23 The Lord’s message came to me: 2 “Son of man, there were two women who were daughters of the same mother. 3 They engaged in prostitution in Egypt; in their youth they engaged in prostitution. Their breasts were squeezed there; lovers[a] fondled their virgin nipples there. 4 Oholah was the name of the older and Oholibah[b] the name of her younger sister. They became mine and gave birth to sons and daughters.[c] Oholah is Samaria, and Oholibah is Jerusalem.
5 “Oholah engaged in prostitution while she was mine.[d] She lusted after her lovers, the Assyrians[e]—warriors[f] 6 clothed in blue, governors and officials, all of them desirable young men, horsemen riding on horses. 7 She bestowed her sexual favors[g] on them; all of them were the choicest young men of Assyria. She defiled herself with all whom she desired[h]—with all their idols. 8 She did not abandon the prostitution she had practiced in Egypt, for in her youth men went to bed[i] with her, fondled her virgin breasts, and ravished her.[j] 9 Therefore I handed her over to her lovers, the Assyrians[k] for whom she lusted. 10 They exposed her nakedness, seized her sons and daughters, and killed her with the sword. She became notorious[l] among women, and they executed judgments against her.
11 “Her sister Oholibah watched this,[m] but she became more corrupt in her lust than her sister had been, and her acts of prostitution were more numerous than those of her sister. 12 She lusted after the Assyrians—governors and officials, warriors in full armor, horsemen riding on horses, all of them desirable young men. 13 I saw that she was defiled; both of them followed the same path. 14 But she increased her prostitution. She saw men carved on the wall, images of the Chaldeans carved in bright red,[n] 15 wearing belts on their waists and flowing turbans on their heads, all of them looking like officers, the image of Babylonians[o] whose native land is Chaldea. 16 When she saw them,[p] she lusted after them and sent messengers to them in Chaldea.[q] 17 The Babylonians crawled into bed with her.[r] They defiled her with their lust; after she was defiled by them, she[s] became disgusted with them. 18 When she lustfully exposed her nakedness,[t] I[u] was disgusted with her, just as I[v] had been disgusted with her sister. 19 Yet she increased her prostitution, remembering the days of her youth when she engaged in prostitution in the land of Egypt. 20 She lusted after her lovers there, whose genitals were like those of donkeys,[w] and whose emission was like that of stallions. 21 This is how you assessed[x] the obscene conduct of your youth, when the Egyptians fondled[y] your nipples and squeezed[z] your young breasts.
22 “Therefore, Oholibah, this is what the Sovereign Lord says: Look here,[aa] I am about to stir up against you the lovers with whom you were disgusted; I will bring them against you from every side: 23 the Babylonians and all the Chaldeans, Pekod,[ab] Shoa,[ac] and Koa,[ad] and all the Assyrians with them, desirable young men, all of them governors and officials, officers and nobles, all of them riding on horses. 24 They will attack[ae] you with weapons,[af] chariots, wagons, and with a huge army;[ag] they will array themselves against you on every side with large shields, small shields, and helmets. I will assign them the task of judgment;[ah] they will punish you according to their laws. 25 I will direct[ai] my jealous anger against you, and they will deal with you in rage. They will cut off your nose and your ears,[aj] and your survivors will die[ak] by the sword. They will seize your sons and daughters, and your survivors will be consumed by fire. 26 They will strip your clothes off you and take away your beautiful jewelry. 27 So I will put an end to your obscene conduct and your prostitution that you have practiced in the land of Egypt.[al] You will not seek their help[am] or remember Egypt anymore.
28 “For this is what the Sovereign Lord says: Look here,[an] I am about to deliver you over to[ao] those whom you hate, to those with whom you were disgusted. 29 They will treat you with hatred, take away all you have labored for,[ap] and leave you naked and bare. Your nakedness will be exposed, just as when you engaged in prostitution and obscene conduct.[aq] 30 I will do these things to you[ar] because you engaged in prostitution with the nations, polluting yourself with their idols. 31 You have followed the ways of your sister, so I will place her cup of judgment[as] in your hand. 32 This is what the Sovereign Lord says: ‘You will drink your sister’s deep and wide cup;[at] you will be scorned and derided, for it holds a great deal. 33 You will be overcome by[au] drunkenness and sorrow. The cup of your sister Samaria is a cup of horror and desolation. 34 You will drain it dry,[av] gnaw its pieces,[aw] and tear out your breasts,[ax] for I have spoken, declares the Sovereign Lord.’
