24 Then Daniel went in to see[a] Arioch (whom the king had appointed to destroy the wise men of Babylon). He came[b] and said to him, “Don’t destroy the wise men of Babylon! Escort me[c] to the king, and I will disclose the interpretation to him.”[d]
25 So Arioch quickly ushered Daniel into the king’s presence, saying to him, “I[e] have found a man from the captives of Judah who can make known the interpretation to the king.” 26 The king then asked Daniel (whose name was also Belteshazzar), “Are you able to make known to me the dream that I saw, as well as its interpretation?” 27 Daniel replied to the king, “The mystery that the king is asking about is such that no wise men, astrologers, magicians, or diviners can possibly disclose it to the king. 28 However, there is a God in heaven who reveals mysteries,[f] and he has made known to King Nebuchadnezzar what will happen in the times to come.[g] The dream and the visions you had while lying on your bed[h] are as follows:
29 “As for you, O king, while you were in your bed your thoughts turned to future things.[i] The revealer of mysteries has made known to you what will take place. 30 As for me, this mystery was revealed to me not because I possess more wisdom[j] than any other living person, but so that the king may understand[k] the interpretation and comprehend the thoughts of your mind.[l]
31 “You, O king, were watching as a great statue—one[m] of impressive size and extraordinary brightness—was standing before you. Its appearance caused alarm. 32 As for that statue, its head was of fine gold, its chest and arms were of silver, its belly and thighs were of bronze. 33 Its legs were of iron; its feet were partly of iron and partly of clay.[n] 34 You were watching as[o] a stone was cut out,[p] but not by human hands. It struck the statue on its iron and clay feet, breaking them in pieces. 35 Then the iron, clay, bronze, silver, and gold were broken in pieces without distinction[q] and became like chaff from the summer threshing floors that the wind carries away. Not a trace of them could be found. But the stone that struck the statue became a large mountain that filled the entire earth. 36 This was the dream. Now we[r] will set forth before the king its interpretation.
Daniel Interprets Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream
37 “You, O king, are the king of kings. The God of heaven has granted you sovereignty, power, strength, and honor. 38 Wherever human beings,[s] wild animals,[t] and birds of the sky live—he has given them into your power.[u] He has given you authority over them all. You are the head of gold. 39 Now after you another kingdom[v] will arise, one inferior to yours. Then a third kingdom, one of bronze, will rule in all the earth. 40 Then there will be a fourth kingdom, one strong like iron. Just like iron breaks in pieces and shatters everything, and as iron breaks in pieces[w] all these metals,[x] so it will break in pieces and crush the others.[y] 41 In that you were seeing feet and toes[z] partly of wet clay[aa] and partly of iron, so this will be a divided kingdom. Some of the strength of iron will be in it, for you saw iron mixed with wet clay.[ab] 42 In that the toes of the feet were partly of iron and partly of clay, the latter stages of this kingdom will be partly strong and partly fragile. 43 And[ac] in that you saw iron mixed with wet clay, so people will be mixed[ad] with one another[ae] without adhering to one another, just as[af] iron does not mix with clay. 44 In the days of those kings the God of heaven will raise up an everlasting kingdom that will not be destroyed and a kingdom that will not be left to another people. It will break in pieces and bring about the demise of all these kingdoms. But it will stand forever. 45 You saw that a stone was cut from a mountain, but not by human hands; it smashed the iron, bronze, clay, silver, and gold into pieces. The great God has made known to the king what will occur in the future.[ag] The dream is certain, and its interpretation is reliable.”
46 Then King Nebuchadnezzar bowed down with his face to the ground[ah] and paid homage to Daniel. He gave orders to offer sacrifice and incense to him. 47 The king replied to Daniel, “Certainly your God is a God of gods and Lord of kings and revealer of mysteries, for you were able to reveal this mystery!” 48 Then the king elevated Daniel to high position and bestowed on him many marvelous gifts. He granted him authority over the entire province of Babylon and made him the main prefect over all the wise men of Babylon. 49 And at Daniel’s request, the king[ai] appointed Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego over the administration of the province of Babylon. Daniel himself served in the king’s court.[aj]
Daniel’s Friends Are Tested
3 [ak] King Nebuchadnezzar had a golden[al] statue made.[am] It was 90 feet[an] tall and 9 feet[ao] wide. He erected it on the plain of Dura in the province of Babylon. 2 Then King Nebuchadnezzar sent out a summons to assemble the satraps, prefects, governors, counselors, treasurers, judges, magistrates,[ap] and all the other authorities of the province to attend the dedication of the statue that he[aq] had erected. 3 So the satraps, prefects, governors, counselors, treasurers, judges, magistrates, and all the other provincial authorities assembled for the dedication of the statue that King Nebuchadnezzar had erected. They were standing in front of the statue that Nebuchadnezzar had erected.[ar]
4 Then the herald[as] made a loud[at] proclamation: “To you, O peoples, nations, and language groups, the following command is given:[au] 5 When you hear the sound of the horn, flute, zither,[av] trigon, harp, pipes, and all kinds of music, you must[aw] bow down and pay homage to the golden statue that King Nebuchadnezzar has erected. 6 Whoever does not bow down and pay homage will immediately[ax] be thrown into the midst of a furnace of blazing fire!” 7 Therefore when they all[ay] heard the sound of the horn, flute, zither, trigon, harp, pipes,[az] and all kinds of music, all the peoples, nations, and language groups began bowing down and paying homage to the golden statue that King Nebuchadnezzar had erected.
