “Oh no, my master! What will we do?” 16 He replied, “Don’t be afraid, for our side outnumbers them.”[t] 17 Then Elisha prayed, “O Lord, open his eyes so he can see.” The Lord opened the servant’s eyes, and he saw that[u] the hill was full of horses and chariots of fire all around Elisha. 18 As the army approached him,[v] Elisha prayed to the Lord, “Strike these people[w] with blindness.”[x] The Lord[y] struck them with blindness as Elisha requested.[z] 19 Then Elisha said to them, “This is not the right road or city. Follow me, and I will lead you to the man you’re looking for.” He led them to Samaria.

20 When they had entered Samaria, Elisha said, “O Lord, open their eyes, so they can see.” The Lord opened their eyes, and they saw that they were in the middle of Samaria.[aa] 21 When the king of Israel saw them, he asked Elisha, “Should I strike them down,[ab] my master?”[ac] 22 He replied, “Do not strike them down! You did not capture them with your sword or bow, so what gives you the right to strike them down?[ad] Give them some food and water, so they can eat and drink and then go back to their master.” 23 So he threw a big banquet[ae] for them and they ate and drank. Then he sent them back[af] to their master. After that no Syrian raiding parties again invaded the land of Israel.

The Lord Saves Samaria

24 Later King Ben Hadad of Syria assembled his entire army and attacked[ag] and besieged Samaria. 25 Samaria’s food supply ran out.[ah] They laid siege to it so long that[ai] a donkey’s head was selling for eighty shekels of silver[aj] and a quarter of a kab[ak] of dove’s droppings[al] for five shekels of silver.[am]

26 While the king of Israel was passing by on the city wall, a woman shouted to him, “Help us, my master, O king!” 27 He replied, “No, let the Lord help you. How can I help you? The threshing floor and winepress are empty.”[an] 28 Then the king asked her, “What’s your problem?” She answered, “This woman said to me, ‘Hand over your son; we’ll eat him today and then eat my son tomorrow.’ 29 So we boiled my son and ate him. Then I said to her the next day, ‘Hand over your son and we’ll eat him.’ But she hid her son!” 30 When the king heard what the woman said, he tore his clothes. As he was passing by on the wall, the people could see he was wearing sackcloth under his clothes.[ao] 31 Then he said, “May God judge me severely[ap] if Elisha son of Shaphat still has his head by the end of the day!”[aq]

32 Now Elisha was sitting in his house with the community leaders.[ar] The king[as] sent a messenger on ahead, but before he arrived,[at] Elisha[au] said to the leaders,[av] “Do you realize this assassin intends to cut off my head?[aw] Look, when the messenger arrives, shut the door and lean against it. His master will certainly be right behind him.”[ax] 33 He was still talking to them when[ay] the messenger approached[az] and said, “Look, the Lord is responsible for this disaster![ba] Why should I continue to wait for the Lord to help?” Elisha replied, “Listen to the Lord’s message. This is what the Lord has said, ‘About this time tomorrow a seah[bb] of finely milled flour will sell for a shekel and two seahs of barley for a shekel at the gate of Samaria.’” An officer who was the king’s right-hand man[bc] responded to the prophet,[bd] “Look, even if the Lord made it rain by opening holes in the sky, could this happen so soon?”[be] Elisha[bf] said, “Look, you will see it happen with your own eyes, but you will not eat any of the food!”[bg]

Now four men with a skin disease[bh] were sitting at the entrance of the city gate. They said to one another, “Why are we just sitting here waiting to die?[bi] If we go into the city, we’ll die of starvation,[bj] and if we stay here we’ll die! So come on, let’s defect[bk] to the Syrian camp! If they spare us,[bl] we’ll live; if they kill us—well, we were going to die anyway.”[bm] So they started toward[bn] the Syrian camp at dusk. When they reached the edge of the Syrian camp, there was no one there. The Lord had caused the Syrian camp to hear the sound of chariots and horses and a large army. Then they said to one another, “Look, the king of Israel has paid the kings of the Hittites and Egyptians to attack us!” So they got up and fled at dusk, leaving behind their tents, horses, and donkeys. They left the camp as it was and ran for their lives. When the men with a skin disease reached the edge of the camp, they entered a tent and had a meal.[bo] They also took some silver, gold, and clothes and went and hid it all.[bp] Then they went back and entered another tent. They looted it[bq] and went and hid what they had taken. Then they said to one another, “It’s not right what we’re doing! This is a day to celebrate, but we haven’t told anyone.[br] If we wait until dawn,[bs] we’ll be punished.[bt] So come on, let’s go and inform the royal palace.” 10 So they went and called out to the gatekeepers[bu] of the city. They told them, “We entered the Syrian camp and there was no one there. We didn’t even hear a man’s voice.[bv] But the horses and donkeys are still tied up, and the tents remain up.”[bw] 11 The gatekeepers relayed the news to the royal palace.[bx]