35 “Therefore this is what the Sovereign Lord says: Because you have forgotten me and completely disregarded me,[ay] you must bear now the punishment for[az] your obscene conduct and prostitution.”
36 The Lord said to me: “Son of man, are you willing to pronounce judgment[ba] on Oholah and Oholibah? Then declare to them their abominable deeds! 37 For they have committed adultery, and blood is on their hands. They have committed adultery with their idols, and their sons, whom they bore to me,[bb] they have passed through the fire as food to their idols.[bc] 38 Moreover, they have done this to me: In the very same day[bd] they desecrated my sanctuary and profaned my Sabbaths. 39 On the same day they slaughtered their sons for their idols, they came to my sanctuary to desecrate it. This is what they have done in the middle of my house.
40 “They even sent for men from far away; when the messenger arrived, those men set out.[be] For them you bathed,[bf] painted your eyes, and decorated yourself with jewelry. 41 You sat on a magnificent couch, with a table arranged in front of it where you placed my incense and my olive oil. 42 The sound of a carefree crowd accompanied her,[bg] including all kinds of men;[bh] even Sabeans[bi] were brought from the desert. The sisters[bj] put bracelets on their wrists and beautiful crowns on their heads. 43 Then I said about the one worn out by adultery, ‘Now they will commit immoral acts with her.’ 44 They slept with her[bk] the way someone sleeps with a prostitute. In this way they slept with Oholah and Oholibah, promiscuous women. 45 But upright men will punish them appropriately for their adultery and bloodshed,[bl] because they are adulteresses and blood is on their hands.
46 “For this is what the Sovereign Lord says: Bring up an army[bm] against them and subject them[bn] to terror and plunder. 47 That army will pelt them with stones and slash them with their swords; they will kill their sons and daughters and burn their houses.[bo] 48 I will put an end to the obscene conduct in the land; all the women will learn a lesson from this and not engage in obscene conduct. 49 They will repay you for your obscene conduct, and you will be punished for idol worship.[bp] Then you will know that I am the Sovereign Lord.”
- Ezekiel 23:3 tn In the Hebrew text the subject is left unstated and must be supplied from the context.
- Ezekiel 23:4 tn The names Oholah and Oholibah are both derived from the word meaning “tent.” The meaning of Oholah is “her tent,” while Oholibah means “my tent is in her.”
- Ezekiel 23:4 sn In this allegory the Lord is depicted as being the husband of two wives. The OT law prohibited a man from marrying sisters (Lev 18:18), but the practice is attested in the OT (cf. Jacob). The metaphor is utilized here for illustrative purposes and does not mean that the Lord condoned such a practice or bigamy in general.
- Ezekiel 23:5 tn Heb “while she was under me.” The expression indicates that Oholah is viewed as the Lord’s wife. See Num 5:19-20, 29. sn Engaged in prostitution refers to alliances with pagan nations in this context. In Ezek 16 harlotry described the sin of idolatry.
- Ezekiel 23:5 tn Heb “Assyria.”
- Ezekiel 23:5 tn The term apparently refers to Assyrian military officers; it is better construed with the description that follows. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:738.
- Ezekiel 23:7 tn Heb “her harlotries.”
- Ezekiel 23:7 tn Heb “lusted after.”
- Ezekiel 23:8 tn Heb “lied down with.” The verb שָׁכַב (shakav) “to lie down” can imply going to bed to sleep or be a euphemism for sexual relations.
- Ezekiel 23:8 tn Heb “and poured out their harlotry on her.”
- Ezekiel 23:9 tn Heb “I gave her into the hand of her lovers, into the hand of the sons of Assyria.”
- Ezekiel 23:10 tn Heb “name.”
- Ezekiel 23:11 tn The word “this” is not in the original text.
- Ezekiel 23:14 tn The only other occurrence of the Hebrew term is in Jer 22:14.
- Ezekiel 23:15 tn Heb “the sons of Babel.”
- Ezekiel 23:16 tn Heb “at the appearance of her eyes.”
- Ezekiel 23:16 sn The Chaldeans were prominent tribal groups of Babylonia. The imagery is reminiscent of events in the reigns of Hezekiah (2 Kgs 20:12-15) and Jehoiakim (2 Kgs 23:34-24:1).
- Ezekiel 23:17 tn Heb “The sons of Babel came to her on a bed of love.”
- Ezekiel 23:17 tn Heb “her soul.”
- Ezekiel 23:18 tn Heb “She exposed her harlotry and exposed her nakedness.”
- Ezekiel 23:18 tn Heb “my soul.”