8 Now[ba] at that time certain[bb] Chaldeans came forward and brought malicious accusations against[bc] the Jews. 9 They said[bd] to King Nebuchadnezzar, “O king, live forever![be] 10 You have issued an edict, O king, that everyone must bow down and pay homage to the golden statue when they hear the sound of the horn, flute, zither, trigon, harp, pipes, and all kinds of music. 11 And whoever does not bow down and pay homage must be thrown into the midst of a furnace of blazing fire. 12 But there are Jewish men whom you appointed over the administration of the province of Babylon—Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego—and these men[bf] have not shown proper respect to you, O king. They don’t serve your gods and they don’t pay homage to the golden statue that you have erected.”
13 Then Nebuchadnezzar in a fit of rage[bg] demanded that they bring[bh] Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego before him. So they brought them[bi] before the king. 14 Nebuchadnezzar said to them, “Is it true, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, that you don’t serve my gods and that you don’t pay homage to the golden statue that I erected? 15 Now if you are ready, when you hear the sound of the horn, flute, zither, trigon, harp, pipes, and all kinds of music, you must bow down and pay homage to the statue that I had made. If you don’t pay homage to it, you will immediately be thrown into the midst of the furnace of blazing fire. Now, who is that god who can rescue you from my power?”[bj] 16 Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego replied to King Nebuchadnezzar,[bk] “We do not need to give you a reply[bl] concerning this. 17 If[bm] our God whom we are serving exists,[bn] he is able to rescue us from the furnace of blazing fire, and he will rescue us, O king, from your power as well. 18 But if he does not, let it be known to you, O king, that we don’t serve your gods, and we will not pay homage to the golden statue that you have erected.”
19 Then Nebuchadnezzar was filled with rage, and his disposition changed[bo] toward Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego. He gave orders[bp] to heat the furnace seven times hotter than it was normally heated. 20 He ordered strong[bq] soldiers in his army to tie up Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego and to throw them into the furnace of blazing fire. 21 So those men were tied up while still wearing their cloaks, trousers, turbans, and other clothes,[br] and were thrown into the furnace[bs] of blazing fire. 22 But since the king’s command was so urgent, and the furnace was so excessively hot, the men who escorted[bt] Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego were killed[bu] by the leaping flames.[bv] 23 But those three men, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, fell into the furnace[bw] of blazing fire while still securely bound.[bx]
God Delivers His Servants
24 Then King Nebuchadnezzar was startled and quickly got up. He said to his ministers, “Wasn’t it three men that we tied up and threw[by] into[bz] the fire?” They replied to the king, “For sure, O king.” 25 He answered, “But I see four men, untied and walking around in the midst of the fire! No harm has come to them! And the appearance of the fourth is like that of a god!”[ca] 26 Then Nebuchadnezzar approached the door of the furnace of blazing fire. He called out,[cb] “Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, servants of the most high God, come out! Come here!”
Then Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego emerged from the fire.[cc] 27 Once the satraps, prefects, governors, and ministers of the king had gathered around, they saw that those men were physically[cd] unharmed by the fire.[ce] The hair of their heads was not singed, nor were their trousers damaged. Not even the smell of fire was to be found on them!
28 Nebuchadnezzar exclaimed,[cf] “Praised be the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, who has sent forth his angel[cg] and has rescued his servants who trusted in him, ignoring[ch] the edict of the king and giving up their bodies rather than[ci] serve or pay homage to any god other than their God! 29 I hereby decree[cj] that any people, nation, or language group that blasphemes[ck] the God of Shadrach, Meshach, or Abednego will be dismembered and his home reduced to rubble! For there exists no other god who can deliver in this way.” 30 Then Nebuchadnezzar[cl] promoted Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego in the province of Babylon.
- Daniel 2:24 tc The MT has עַל עַל (ʿal ʿal, “he entered upon”). Several medieval Hebrew mss lack the verb, although this may be due to haplography.
- Daniel 2:24 tc The LXX and Vulgate, along with one medieval Hebrew ms, lack this verb.
- Daniel 2:24 tn Aram “cause me to enter,” as also in v. 25.
- Daniel 2:24 tn Aram “the king.”
- Daniel 2:25 sn Arioch’s claim is self-serving and exaggerated. It is Daniel who came to him, and not the other way around. By claiming to have found one capable of solving the king’s dilemma, Arioch probably hoped to ingratiate himself to the king.