12 The king got up in the night and said to his advisers,[by] “I will tell you what the Syrians have done to us. They know we are starving, so they left the camp and hid in the field, thinking, ‘When they come out of the city, we will capture them alive and enter the city.’” 13 One of his advisers replied, “Pick some men and have them take five of the horses that are left in the city. (Even if they are killed, their fate will be no different than that of all the Israelite people—we’re all going to die!)[bz] Let’s send them out so we can know for sure what’s going on.”[ca] 14 So they picked two horsemen and the king sent them out to track the Syrian army.[cb] He ordered them, “Go and find out what’s going on.”[cc] 15 So they tracked them[cd] as far as the Jordan. The road was filled with clothes and equipment that the Syrians had discarded in their haste.[ce] The scouts[cf] went back and told the king. 16 Then the people went out and looted the Syrian camp. A seah[cg] of finely milled flour sold for a shekel, and two seahs of barley for a shekel, just as in the Lord’s message.

17 Now the king had placed the officer who was his right-hand man[ch] at the city gate. When the people rushed out, they trampled him to death in the gate.[ci] This fulfilled the prophet’s word which he had spoken when the king tried to arrest him.[cj] 18 The prophet had told the king, “Two seahs of barley will sell for a shekel, and a seah of finely milled flour for a shekel; this will happen about this time tomorrow in the gate of Samaria.” 19 But the officer had replied to the prophet, “Look, even if the Lord made it rain by opening holes in the sky, could this happen so soon?”[ck] Elisha[cl] had said, “Look, you will see it happen with your own eyes, but you will not eat any of the food!”[cm] 20 This is exactly what happened to him. The people trampled him to death in the city gate.

Footnotes:

  1. 2 Kings 6:1 tn Heb “the sons of the prophets.”
  2. 2 Kings 6:1 tn Heb “sit before you.”
  3. 2 Kings 6:1 tn Heb “narrow, tight.”
  4. 2 Kings 6:5 tn Heb “iron.”
  5. 2 Kings 6:5 tn Or “ah.”
  6. 2 Kings 6:6 tn Heb “man of God” (also in v. 9).
  7. 2 Kings 6:6 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Elisha) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  8. 2 Kings 6:8 tc The verb form used here is difficult to analyze. On the basis of the form נְחִתִּים (nekhittim) in v. 9 from the root נָחַת (nakhat), it is probably best to emend the verb to תִּנְחְתוּ (tinkhetu; a Qal imperfect form from the same root). The verb נָחַת in at least two other instances carries the nuance “go down, descend” in a military context. For a defense of this view, see M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 72.
  9. 2 Kings 6:8 sn The advisers would have mentioned a specific location, but the details are not significant to the narrator’s purpose, so he simply paraphrases here.
  10. 2 Kings 6:10 tn The vav + perfect here indicates action contemporary with the preceding main verb (“sent”). See IBHS 533-34 §32.2.3e.
  11. 2 Kings 6:10 tn Heb “and the king of Israel sent to the place about which the man of God spoke to him, and he warned it and he guarded himself there, not once and not twice.”
  12. 2 Kings 6:11 tn Heb “and the heart of the king of Syria was stirred up over this thing.”
  13. 2 Kings 6:11 tn Heb “servants.”
  14. 2 Kings 6:11 tn Heb “Will you not tell me who among us [is] for the king of Israel?” The sarcastic rhetorical question expresses the king’s suspicion.
  15. 2 Kings 6:13 tn Heb “he” (also a second time in this verse); the referent (the king) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  16. 2 Kings 6:13 tn Heb “Go and see where he [is] so I can send and take him.”
  17. 2 Kings 6:14 tn Heb “heavy force.”
  18. 2 Kings 6:15 tn Heb “man of God’s.”
  19. 2 Kings 6:15 tn Heb “his young servant said to him.”
  20. 2 Kings 6:16 tn Heb “for those who are with us are more than those who are with them.”
  21. 2 Kings 6:17 tn Heb “and he saw, and look.”
  22. 2 Kings 6:18 tn Heb “and they came down to him.”
  23. 2 Kings 6:18 tn Or “this nation,” perhaps emphasizing the strength of the Syrian army.
  24. 2 Kings 6:18 tn On the basis of the Akkadian etymology of the word, M. Cogan and H. Tadmor (II Kings [AB], 74) translate “blinding light.” HALOT 761 s.v. סַנְוֵרִים suggests the glosses “dazzling, deception.”
  25. 2 Kings 6:18 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the Lord) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  26. 2 Kings 6:18 tn Heb “according to the word of Elisha.”
  27. 2 Kings 6:20 tn Heb “and they saw, and look, [they were] in the middle of Samaria.”
  28. 2 Kings 6:21 tn Heb “Should I strike them down? I will strike them down.” In the Hebrew text the first person imperfect form is repeated; the first form has the interrogative he prefixed to it; the second does not. It is likely that the second form should be omitted as dittographic or that the first should be emended to an infinitive absolute.
  29. 2 Kings 6:21 tn Heb “my father.” The king addresses the prophet in this way to indicate his respect. See 2 Kgs 2:12.
  30. 2 Kings 6:22 tn Heb “Are [they] ones you captured with your sword or your bow (that) you can strike (them) down?”
  31. 2 Kings 6:23 tn Or “held a great feast.”
  32. 2 Kings 6:23 tn Heb “they went back.”
  33. 2 Kings 6:24 tn Heb “went up.”
  34. 2 Kings 6:25 tn Heb “and there was a great famine in Samaria.”
  35. 2 Kings 6:25 tn Heb “and look, [they] were besieging it until.”
  36. 2 Kings 6:25 tn Heb “eighty, silver.” The unit of measurement is omitted.
  37. 2 Kings 6:25 sn A kab was a unit of dry measure, equivalent to approximately 2 quarts (2 liters).
  38. 2 Kings 6:25 tn The consonantal text (Kethib) reads “dove dung” (חֲרֵייוֹנִים, khareyonim), while the marginal reading (Qere) has “discharge” (דִּבְיוֹנִים, divyonim). Based on evidence from Akkadian, M. Cogan and H. Tadmor (II Kings [AB], 79) suggest that “dove’s dung” was a popular name for the inedible husks of seeds.
  39. 2 Kings 6:25 tn Heb “five, silver.” The unit of measurement is omitted.
  40. 2 Kings 6:27 tn Heb “From where can I help you, from the threshing floor or the winepress?” The rhetorical question expresses the king’s frustration. He has no grain or wine to give to the masses.
  41. 2 Kings 6:30 tn Heb “the people saw, and look, [there was] sackcloth against his skin underneath.”
  42. 2 Kings 6:31 tn Heb “So may God do to me, and so may he add.”
  43. 2 Kings 6:31 tn Heb “if the head of Elisha son of Shaphat stays on him today.”