- Ezekiel 23:18 tn Heb “my soul.”
- Ezekiel 23:20 tn Heb “She lusted after their concubines (?), whose flesh was the flesh of donkeys.” The phrase “their concubines” is difficult here. The pronoun is masculine plural, suggesting that the Egyptian men are in view, but how concubines would fit into the picture envisioned here is not clear. It is possible that the term refers here to the Egyptians’ genitals. The relative pronoun that follows introduces a more specific description of them. Some suggest that Ezekiel uses the term in an idiomatic sense of “paramour,” which is reflected in the translation above.
- Ezekiel 23:21 tn Or “you took note of.” The Hebrew verb פָּקַד (paqad) in the Qal implies evaluating something and then acting in light of that judgment; here the prophet depicts Judah as approving of her youthful unfaithfulness and then magnifying it at the present time. Some translations assume the verb should be repointed as a Niphal, rendering “you missed” or by extension “you longed for,” but such an extension of the Niphal “to be missing” is otherwise unattested.
- Ezekiel 23:21 tn Heb “when (they) did,” but the verb makes no sense here and is better emended to “when (they) fondled,” a verb used in vv. 3 and 8. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:43.
- Ezekiel 23:21 tn Heb “for the sake of,” but the expression is awkward and is better emended to read “to squeeze.” See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:43.
- Ezekiel 23:22 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.
- Ezekiel 23:23 sn Pekod was the name of an Aramean tribe (known as Puqudu in Mesopotamian texts) that lived in the region of the Tigris River.
- Ezekiel 23:23 sn Shoa was the name of a nomadic people (the Sutu) that lived in Mesopotamia.
- Ezekiel 23:23 sn Koa was the name of another Mesopotamian people group (the Qutu).
- Ezekiel 23:24 tn Heb “come against.”
- Ezekiel 23:24 tn This is the only occurrence of this term in the OT. The precise meaning is uncertain.
- Ezekiel 23:24 tn Heb “an assembly of peoples.”
- Ezekiel 23:24 tn Heb “I will place before them judgment.”
- Ezekiel 23:25 tn Heb “give.”
- Ezekiel 23:25 tn Heb “they will remove.” sn This method of punishment is attested among ancient Egyptian and Hittite civilizations. See W. Zimmerli, Ezekiel (Hermeneia), 1:489.
- Ezekiel 23:25 tn Heb “fall.”
- Ezekiel 23:27 tn Heb “I will cause your obscene conduct to cease from you and your harlotry from the land of Egypt.”
- Ezekiel 23:27 tn Heb “lift your eyes to them.”
- Ezekiel 23:28 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.
- Ezekiel 23:28 tn Heb “I am giving you into the hand of.”
- Ezekiel 23:29 tn The Hebrew term means “labor,” but by extension it can also refer to that for which one works.
- Ezekiel 23:29 tn Heb “The nakedness of your prostitution will be exposed, and your obscene conduct and your harlotry.”
- Ezekiel 23:30 tn The infinitive absolute continues the sequence begun in v. 28: “Look here, I am about to deliver you.” See Joüon 2:430 §123.w.
- Ezekiel 23:31 tn Heb “her cup.” A cup of intoxicating strong drink is used, here and elsewhere, as a metaphor for judgment because both leave one confused and reeling. (See Jer 25:15, 17, 28; Hab 2:16.) The cup of wrath is a theme also found in the NT (Mark 14:36).
- Ezekiel 23:32 sn The image of a deep and wide cup suggests the degree of punishment; it will be extensive and leave the victim helpless.
- Ezekiel 23:33 tn Heb “filled with.”
- Ezekiel 23:34 tn Heb “You will drink it and drain (it).”
- Ezekiel 23:34 tn D. I. Block compares this to the idiom of “licking the plate” (Ezekiel [NICOT], 1:754, n. 137). The text is difficult as the word translated “gnaw” is rare. The noun is used of the shattered pieces of pottery and so could envision a broken cup. But the Piel verb form is used in only one other place (Num 24:8), where it is a denominative from the noun “bone” and seems to mean to “break (bones).” Why it would be collocated with “sherds” is not clear. For this reason some emend the phrase to read “consume its dregs” (see L. C. Allen, Ezekiel [WBC], 2:44) or emend the verb to read “swallow,” as if the intoxicated Oholibah breaks the cup and then eats the very sherds in an effort to get every last drop of the beverage that dampens them.
- Ezekiel 23:34 sn The severe action is more extreme than beating the breasts in anguish (Isa 32:12; Nah 2:7). It is also ironic, for these are the very breasts she so blatantly offered to her lovers (vv. 3, 21).