- Daniel 2:28 tn Aram “a revealer of mysteries.” The phrase serves as a quasi-title for God in Daniel.
- Daniel 2:28 tn Aram “in the latter days.”
- Daniel 2:28 tn Aram “your dream and the visions of your head upon your bed.”
- Daniel 2:29 tn Aram “your thoughts upon your bed went up to what will be after this.”
- Daniel 2:30 tn Aram “not for any wisdom which is in me more than [in] any living man.”
- Daniel 2:30 tn Aram “they might cause the king to know.” The impersonal plural is used here to refer to the role of God’s spirit in revealing the dream and its interpretation to the king. As J. A. Montgomery says, “it appropriately here veils the mysterious agency” (Daniel [ICC], 164-65). Subsequent narratives show both God and angels involved with Nebuchadnezzar, so “they” can be appropriate.
- Daniel 2:30 tn Aram “heart.”
- Daniel 2:31 tn Aram “an image.”
- Daniel 2:33 sn Clay refers to baked clay, which despite being hard was also fragile. Compare the reference in v. 41 to “wet clay.”
- Daniel 2:34 tn Aram “until.”
- Daniel 2:34 tc The LXX, Theodotion, and the Vulgate have “from a mountain,” though this is probably a harmonization with v. 45.
- Daniel 2:35 tn Aram “as one.” For the meaning “without distinction” see the following: F. Rosenthal, Grammar, 36, §64, and p. 93; E. Vogt, Lexicon linguae aramaicae, 60.
- Daniel 2:36 tn Various suggestions have been made concerning the plural “we.” It could be an editorial plural translatable as “I.” However, Daniel has portrayed himself as an agent of God, who revealed the matter (vv. 28, 30), so we can express that reality.
- Daniel 2:38 tn Aram “the sons of man.”
- Daniel 2:38 tn Aram “the beasts of the field.”
- Daniel 2:38 tn Aram “hand.”
- Daniel 2:39 sn The identity of the first kingdom is clearly Babylon. The identification of the following three kingdoms is disputed. The common view is that they represent Media, Persia, and Greece. Most conservative scholars identify them as Media-Persia, Greece, and Rome.
- Daniel 2:40 tc Theodotion and the Vulgate lack the phrase “and as iron breaks in pieces.”
- Daniel 2:40 tn The Aramaic text does not have this word, but it has been added in the translation for clarity.
- Daniel 2:40 tn The words “the others” are supplied from the context.
- Daniel 2:41 tc The LXX lacks “and toes.”
- Daniel 2:41 tn Aram “potter’s clay.”
- Daniel 2:41 tn Aram “clay of clay” (also in v. 43).
- Daniel 2:43 tc The present translation reads the conjunction, with most medieval Hebrew mss, LXX, Vulgate, and the Qere. The Kethib lacks the conjunction.
- Daniel 2:43 sn The reference to people being mixed is usually understood to refer to intermarriage.
- Daniel 2:43 tn Aram “with the seed of men.”
- Daniel 2:43 tc The present translation reads הֵיךְ דִּי (hekh di) rather than the MT הֵא־כְדִי (heʾ khedi, “even as which”). It is a case of wrong word division.
- Daniel 2:45 tn Aram “after this.”
- Daniel 2:46 tn Aram “fell on his face.”
- Daniel 2:49 tn Aram “and Daniel sought from the king and he appointed.”
- Daniel 2:49 tn Aram “was at the gate of the king.”
- Daniel 3:1 sn The LXX introduces this chapter with the following chronological note: “in the eighteenth year of.” Such a date would place these events at about the time of the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 b.c. (cf. 2 Kgs 25:8). However, there seems to be no real basis for associating the events of Daniel 3 with this date.
- Daniel 3:1 sn There is no need to think of Nebuchadnezzar’s image as being solid gold. No doubt the sense is that it was overlaid with gold (cf. Isa 40:19; Jer 10:3-4), with the result that it presented a dazzling self-compliment to the greatness of Nebuchadnezzar’s achievements.
- Daniel 3:1 sn According to a number of patristic authors, the image represented a deification of Nebuchadnezzar himself. This is not clear from the biblical text, however.
- Daniel 3:1 tn Aram “60 cubits.” Assuming a length of 18 inches for the standard cubit, the image would be 90 feet (27.4 m) high.
- Daniel 3:1 tn Aram “6 cubits.” Assuming a length of 18 inches for the standard cubit, the image would be 9 feet (2.74 m) wide.sn The dimensions of the image (90 feet high and 9 feet wide) imply that it did not possess normal human proportions, unless a base for the image is included in the height dimension. The ancient world knew of other tall statues. For example, the Colossus of Rhodes—the huge statue of Helios which stood (ca. 280-224 b.c.) at the entrance to the harbor at Rhodes and was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world—was said to be 70 cubits (105 ft or 32 m) in height, which would make it even taller than Nebuchadnezzar’s image.