  44. 2 Kings 6:32 tn Heb “and the elders were sitting with him.”
  45. 2 Kings 6:32 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the king) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  46. 2 Kings 6:32 tn Heb “sent a man from before him, before the messenger came to him.”
  47. 2 Kings 6:32 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Elisha) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  48. 2 Kings 6:32 tn Heb “elders.”
  49. 2 Kings 6:32 tn Heb “Do you see that this son of an assassin has sent to remove my head?”
  50. 2 Kings 6:32 tn Heb “Is not the sound of his master’s footsteps behind him?”
  51. 2 Kings 6:33 tn The Hebrew text also has “look” here.
  52. 2 Kings 6:33 tn Heb “came down to him.”
  53. 2 Kings 6:33 tn Heb “Look, this is a disaster from the Lord.”
  54. 2 Kings 7:1 sn A seah was a dry measure equivalent to about 11 quarts (11 liters).
  55. 2 Kings 7:2 tn Heb “the officer on whose hand the king leans.”
  56. 2 Kings 7:2 tn Heb “man of God.”
  57. 2 Kings 7:2 tn Heb “the Lord was making holes in the sky, could this thing be?” Opening holes in the sky would allow the waters stored up there to pour to the earth and assure a good crop. But, the officer argues, even if this were to happen, it would take a long time to grow and harvest the crop.
  58. 2 Kings 7:2 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Elisha) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  59. 2 Kings 7:2 tn Heb “you will not eat from there.”
  60. 2 Kings 7:3 sn See the note at 2 Kgs 5:1.
  61. 2 Kings 7:3 tn Heb “until we die.”
  62. 2 Kings 7:4 tn Heb “If we say, ‘We will enter the city,’ the famine is in the city and we will die there.”
  63. 2 Kings 7:4 tn Heb “fall.”
  64. 2 Kings 7:4 tn Heb “keep us alive.”
  65. 2 Kings 7:4 tn Heb “we will die.” The paraphrastic translation attempts to bring out the logical force of their reasoning.
  66. 2 Kings 7:5 tn Heb “they arose to go to.”
  67. 2 Kings 7:8 tn Heb “they ate and drank.”
  68. 2 Kings 7:8 tn Heb “and they hid [it].”
  69. 2 Kings 7:8 tn Heb “and they took from there.”
  70. 2 Kings 7:9 tn Heb “this day is a day of good news and we are keeping silent.”
  71. 2 Kings 7:9 tn Heb “the light of the morning.”
  72. 2 Kings 7:9 tn Heb “punishment will find us.”
  73. 2 Kings 7:10 tn The MT has a singular form (“gatekeeper”), but the context suggests a plural. The pronoun that follows (“them”) is plural and a plural noun appears in v. 11. The Syriac Peshitta and the Targum have the plural here.
  74. 2 Kings 7:10 tn Heb “and, look, there was no man or voice of a man there.”
  75. 2 Kings 7:10 tn Heb “but the horses are tied up and the donkeys are tied up and the tents are as they were.”
  76. 2 Kings 7:11 tn Heb “and the gatekeepers called out and they told [it] within the house of the king.”
  77. 2 Kings 7:12 tn Heb “servants” (also in v. 13).
  78. 2 Kings 7:13 tn Heb “Let them take five of the remaining horses that remain in it. Look, they are like all the people of Israel that remain in it. Look, they are like all the people of Israel that have come to an end.” The MT is dittographic here; the words “that remain in it. Look they are like all the people of Israel” have been accidentally repeated. The original text read, “Let them take five of the remaining horses that remain in it. Look, they are like all the people of Israel that have come to an end.”
  79. 2 Kings 7:13 tn Heb “and let us send so we might see.”
  80. 2 Kings 7:14 tn Heb “and the king sent [them] after the Syrian camp.”
  81. 2 Kings 7:14 tn Heb “Go and see.”
  82. 2 Kings 7:15 tn Heb “went after.”
  83. 2 Kings 7:15 tn Heb “and look, all the road was full of clothes and equipment that Syria had thrown away in their haste.”
  84. 2 Kings 7:15 tn Or “messengers.”
  85. 2 Kings 7:16 sn A seah was a dry measure equivalent to about 11 quarts (11 liters).
  86. 2 Kings 7:17 tn Heb “the officer on whose hand he leans.”
  87. 2 Kings 7:17 tn Heb “and the people trampled him in the gate and he died.”
  88. 2 Kings 7:17 tn Heb “just as the man of God had spoken, [the word] which he spoke when the king came down to him.”
  89. 2 Kings 7:19 tn Heb “the Lord was making holes in the sky, could this thing be?” See the note at 7:2.
  90. 2 Kings 7:19 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Elisha) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  91. 2 Kings 7:19 tn Heb “you will not eat from there.”tn In the Hebrew text vv. 18-19a are one lengthy sentence, “When the man of God spoke to the king…, the officer replied to the man of God, ‘Look…so soon?’” The translation divides this sentence up for stylistic reasons.
New English Translation (NET)