- Ezekiel 23:35 tn Heb “and you cast me behind your back.” The expression pictures her rejection of the Lord (see 1 Kgs 14:9).
- Ezekiel 23:35 tn The word “punishment” is not in the Hebrew text but is demanded by the context.
- Ezekiel 23:36 tn Heb “will you judge.” Here the imperfect form of the verb is probably used with a desiderative nuance. Addressed to the prophet, “judge” means to warn of or pronounce God’s impending judgment. See 20:4 and 22:2.
- Ezekiel 23:37 sn The Lord speaks here in the role of the husband of the sisters.
- Ezekiel 23:37 tn Heb “they have passed to them for food.” The verb is commonly taken to refer to passing children through fire, especially as an offering to the pagan god Molech. See Jer 32:35.
- Ezekiel 23:38 tn Heb “in that day.”
- Ezekiel 23:40 tn Heb “to whom a messenger was sent, and look, they came.” Foreign alliances are in view here.
- Ezekiel 23:40 tn The Hebrew verb form is feminine singular, indicating that Oholibah (Judah) is specifically addressed here. This address continues through verse 42a (note “her”), but then both sisters are described in verse 42b, where the feminine pronouns are again plural.
- Ezekiel 23:42 tn Heb “(was) in her.”
- Ezekiel 23:42 tn Heb “and men from the multitude of mankind.”
- Ezekiel 23:42 tn An alternate reading is “drunkards.” Sheba is located in the area of modern day Yemen.
- Ezekiel 23:42 tn Heb “they”; the referents (the sisters) have been specified in the translation for the sake of clarity.
- Ezekiel 23:44 tn Heb “approached.” The verb בּוֹא (boʾ) with the preposition אֶל (ʾel) means “come to” or “approach” but is also used as a euphemism for sexual relations.
- Ezekiel 23:45 tn Heb “and upright men will judge them (with) the judgment of adulteresses and the judgment of those who shed blood.”
- Ezekiel 23:46 tn Heb “assembly.”
- Ezekiel 23:46 tn Heb “give them to.”
- Ezekiel 23:47 tn The Hebrew text adds: “with fire.”
- Ezekiel 23:49 tn Heb “and the sins of your idols you will bear.” By extension it can mean the punishment for the sins.
NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.
18 Now where there is forgiveness of these, there is no longer any offering for sin.
Drawing Near to God in Enduring Faith
19 Therefore, brothers and sisters,[a] since we have confidence to enter the sanctuary by the blood of Jesus, 20 by the fresh and living way that he inaugurated for us[b] through the curtain, that is, through his flesh,[c] 21 and since we have a great priest[d] over the house of God, 22 let us draw near with a sincere heart in the assurance that faith brings,[e] because we have had our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience[f] and our bodies washed in pure water. 23 And let us hold unwaveringly to the hope that we confess, for the one who made the promise is trustworthy. 24 And let us take thought of how to spur one another on to love and good works,[g] 25 not abandoning our own meetings, as some are in the habit of doing, but encouraging each other, and even more so because you see the day[h] drawing near.[i]
26 For if we deliberately keep on sinning after receiving the knowledge of the truth, no further sacrifice for sins is left for us,[j] 27 but only a certain fearful expectation of judgment and a fury[k] of fire that will consume God’s enemies.[l] 28 Someone who rejected the law of Moses was put to death[m] without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses.[n] 29 How much greater punishment do you think that person deserves who has contempt for[o] the Son of God, and profanes[p] the blood of the covenant that made him holy,[q] and insults the Spirit of grace? 30 For we know the one who said, “Vengeance is mine, I will repay,”[r] and again, “The Lord will judge his people.”[s] 31 It is a terrifying thing to fall into the hands of the living God.
32 But remember the former days when you endured a harsh conflict of suffering after you were enlightened. 33 At times you were publicly exposed to abuse and afflictions, and at other times you came to share with others who were treated in that way. 34 For in fact you shared the sufferings of those in prison,[t] and you accepted the confiscation of your belongings with joy, because you knew that you certainly[u] had a better and lasting possession. 35 So do not throw away your confidence, because it[v] has great reward. 36 For you need endurance in order to do God’s will and so receive what is promised.[w] 37 For just a little longer[x] and he who is coming will arrive and not delay.[y] 38 But my righteous one will live by faith, and if he shrinks back, I[z] take no pleasure in him.[aa] 39 But we are not among those who shrink back and thus perish, but are among those who have faith and preserve their souls.[ab]
- Hebrews 10:19 tn Grk “brothers.” See note on the phrase “brothers and sisters” in 2:11.