- Daniel 3:2 sn The specific duties of the seven types of officials listed here (cf. vv. 3, 27) are unclear. The Aramaic words that are used are transliterations of Akkadian or Persian technical terms whose exact meanings are uncertain. The translations given here follow suggestions set forth in BDB.
- Daniel 3:2 tn Aram “Nebuchadnezzar the king.” The proper name and title have been replaced by the relative pronoun (“he”) in the translation for stylistic reasons.
- Daniel 3:3 tc The LXX and Theodotion lack the words “that Nebuchadnezzar had erected.”
- Daniel 3:4 tn According to BDB 1097 s.v. כָּרוֹז the Aramaic word used here is a Greek loanword, but other scholars have argued instead for a Persian derivation (HALOT 1902 s.v. *כָּרוֹז).
- Daniel 3:4 tn Aram “in strength.”
- Daniel 3:4 tn Aram “they are saying.”
- Daniel 3:5 sn The word zither (Aramaic קִיתָרוֹס [qitaros]), and the words for harp (Aramaic פְּסַנְתֵּרִין [pesanterin]) and pipes (Aramaic סוּמְפֹּנְיָה [sumponeyah]), are of Greek derivation. Though much has been made of this in terms of suggesting a date in the Hellenistic period for the writing of the book, it is not surprising that a few Greek cultural terms, all of them the names of musical instruments, should appear in this book. As a number of scholars have pointed out, the bigger surprise (if, in fact, the book is to be dated to the Hellenistic period) may be that there are so few Greek loanwords in Daniel.
- Daniel 3:5 tn The imperfect Aramaic verbs have here an injunctive nuance.
- Daniel 3:6 tn Aram “in that hour.”
- Daniel 3:7 tn Aram “all the peoples.”
- Daniel 3:7 tc Though not in the Aramaic text of BHS, this word appears in many medieval Hebrew mss, some LXX mss, and the Vulgate (cf. vv. 5, 10, 15).
- Daniel 3:8 tc This expression is absent in Theodotion.
- Daniel 3:8 tn Aram “men.”
- Daniel 3:8 tn Aram “ate the pieces of.” This is a rather vivid idiom for slander.
- Daniel 3:9 tn Aram “answered and said,” a common Aramaic idiom that occurs repeatedly in this chapter.
- Daniel 3:9 sn O king, live forever! is a comment of typical court courtesy that is not necessarily indicative of the real sentiments of the speaker. Ancient oriental court protocol could sometimes require a certain amount of hypocrisy.
- Daniel 3:12 sn Daniel’s absence from this scene has sparked the imagination of commentators, some of whom have suggested that perhaps he was unable to attend the dedication due to sickness or absence prompted by business. Hippolytus supposed that Daniel may have been watching from a distance.
- Daniel 3:13 tn Aram “in anger and wrath”; NASB “in rage and anger.” The expression is a hendiadys.
- Daniel 3:13 tn The Aramaic infinitive is active.
- Daniel 3:13 tn Aram “these men.” The pronoun is used in the translation to avoid undue repetition.
- Daniel 3:15 tn Aram “hand,” as also in v. 17.
- Daniel 3:16 tc In the MT this word is understood to begin the following address (“answered and said to the king, ‘O Nebuchadnezzar’”). However, it seems unlikely that Nebuchadnezzar’s subordinates would address the king in such a familiar way, particularly in light of the danger that they now found themselves in. The present translation implies moving the verse-dividing atnakh from “king” to “Nebuchadnezzar.”
- Daniel 3:16 tn Aram “to return a word to you.”
- Daniel 3:17 tc The ancient versions typically avoid the conditional element of v. 17.
- Daniel 3:17 tn The Aramaic expression used here is very difficult to interpret. The question concerns the meaning and syntax of אִיתַי (ʾitay, “is” or “exist”). There are several possibilities. (1) Some interpreters take this word closely with the participle later in the verse יָכִל (yakhil, “able”), understanding the two words to form a periphrastic construction (“if our God is…able”; cf. H. Bauer and P. Leander, Grammatik des Biblisch-Aramäischen, 365, §111b). But the separation of the two elements from one another is not an argument in favor of this understanding. (2) Other interpreters take the first part of v. 17 to mean “If it is so, then our God will deliver us” (cf. KJV, ASV, RSV, NASB). However, the normal sense of ʾitay is existence; on this point see F. Rosenthal, Grammar, 41, §95. The present translation maintains the sense of existence for the verb (“If our God…exists”), even though the statement is admittedly difficult to understand in this light. The statement may be an implicit reference back to Nebuchadnezzar’s comment in v. 15, which denies the existence of a god capable of delivering from the king’s power, thus their statement is rhetorically adapted to the perspective of the person they are addressing.
- Daniel 3:19 tn Aram “the appearance of his face was altered”; cf. NLT “his face became distorted with rage”; NAB “[his] face became livid with utter rage.”