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Acts 15:36-16:15

Paul and Barnabas Part Company

36 After some days Paul said to Barnabas, “Let’s return[a] and visit the brothers in every town where we proclaimed the word of the Lord[b] to see how they are doing.”[c] 37 Barnabas wanted to bring John called Mark along with them too, 38 but Paul insisted[d] that they should not take along this one who had left them in Pamphylia[e] and had not accompanied them in the work. 39 They had[f] a sharp disagreement,[g] so that they parted company. Barnabas took along[h] Mark and sailed away to Cyprus,[i] 40 but Paul chose Silas and set out, commended[j] to the grace of the Lord by the brothers and sisters.[k] 41 He passed through Syria and Cilicia, strengthening[l] the churches.

Timothy Joins Paul and Silas

16 He also came to Derbe[m] and to Lystra.[n] A disciple[o] named Timothy was there, the son of a Jewish woman who was a believer,[p] but whose father was a Greek.[q] The brothers in Lystra and Iconium spoke well[r] of him.[s] Paul wanted Timothy[t] to accompany him, and he took[u] him and circumcised[v] him because of the Jews who were in those places,[w] for they all knew that his father was Greek.[x] As they went through the towns,[y] they passed on[z] the decrees that had been decided on by the apostles and elders in Jerusalem for the Gentile believers[aa] to obey.[ab] So the churches were being strengthened in the faith and were increasing in number every day.[ac]

Paul’s Vision of the Macedonian Man

They went through the region of Phrygia[ad] and Galatia,[ae] having been prevented[af] by the Holy Spirit from speaking the message[ag] in the province of Asia.[ah] When they came to[ai] Mysia,[aj] they attempted to go into Bithynia,[ak] but the Spirit of Jesus did not allow[al] them to do this,[am] so they passed through[an] Mysia[ao] and went down to Troas.[ap] A[aq] vision appeared to Paul during the night: A Macedonian man was standing there[ar] urging him,[as] “Come over[at] to Macedonia[au] and help us!” 10 After Paul[av] saw the vision, we[aw] attempted[ax] immediately to go over to Macedonia,[ay] concluding that God had called[az] us to proclaim the good news to them.

Arrival at Philippi

11 We put out to sea[ba] from Troas[bb] and sailed a straight course[bc] to Samothrace,[bd] the next day to Neapolis,[be] 12 and from there to Philippi, which is a leading city of that district[bf] of Macedonia,[bg] a Roman colony.[bh] We stayed in this city for some days. 13 On the Sabbath day we went outside the city gate to the side of the river, where we thought there would be a place of prayer, and we sat down[bi] and began to speak[bj] to the women[bk] who had assembled there.[bl] 14 A[bm] woman named Lydia, a dealer in purple cloth[bn] from the city of Thyatira,[bo] a God-fearing woman, listened to us.[bp] The Lord opened her heart to respond[bq] to what Paul was saying. 15 After she and her household were baptized, she urged us,[br] “If[bs] you consider me to be a believer in the Lord,[bt] come and stay in my house.” And she persuaded[bu] us.

Footnotes:

  1. Acts 15:36 tn Grk “Returning let us visit.” The participle ἐπιστρέψαντες (epistrepsantes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  2. Acts 15:36 tn See the note on the phrase “word of the Lord” in v. 35.
  3. Acts 15:36 tn BDAG 422 s.v. ἔχω 10.b has “how they are” for this phrase.
  4. Acts 15:38 tn BDAG 94 s.v. ἀξιόω 2.a has “he insisted (impf.) that they should not take him along” for this phrase.
  5. Acts 15:38 sn Pamphylia was a province in the southern part of Asia Minor. See Acts 13:13, where it was mentioned previously.
  6. Acts 15:39 tn Grk “There happened a sharp disagreement.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  7. Acts 15:39 tn BDAG 780 s.v. παροξυσμός 2 has “sharp disagreement” here; L&N 33.451 has “sharp argument, sharp difference of opinion.”
  8. Acts 15:39 tn Grk “taking along Mark sailed.” The participle παραλαβόντα (paralabonta) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  9. Acts 15:39 sn Cyprus is a large island in the Mediterranean off the south coast of Asia Minor.
  10. Acts 15:40 tn Or “committed.” BDAG 762 s.v. παραδίδωμι 2 gives “be commended by someone to the grace of the Lord” as the meaning for this phrase, although “give over” and “commit” are listed as alternatives for this category.
  11. Acts 15:40 tn Grk “by the brothers.” Here it it is highly probable that the entire congregation is in view, not just men, so the translation “brothers and sisters” has been used for the plural ἀδελφῶν (adelphōn),.
  12. Acts 15:41 sn Strengthening. See Acts 14:22; 15:32; 18:23.
  13. Acts 16:1 sn Derbe was a city in Lycaonia about 35 mi (60 km) southeast of Lystra. It was about 90 mi (145 km) from Tarsus.
  14. Acts 16:1 sn Lystra was a city in Lycaonia about 18 mi (30 km) south of Iconium.
  15. Acts 16:1 tn Grk “And behold, a disciple.” Here ἰδού (idou) has not been translated.
  16. Acts 16:1 tn L&N 31.103 translates this phrase “the son of a Jewish woman who was a believer.”
  17. Acts 16:1 sn His father was a Greek. Timothy was the offspring of a mixed marriage between a Jewish woman (see 2 Tim 1:5) and a Gentile man. On mixed marriages in Judaism, see Neh 13:23-27; Ezra 9:1-10:44; Mal 2:10-16; Jub. 30:7-17; m. Qiddushin 3.12; m. Yevamot 7.5.
  18. Acts 16:2 tn For this sense of μαρτυρέω (martureō), see BDAG 618 s.v. 2.b.
  19. Acts 16:2 tn Grk “who was well spoken of by the brothers in Lystra and Iconium.” Because of the awkwardness in English of having two relative clauses follow one another (“who was a believer…who was well spoken of”) and the awkwardness of the passive verb (“was well spoken of”), the relative pronoun at the beginning of 16:2 (“who”) has been translated as a pronoun (“him”) and the construction converted from passive to active at the same time a new sentence was started in the translation.
  20. Acts 16:3 tn Grk “this one”; the referent (Timothy) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  21. Acts 16:3 tn Grk “and taking him he circumcised him.” The participle λαβών (labōn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Paul’s cultural sensitivity showed in his action here. He did not want Timothy’s lack of circumcision to become an issue (1 Cor 9:15-23).
  22. Acts 16:3 tn The verb περιέτεμεν (perietemen) here may be understood as causative (cf. ExSyn 411-12) if Paul did not personally perform the circumcision.
  23. Acts 16:3 tn Or “who lived in the area.”
  24. Acts 16:3 tn The anarthrous predicate nominative has been translated as qualitative (“Greek”) rather than indefinite (“a Greek”).sn His father was Greek. Under Jewish law at least as early as the 2nd century, a person was considered Jewish if his or her mother was Jewish. It is not certain whether such a law was in effect in the 1st century, but even if it was, Timothy would not have been accepted as fully Jewish because he was not circumcised.
  25. Acts 16:4 tn Or “cities.”
  26. Acts 16:4 tn BDAG 762-63 s.v. παραδίδωμι 3 has “they handed down to them the decisions to observe Ac 16:4.”
  27. Acts 16:4 tn Grk “for them”; the referent (Gentile believers) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  28. Acts 16:4 tn Or “observe” or “follow.”
  29. Acts 16:5 tn BDAG 437 s.v. ἡμέρα 2.c has “every day” for this phrase.
  30. Acts 16:6 sn Phrygia was a district in central Asia Minor west of Pisidia.
  31. Acts 16:6 sn Galatia refers to either (1) the region of the old kingdom of Galatia in the central part of Asia Minor (North Galatia), or (2) the Roman province of Galatia, whose principal cities in the 1st century were Ancyra and Pisidian Antioch (South Galatia). The exact extent and meaning of this area has been a subject of considerable controversy in modern NT studies.
  32. Acts 16:6 tn Or “forbidden.”
  33. Acts 16:6 tn Or “word.”
  34. Acts 16:6 tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia. The Roman province of Asia made up about one-third of modern Asia Minor and was on the western side of it. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.
  35. Acts 16:7 tn BDAG 511 s.v. κατά B.1.b has “to Mysia” here.
  36. Acts 16:7 sn Mysia was a province in northwest Asia Minor.
  37. Acts 16:7 sn Bithynia was a province in northern Asia Minor northeast of Mysia.
  38. Acts 16:7 tn Or “permit”; see BDAG 269 s.v. ἐάω 1.
  39. Acts 16:7 tn The words “do this” are not in the Greek text, but are supplied for stylistic reasons, since English handles ellipses differently than Greek.
  40. Acts 16:8 tn Although the normal meaning for παρέρχομαι (parerchomai) is “pass by, go by,” it would be difficult to get to Troas from where Paul and his companions were without going through rather than around Mysia. BDAG 776 s.v. παρέρχομαι 6 list some nonbiblical examples of the meaning “go through, pass through,” and give that meaning for the usage here.
  41. Acts 16:8 sn Mysia was a province in northwest Asia Minor.
  42. Acts 16:8 sn Troas was a port city (and surrounding region) on the northwest coast of Asia Minor, near ancient Troy.
  43. Acts 16:9 tn Grk “And a.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,”