- Hebrews 10:20 tn Grk “that he inaugurated for us as a fresh and living way,” referring to the entrance mentioned in v. 19.
- Hebrews 10:20 sn Through his flesh. In a bold shift the writer changes from a spatial phrase (Christ opened the way through the curtain into the inner sanctuary) to an instrumental phrase (he did this through [by means of] his flesh in his sacrifice of himself), associating the two in an allusion to the splitting of the curtain in the temple from top to bottom (Matt 27:51; Mark 15:38; Luke 23:45). Just as the curtain was split, so Christ’s body was broken for us, to give us access into God’s presence.
- Hebrews 10:21 tn Grk “and a great priest,” continuing the construction begun in v. 19.
- Hebrews 10:22 tn Grk “in assurance of faith.”
- Hebrews 10:22 sn The phrase our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience combines the OT imagery of the sprinkling with blood to give ritual purity with the emphasis on the interior cleansing provided by the new covenant: It is the heart that is cleansed and the conscience made perfect (cf. Heb 8:10; 9:9, 14; 10:2, 16).
- Hebrews 10:24 tn Grk “let us consider one another for provoking of love and good deeds.”
- Hebrews 10:25 sn The day refers to that well-known time of Christ’s coming and judgment in the future; see a similar use of “day” in 1 Cor 3:13.
- Hebrews 10:25 tn This paragraph (vv. 19-25) is actually a single, skillfully composed sentence in Greek, but it must be broken into shorter segments for English idiom. It begins with several subordinate phrases (since we have confidence and a great priest), has three parallel exhortations as its main verbs (let us draw near, hold, and take thought), and concludes with several subordinate phrases related to the final exhortation (not abandoning but encouraging).
- Hebrews 10:26 tn Grk “is left,” with “for us” implied by the first half of the verse.
- Hebrews 10:27 tn Grk “zeal,” recalling God’s jealous protection of his holiness and honor (cf. Exod 20:5).sn An allusion to Zeph 1:18.
- Hebrews 10:27 tn Grk “the enemies.”sn An allusion to Isa 26:11.
- Hebrews 10:28 tn Grk “dies.”
- Hebrews 10:28 sn An allusion to Deut 17:6.
- Hebrews 10:29 tn Grk “tramples under foot.”
- Hebrews 10:29 tn Grk “regarded as common.”
- Hebrews 10:29 tn Grk “by which he was made holy.”
- Hebrews 10:30 sn A quotation from Deut 32:35.
- Hebrews 10:30 sn A quotation from Deut 32:36.
- Hebrews 10:34 tc Most witnesses, including some significant ones (א D2 1881 M), read δεσμοῖς μου (desmois mou, “my imprisonment”) here, a reading that is probably due to the widespread belief in the early Christian centuries that Paul was the author of Hebrews (cf. Phil 1:7; Col 4:18). It may have been generated by the reading δεσμοῖς without the μου (so P46 Ψ 104), the force of which is so ambiguous (lit., “you shared the sufferings with the bonds”) as to be virtually nonsensical. Most likely, δεσμοῖς resulted when a scribe made an error in copying δεσμίοις (desmiois), a reading which makes excellent sense (“[of] those in prison”) and is strongly supported by early and significant witnesses of the Alexandrian and Western text-forms (A D* H 6 33 81 1739 lat sy co). Thus, δεσμίοις best explains the rise of the other readings on both internal and external grounds and is strongly preferred.
- Hebrews 10:34 tn Grk “you yourselves.”
- Hebrews 10:35 tn Grk “which,” but showing the reason.
- Hebrews 10:36 tn Grk “the promise,” referring to the thing God promised, not to the pledge itself.
- Hebrews 10:37 sn A quotation from Isa 26:20.
- Hebrews 10:37 sn A quotation from Hab 2:3.
- Hebrews 10:38 tn Grk “my soul.”
- Hebrews 10:38 sn A quotation from Hab 2:4.
- Hebrews 10:39 tn Grk “not…of shrinking back to perdition but of faith to the preservation of the soul.”
NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.
For the music director, a psalm of David.
109 O God whom I praise, do not ignore me.[b]
2 For they say cruel and deceptive things to me;
they lie to me.[c]
3 They surround me and say hateful things;[d]
they attack me for no reason.
4 They repay my love with accusations,[e]
but I continue to pray.[f]
5 They repay me evil for good,[g]
and hate for love.