- Daniel 3:19 tn Aram “he answered and said.”
- Daniel 3:20 tn This is sometimes taken as a comparative: “[some of the] strongest.”
- Daniel 3:21 sn There is a great deal of uncertainty with regard to the specific nature of these items of clothing.
- Daniel 3:21 tn Aram “into the midst of the furnace.” For stylistic reasons the words “the midst of” have been left untranslated.
- Daniel 3:22 tn Aram “caused to go up.”
- Daniel 3:22 tn The Aramaic verb is active.
- Daniel 3:22 tn Aram “the flame of the fire” (so KJV, ASV, NASB); NRSV “the raging flames.”
- Daniel 3:23 tn Aram “into the midst of the furnace.” For stylistic reasons the words “the midst of” have been left untranslated.
- Daniel 3:23 sn The deuterocanonical writings known as The Prayer of Azariah and The Song of the Three present at this point a confession and petition for God’s forgiveness and a celebration of God’s grace for the three Jewish youths in the fiery furnace. Though not found in the Hebrew/Aramaic text of Daniel, these compositions do appear in the ancient Greek versions.
- Daniel 3:24 tn Aram “we threw…bound.”
- Daniel 3:24 tn Aram “into the midst of.”
- Daniel 3:25 sn The phrase like that of a god is in Aramaic “like that of a son of the gods.” Many patristic writers understood this phrase in a christological sense (i.e., “the Son of God”). But it should be remembered that these are words spoken by a pagan who is seeking to explain things from his own polytheistic frame of reference; for him the phrase “like a son of the gods” is equivalent to “like a divine being.” Despite the king’s description though, the fourth person probably was an angel who had come to deliver the three men, or was a theophany.
- Daniel 3:26 tn Aram “answered and said.”
- Daniel 3:26 tn Aram “from the midst of the fire.” For stylistic reasons the words “the midst of” have been left untranslated.
- Daniel 3:27 tn Aram “in their bodies.”
- Daniel 3:27 tn Aram “the fire did not have power.”
- Daniel 3:28 tn Aram “answered and said.”
- Daniel 3:28 sn The king identifies the “son of the gods” (v. 25) as an angel. Comparable Hebrew expressions are used elsewhere in the Hebrew Bible for the members of God’s angelic assembly (see Gen 6:2, 4; Job 1:6; 2:1; 38:7; Pss 29:1; 89:6). An angel later comes to rescue Daniel from the lions (Dan 6:22).
- Daniel 3:28 tn Aram “they changed” or “violated.”
- Daniel 3:28 tn Aram “so that they might not.”
- Daniel 3:29 tn Aram “from me is placed an edict.”
- Daniel 3:29 tn Aram “speaks negligence.”
- Daniel 3:30 tn Aram “and the king.” The proper name has been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
1 Peter 4:7-5:14
Service, Suffering, and Judgment
7 For the culmination of all things is near. So be self-controlled and sober-minded for the sake of prayer.[a] 8 Above all keep[b] your love for one another fervent,[c] because love covers a multitude of sins.[d] 9 Show hospitality[e] to one another without complaining. 10 Just as each one has received a gift, use it to serve one another[f] as good stewards of the varied grace of God. 11 Whoever speaks, let it be with[g] God’s words.[h] Whoever serves, do so with the strength[i] that God supplies, so that in everything God will be glorified through Jesus Christ. To him belong[j] the glory and the power forever and ever. Amen.
12 Dear friends, do not be astonished[k] that a trial by fire is occurring among you,[l] as though something strange were happening to you. 13 But rejoice in the degree that you have shared in the sufferings of Christ, so that when his glory is revealed[m] you may also rejoice and be glad.[n] 14 If you are insulted for the name of Christ, you are blessed, because the Spirit of glory,[o] who is the Spirit of God,[p] rests[q] on you. 15 But let none of you suffer as a murderer or thief or criminal or as a troublemaker.[r] 16 But if you suffer as a Christian,[s] do not be ashamed, but glorify[t] God that you bear such a name.[u] 17 For it is time for judgment to begin, starting with the house[v] of God. And if it starts with us, what will be the fate[w] of those who are disobedient to the gospel of God? 18 And if the righteous are barely saved, what will become of[x] the ungodly and sinners?[y] 19 So then let those who suffer according to the will of God entrust their souls to a faithful Creator as they do good.[z]
Leading and Living in God’s Flock
5 So as your fellow elder and a witness of Christ’s sufferings and as one who shares in the glory that will be revealed, I urge the elders among you: 2 Give a shepherd’s care to[aa] God’s flock among you, exercising oversight[ab] not merely as a duty[ac] but willingly under God’s direction,[ad] not for shameful profit but eagerly. 3 And do not lord it over[ae] those entrusted to you,[af] but be examples to the flock. 4 Then[ag] when the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the crown of glory that never fades away.