6 [h] Appoint an evil man to testify against him.[i]
May an accuser stand[j] at his right side.
7 When he is judged, he will be found[k] guilty.[l]
Then his prayer will be regarded as sinful.
8 May his days be few.[m]
May another take his job.[n]
9 May his children[o] be fatherless,
and his wife a widow.
10 May his children[p] roam around begging,
asking for handouts as they leave their ruined home.[q]
11 May the creditor seize[r] all he owns.
May strangers loot his property.[s]
12 May no one show him kindness.[t]
May no one have compassion[u] on his fatherless children.
13 May his descendants[v] be cut off.[w]
May the memory of them be wiped out by the time the next generation arrives.[x]
14 May his ancestors’[y] sins be remembered by the Lord.
May his mother’s sin not be forgotten.[z]
15 May the Lord be constantly aware of them,[aa]
and cut off the memory of his children[ab] from the earth.
16 For he never bothered to show kindness;[ac]
he harassed the oppressed and needy,
and killed the disheartened.[ad]
17 He loved to curse[ae] others, so those curses have come upon him.[af]
He had no desire to bless anyone, so he has experienced no blessings.[ag]
18 He made cursing a way of life,[ah]
so curses poured into his stomach like water
and seeped into his bones like oil.[ai]
19 May a curse attach itself to him, like a garment one puts on,[aj]
or a belt[ak] one wears continually.
20 May the Lord repay my accusers in this way,[al]
those who say evil things about[am] me.[an]
21 O Sovereign Lord,
intervene on my behalf for the sake of your reputation.[ao]
Because your loyal love is good, deliver me.
22 For I am oppressed and needy,
and my heart beats violently within me.[ap]
23 I am fading away like a shadow at the end of the day;[aq]
I am shaken off like a locust.
24 I am so starved my knees shake;[ar]
I have turned into skin and bones.[as]
25 I am disdained by them.[at]
When they see me, they shake their heads.[au]
26 Help me, O Lord my God.
Because you are faithful to me, deliver me.[av]
27 Then they will realize[aw] this is your work,[ax]
and that you, Lord, have accomplished it.
28 They curse, but you will bless.[ay]
When they attack, they will be humiliated,[az]
but your servant will rejoice.
29 My accusers will be covered[ba] with shame,
and draped in humiliation as if it were a robe.
30 I will thank the Lord profusely.[bb]
In the middle of a crowd[bc] I will praise him,
31 because he stands at the right hand of the needy,
to deliver him from those who threaten[bd] his life.
- Psalm 109:1 sn Psalm 109. Appealing to God’s justice, the psalmist asks God to vindicate him and to bring severe judgment down upon his enemies.
- Psalm 109:1 tn Heb “do not be deaf.”
- Psalm 109:2 tn Heb “for a mouth of evil and a mouth of deceit against me they open, they speak with me [with] a tongue of falsehood.”
- Psalm 109:3 tn Heb “and [with] words of hatred they surround me.”
- Psalm 109:4 tn Heb “in place of my love they oppose me.”
- Psalm 109:4 tn Heb “and I, prayer.”
- Psalm 109:5 tn Heb “and they set upon me evil in place of good.”
- Psalm 109:6 sn In vv. 6-19 the psalmist calls on God to judge his enemies severely. Some attribute this curse-list to the psalmist’s enemies rather than the psalmist. In this case one should paraphrase v. 6: “They say about me, ‘Appoint an evil man, etc.’” Those supporting this line of interpretation point out that vv. 2-5 and 20 refer to the enemies’ attack on the psalmist being a verbal one. Furthermore in vv. 1-5, 20 the psalmist speaks of his enemies in the plural, while vv. 6-19 refer to an individual. This use of the singular in vv. 6-19 could be readily explained if this is the psalmist’s enemies’ curse on him. However, it is much more natural to understand vv. 6-19 as the psalmist’s prayer against his enemies. There is no introductory quotation formula in v. 6 to indicate that the psalmist is quoting anyone, and the statement “may the Lord repay my accusers in this way” in v. 20 most naturally appears to be a fitting conclusion to the prayer in vv. 6-19. But what about the use of the singular in vv. 6-19? Often in the psalms the psalmist will describe his enemies as a group, but then speak of them as an individual as well, as if viewing his adversaries collectively as one powerful foe. See, for example, Ps 7, where the psalmist uses both the plural (vv. 1, 6) and the singular (vv. 2, 4-5) in referring to enemies. Perhaps by using the singular in such cases, the psalmist wants to single out each enemy for individual attention, or perhaps he has one especially hostile enemy in mind who epitomizes the opposition of the whole group. This may well be the case in Ps 109. Perhaps we should understand the singular throughout vv. 6-19 in the sense of “each and every one.” For a lengthy and well-reasoned defense of the opposite view—that vv. 6-19 are a quotation of what the enemies said about the psalmist—see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 72-73.
- Psalm 109:6 tn Heb “appoint against him an evil [man].”
- Psalm 109:6 tn The prefixed verbal form is taken as a jussive here (note the imperative in the preceding line).
- Psalm 109:7 tn The prefixed verbal form could be taken as a jussive, but the use of the imperfect form in the following line suggests that v. 7 anticipates the outcome of the accusation envisioned in v. 6.
- Psalm 109:7 tn Heb “he will go out [as] a criminal” (that is, guilty).
- Psalm 109:8 tn The prefixed verbal forms (except those with vav [ו] consecutive) in vv. 8-20 are taken as jussives of prayer. Note the distinct jussive forms used in vv. 12-13, 15, 19.
- Psalm 109:8 tn The Hebrew noun פְּקֻדָּה (pequddah) can mean “charge” or “office,” though BDB 824 s.v. suggests that here it refers to his possessions.
- Psalm 109:9 tn Or “sons.”
- Psalm 109:10 tn Or “sons.”
- Psalm 109:10 tn Heb “and roaming, may his children roam and beg, and seek from their ruins.” Some, following the LXX, emend the term וְדָרְשׁוּ (vedareshu, “and seek”) to יְגֹרְשׁוּ (yegoreshu; a Pual jussive, “may they be driven away” [see Job 30:5; cf. NIV, NRSV]), but דָּרַשׁ (darash) nicely parallels שִׁאֵלוּ (shiʾelu, “and beg”) in the preceding line.
- Psalm 109:11 tn Heb “lay snares for” (see Ps 38:12).
- Psalm 109:11 tn Heb “the product of his labor.”
- Psalm 109:12 tn Heb “may there not be for him one who extends loyal love.”
- Psalm 109:12 tn Perhaps this refers to being generous (see Ps 37:21).
- Psalm 109:13 tn Or “offspring.”
- Psalm 109:13 sn On the expression cut off see Ps 37:28.
- Psalm 109:13 tn Heb “in another generation may their name be wiped out.”
- Psalm 109:14 tn Or “fathers’ sins.”
- Psalm 109:14 tn Heb “not be wiped out.”sn According to ancient Israelite theology and its doctrine of corporate solidarity and responsibility, children could be and often were punished for the sins of their parents. For a discussion of this issue see J. Kaminsky, Corporate Responsibility in the Hebrew Bible (JSOTSup). (Kaminsky, however, does not deal with Ps 109.)
- Psalm 109:15 tn Heb “may they [that is, the sins mentioned in v. 14] be before the Lord continually.”
- Psalm 109:15 tn Heb “their memory.” The plural pronominal suffix probably refers back to the children mentioned in v. 13, and for clarity this has been specified in the translation.
- Psalm 109:16 tn Heb “he did not remember to do loyal love.”
- Psalm 109:16 tn Heb “and he chased an oppressed and needy man, and one timid of heart to put [him] to death.”
- Psalm 109:17 sn A curse in OT times consists of a formal appeal to God to bring judgment down upon another. Curses were sometimes justified (such as the one spoken by the psalmist here in vv. 6-19), but when they were not, the one pronouncing the curse was in danger of bringing the anticipated judgment down upon himself.
- Psalm 109:17 tn Heb “and he loved a curse and it came [upon] him.” A reference to the evil man experiencing a curse seems premature here, for the psalmist is asking God to bring judgment on his enemies. For this reason some (cf. NIV, NRSV) prefer to repoint the vav (ו) on “it came” as conjunctive and translate the verb as a jussive of prayer (“may it come upon him!”). The prefixed form with vav consecutive in the next line is emended in the same way and translated, “may it be far from him.” However, the psalmist may be indicating that the evil man’s lifestyle has already begun to yield its destructive fruit.
- Psalm 109:17 tn Heb “and he did not delight in a blessing and it is far from him.”
- Psalm 109:18 tn Heb “he put on a curse as [if it were] his garment.”
- Psalm 109:18 tn Heb “and it came like water into his inner being, and like oil into his bones.” This may refer to this individual’s appetite for cursing. For him cursing was as refreshing as drinking water or massaging oneself with oil. Another option is that the destructive effects of a curse are in view. In this case a destructive curse invades his very being, like water or oil. Some who interpret the verse this way prefer to repoint the verb from the preterite form וַתָּבֹא (vattavoʾ, “and it came”) to a jussive form וְתָבֹא (vetavoʾ, “and may it come!”).