5 In the same way, you who are younger,[ah] be subject to the elders. And all of you, clothe yourselves with humility toward one another, because God opposes the proud but gives grace to the humble.[ai] 6 And God will exalt you in due time,[aj] if you humble yourselves under his mighty hand[ak] 7 by casting[al] all your cares[am] on him because he cares for you. 8 Be sober and alert. Your enemy the devil, like a roaring lion,[an] is on the prowl looking for someone[ao] to devour. 9 Resist him,[ap] strong in your faith, because you know[aq] that your brothers and sisters[ar] throughout the world[as] are enduring[at] the same kinds of suffering.[au] 10 And, after you have suffered for a little while, the God of all grace who called you to his eternal glory in Christ[av] will himself restore, confirm, strengthen, and establish you.[aw] 11 To him belongs[ax] the power forever. Amen.
12 Through Silvanus,[ay] whom I know to be a faithful brother,[az] I have written to you briefly, in order to encourage you and testify[ba] that this is the true grace of God. Stand fast in it.[bb] 13 The church[bc] in Babylon,[bd] chosen together with you,[be] greets you, and so does Mark, my son. 14 Greet one another with a loving kiss.[bf] Peace to all of you who are in Christ.[bg]
- 1 Peter 4:7 tn Grk “for prayers.”
- 1 Peter 4:8 tn The primary verb of v. 8 is a participle (“having”) but it continues the sense of command from v. 7.
- 1 Peter 4:8 tn Or “constant.”
- 1 Peter 4:8 sn The statement of v. 8b, love covers a multitude of sins, is proverbial: It is quoted from Prov 10:12 (cf. Jas 5:20). It speaks of the forbearance that comes with love: Christian love is patient and forgiving toward the offenses of a fellow Christian (Matt 18:21-22; 1 Cor 13:4-7).
- 1 Peter 4:9 tn There is no main verb in this verse (“showing hospitality” translates the adjective φιλόξενοι [philoxenoi]), but it continues the sense of command from v. 7.
- 1 Peter 4:10 tn Grk “serving it to one another.” The primary verb is a participle but it continues the sense of command from v. 7.
- 1 Peter 4:11 tn Grk “if anyone speaks—as God’s words.”
- 1 Peter 4:11 tn Or “oracles.”
- 1 Peter 4:11 tn Grk “if anyone serves—with strength…”
- 1 Peter 4:11 tn Grk “is/are.”
- 1 Peter 4:12 tn Or “do not be surprised, taken aback.” The same verb occurs in 4:4.
- 1 Peter 4:12 tn Grk “at the burning among you, occurring to you for testing.”
- 1 Peter 4:13 tn Grk “in the revelation of his glory.”
- 1 Peter 4:13 tn The verb “be glad” is used also in 1:6 and 1:8. The verbs of v. 13b are used together in Matt 5:12 and Rev 19:7.
- 1 Peter 4:14 tc Many mss, some of them significant and early ([א] A P 33 81 323 945 1241 1739 pm bo), add καὶ δυνάμεως (kai dunameōs; “and of power”) here. The shorter reading is supported by P72 B K L Ψ 049 pm). Although the evidence is evenly divided, the longer reading looks to be an explanatory or liturgical expansion on the text and for this reason should be considered secondary.
- 1 Peter 4:14 tn Grk “the Spirit of glory and of God.”
- 1 Peter 4:14 sn A quotation taken from Isa 11:2.
- 1 Peter 4:15 tn The meaning of the Greek word used here is uncertain. It may mean “spy, informer,” “revolutionary,” or “defrauder, embezzler.” But the most likely meaning is “busybody, one who meddles in the affairs of others, troublesome meddler.” The translation given in the text is intended to suggest this general idea.
- 1 Peter 4:16 tn The verb is implied by the context but not expressed; Grk “but if as a Christian.”
- 1 Peter 4:16 tn These are third person imperatives in Greek (“if [one of you suffers] as a Christian, let him not be ashamed…let him glorify”), but have been translated as second person verbs since this is smoother English idiom.
- 1 Peter 4:16 tn Grk “in this name.”
- 1 Peter 4:17 tn Grk “to begin from the house.”
- 1 Peter 4:17 tn Or “the end.”
- 1 Peter 4:18 tn Grk “where will he appear.”
- 1 Peter 4:18 tn The personal references in v. 18 are generic singulars, but they have been changed to the plural in English to maintain consistency with the plurals of v. 17.sn A quotation from Prov 11:31 (LXX).
- 1 Peter 4:19 tn Grk “in doing good.”
- 1 Peter 5:2 tn Grk “shepherd,” “tend,” “pastor.”
- 1 Peter 5:2 tc A few significant and early witnesses mss (א* B sa) lack ἐπισκοποῦντες (episkopountes, “exercising oversight”), but the participle enjoys otherwise good ms support (P72 א2 A P Ψ 33 1739 M lat bo). A decision is difficult because normally the shorter reading is preferred, especially when found in excellent witnesses. However, in this instance the omission may be due to a hesitation among some scribes to associate oversight with elders, since the later church viewed overseer/bishop as a separate office from elder.