- Psalm 109:19 tn Heb “may it be for him like a garment one puts on.”
- Psalm 109:19 tn The Hebrew noun מֵזַח (mezakh, “belt; waistband”) occurs only here in the OT. The form apparently occurs in Isa 23:10 as well, but an emendation is necessary there.
- Psalm 109:20 tn Heb “[may] this [be] the repayment to my accusers from the Lord.”
- Psalm 109:20 tn Or “against.”
- Psalm 109:20 tn The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being; soul”) with a pronominal suffix is often equivalent to a pronoun, especially in poetry (see BDB 660 s.v. נֶפֶשׁ 4.a).
- Psalm 109:21 tn Heb “but you, Lord, Master, deal with me for the sake of your name” or “on account of your name.” Here “name” stands metonymically for God’s reputation. The Psalmist’s appeal is for God to act consistently with, and therefore maintain, his reputation (as a deliverer of the righteous and one who punishes evildoers). Note that “for your name’s sake” is paralleled by “because your loyal love is good.” The point is that the Psalmist is making an appeal not based on his own personal whim or vendetta but is calling for judicial penalties (or the fulfillment of prior prophetic indictment).
- Psalm 109:22 tc The verb in the Hebrew text (חָלַל, khalal) appears to be a Qal form from the root חלל meaning “pierced; wounded.” However, the Qal of this root is otherwise unattested. The translation assumes an emendation to יָחִיל (yakhil), a Qal imperfect from חוּל (khul, “tremble”) or to חֹלַל (kholal), a Polal perfect from חוּל (khul). See Ps 55:4, which reads לִבִּי יָחִיל בְּקִרְבִּי (libbi yakhil beqirbbi, “my heart trembles [i.e., “beats violently”] within me”).
- Psalm 109:23 tn Heb “like a shadow when it is extended I go.” He is like a late afternoon shadow made by the descending sun that will soon be swallowed up by complete darkness. See Ps 102:11.
- Psalm 109:24 tn Heb “my knees stagger from fasting.”
- Psalm 109:24 tn Heb “and my flesh is lean away from fatness [i.e., “lean so as not to be fat”].”
- Psalm 109:25 tn Heb “as for me, I am a reproach to them.”
- Psalm 109:25 sn They shake their heads. Apparently shaking the head was a taunting gesture. See also Job 16:4; Ps 22:7; Lam 2:15.
- Psalm 109:26 tn Heb “deliver me according to your faithfulness.”
- Psalm 109:27 tn After the preceding imperative, the prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose or result.
- Psalm 109:27 tn Heb “that your hand [is] this.”
- Psalm 109:28 tn Another option is to translate the imperfect as a prayer/request (“may you bless”).
- Psalm 109:28 tn The verbal sequence is perfect + prefixed form with vav (ו) consecutive. Since the psalmist seems to be anticipating the demise of his enemies, he may be using these forms rhetorically to describe the enemies’ defeat as if it were already accomplished. Some emend the text to קָמוּ יֵבֹשׁוּ (qamu yevoshu, “may those who attack me be humiliated”). See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 75.
- Psalm 109:29 tn Heb “clothed.” Another option is to translate the prefixed verbal forms in this line and the next as jussives (“may my accusers be covered with shame”).
- Psalm 109:30 tn Heb “I will thank the Lord very much with my mouth.”
- Psalm 109:30 tn Heb “many.”
- Psalm 109:31 tn Heb “judge.”
NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.
13 Take a man’s[a] garment when he has given security for a stranger,
and hold him in pledge on behalf of a stranger.[b]
- Proverbs 27:13 tn Heb “his garment.”
- Proverbs 27:13 tn Or “for a strange (= adulterous) woman.” Cf. KJV, ASV, NASB, NLT; NIV “a wayward woman.” The first noun זָר (zar) “stranger,” “foreigner” is masculine; the second term נָכְרִיָּה (nokhriyyah) “foreigner,” “stranger” is feminine, thus whether the stranger is a man or a woman. The terms do not have to mean a non-Israelite, just someone from outside the community and not well-known.sn This proverb is virtually identical to 20:16 which has a rare variant spelling of the initial imperative verb and has the masculine plural “strangers” as its Kethib reading, while matching 27:13 with the feminine singular “stranger” as its Qere reading.
NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.