- 1 Peter 5:2 tn Or “not under compulsion/coercion.”
- 1 Peter 5:2 tn Grk “according to God.”
- 1 Peter 5:3 tn Grk “not as lording it over…but being examples.” The participles continue the command of v. 2 by describing how the shepherding should be carried out.
- 1 Peter 5:3 tn Grk “the ones allotted,” referring to those God has given over to their care.
- 1 Peter 5:4 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “Then” to reflect the logical sequence of events.
- 1 Peter 5:5 sn In this context younger and elder are terms that combine two meanings: relative age and an official structure of leadership in the church. As in v. 1, elder here denotes those who exercise spiritual leadership, who for the most part are older in years. Likewise younger means the rest of the community, who for the most part are younger in age, who are urged to accept the authority of their leaders.
- 1 Peter 5:5 sn A quotation from Prov 3:34 (cf. Jas 4:6).
- 1 Peter 5:6 tn Grk “in time,” but connoting “the proper time, when the time is right” as in Matt 24:45; Luke 12:42.
- 1 Peter 5:6 tn Grk “Humble yourselves, therefore, under the mighty hand of God, so that in due time he may exalt you.” The sentence was rearranged so that the English reader could more clearly see the connection between “casting” (v. 7) and “humble” (v. 6).
- 1 Peter 5:7 tn Or “throwing on”; “loading.” Some scholars take the participle to function imperativally, or as attendant circumstance—thus, “cast.” See below for discussion.sn Casting. According to ExSyn 630, “Although treated as an independent command in several modern translations (e.g., RSV, NRSV, NIV), the participle [casting] should be connected with the verb of v 6, ταπεινώθητε [tapeinōthēte, Humble yourselves]. As such, it is not offering a new command, but is defining how believers are to humble themselves. Taking the participle as means enriches the understanding of both verbs: Humbling oneself is not a negative act of self-denial per se, but a positive one of active dependence on God for help.”
- 1 Peter 5:7 tn Or “anxiety, burden,” but using a word from the same root as the verb “cares” in the last part of the verse.
- 1 Peter 5:8 sn This phrase may be an allusion to Ps 22:13.
- 1 Peter 5:8 tc A few mss (B Ψ 1175) lack the pronoun τινα (tina), while others have it. Those that have it either put the acute accent over the penult, making this an interrogative pronoun (“whom”; 436 642 2492 vg; most Fathers), or leave off any accent, making this an indefinite pronoun (“someone”; L P 33vid 81 1611 1735 1739 2344 al), or are too early to employ accents but nevertheless have the pronoun τινα (P72 א A). Generally speaking, the shorter and harder reading is to be preferred. In this instance, the omission of the pronoun would obviously be accommodated for by scribes, since both ζητέω (zēteō, “look, seek”) and καταπίνω (katapinō, “devour”) are transitive verbs. However, if the omission were original, one might expect the position of the pronoun to float in the mss—both before and after the infinitive καταπιεῖν (katapiein, “to devour”). Further, other terms might be expected as well, such as ἕνα ἐξ ὑμῶν (hena ex humōn, “one of you”) or τινα ἐξ ὑμῶν (tina ex humōn, “a certain one/someone of you”). The uniformity of both the word and its location suggests that the shorter reading (found in but a few Greek mss) in this instance was a scribal mistake. As to whether the pronoun is interrogative or indefinite, since accents were not a part of the earliest mss, such Greek witnesses are of no help to us in this kind of problem. There would be little difference in meaning between the two in this context.
- 1 Peter 5:9 tn Grk “whom,” referring to the devil in v. 8. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
- 1 Peter 5:9 tn Grk “knowing,” a participle that usually denotes a reason for the related action.
- 1 Peter 5:9 tn Grk “your brotherhood.” The Greek term “brotherhood” is used in a broad sense to connote familial relationships within the family of God (cf. BDAG 19 s.v. ἀδελφότης 1). Another alternative translation would be “your fellow believers,” though this would weaken the familial connotations. This same word occurs in 2:17; there it has been translated “family of believers.”
- 1 Peter 5:9 tn Grk “your brotherhood in the world,” referring to the Christian community worldwide.
- 1 Peter 5:9 tn This verb carries the nuance “to accomplish, complete,” emphasizing their faithful endurance in suffering. The verb is passive in Greek (“suffering is being endured by your brotherhood”), but has been translated as an active to give a smoother English style.
- 1 Peter 5:9 tn Grk “the same things of sufferings.”
- 1 Peter 5:10 tc A few significant mss (א B 614 630 1505 1611) lack “Jesus” after “Christ,” while the majority include the name (P72 A P Ψ 5 33 81 436 442 1175 1735 1739 1852 2344 2492 M latt). The inclusion is a natural and predictable expansion on the text, but in light of its broad representation a decision is difficult. NA28 lists the longer reading in the apparatus with a diamond, indicating a toss-up as to what the initial text should read.
- 1 Peter 5:10 tn The pronoun “you” is not used explicitly but is clearly implied by the Greek.
- 1 Peter 5:11 tn No verb is expressed here but the verb “is” or “belongs” is clearly implied. This doxology expresses a fact for which God should be glorified (as in 4:11), rather than a wish or prayer (“may power be to him”).
- 1 Peter 5:12 sn The phrase Through Silvanus means either that Silvanus was the secretary (amanuensis) who assisted Peter in writing or composing the letter (cf. Rom 16:22) or that he carried the letter to the churches. The latter sense is more likely since this is the meaning of the Greek wording when it is used elsewhere (cf. Acts 15:23; Ignatius, Letter to the Romans 10:1; Letter to the Philadelphians 11:2; Letter to the Smyrnaeans 12:1; Polycarp, Letter to the Philippians 14), though it is perhaps possible that both ideas could be incorporated by this expression. For a detailed argument regarding this issue, see E. R. Richards, “Silvanus Was Not Peter’s Secretary: Theological Bias in Interpreting διὰ Σιλουανοῦ…ἔγραψα,” JETS 43 (September 2000): 417-32.
- 1 Peter 5:12 tn Grk “the faithful brother, as I think.”
- 1 Peter 5:12 tn These are participles (“encouraging and testifying”) showing purpose. The pronoun object “you” is omitted in Greek but implied by the context.
- 1 Peter 5:12 tn Grk “in which stand fast.” For emphasis, and due to constraints of contemporary English, this was made a separate sentence in the translation.
- 1 Peter 5:13 tn Grk “the one in Babylon,” which could refer to some individual woman (“she who is in Babylon”) since the Greek article (here “the one”) is feminine. But it is much more likely to be a veiled reference to a church (the Greek word “church” is also feminine in gender).
- 1 Peter 5:13 sn Most scholars understand Babylon here to be a figurative reference to Rome. Although in the OT the city of Babylon in Mesopotamia was the seat of tremendous power (2 Kgs 24-25; Isa 39; Jer 25), by the time of the NT what was left was an insignificant town, and there is no tradition in Christian history that Peter ever visited there. On the other hand, Christian tradition connects Peter with the church in Rome, and many interpreters think other references to Babylon in the NT refer to Rome as well (Rev 14:8; 16:19; 17:5; 18:2, 10, 21). Thus it is likely Peter was referring to Rome here.
- 1 Peter 5:13 tn Grk “chosen together,” implying the connection “with you” in context.
- 1 Peter 5:14 tn Grk “a kiss of love.”
- 1 Peter 5:14 tc Most mss (א P 5 436 442 1611 1735 1739c 1852 2492 M sy) have ἀμήν (amen, “amen”) at the end of 1 Peter. Such a conclusion is routinely added by scribes to NT books because a few of these books originally had such an ending (cf. Rom 16:27; Gal 6:18; Jude 25). A majority of Greek witnesses have the concluding ἀμήν in every NT book except Acts, James, and 3 John (and even in these books, ἀμήν is found in some witnesses). It is thus a predictable variant. Further, the absence of such a conclusion to the epistle in such witnesses as P72 A B Ψ 81 323 945 1175 1241 1243 1739* 2344 co seems inexplicable unless the word is not authentic.
81 I desperately long for[a] your deliverance.
I find hope in your word.
82 My eyes grow tired as I wait for your promise to be fulfilled.[b]
I say,[c] “When will you comfort me?”
83 For[d] I am like a wineskin[e] dried up in smoke.[f]
I do not forget your statutes.
84 How long must your servant endure this?[g]
When will you judge those who pursue me?
85 The arrogant dig pits to trap me,[h]
which violates your law.[i]
86 All your commands are reliable.
I am pursued without reason.[j] Help me!
87 They have almost destroyed me here on the earth,
but I do not reject your precepts.
88 Revive me with[k] your loyal love,
that I might keep[l] the rules you have revealed.[m]
89 O Lord, your instructions endure;
they stand secure in heaven.[n]
90 You demonstrate your faithfulness to all generations.[o]
You established the earth and it stood firm.
91 Today they stand firm by your decrees,
for all things are your servants.
92 If I had not found encouragement in your law,[p]
I would have died in my sorrow.[q]
93 I will never forget your precepts,
for by them you have revived me.
94 I belong to you. Deliver me!
For I seek your precepts.
95 The wicked prepare to kill me,[r]
yet I concentrate on your rules.
96 I realize that everything has its limits,
but your commands are beyond full comprehension.[s]
- Psalm 119:81 tn Heb “my soul pines for.” See Ps 84:2.
- Psalm 119:82 tn Heb “my eyes fail for your word.” The psalmist has intently kept his eyes open, looking for God to intervene, but now his eyes are watery and bloodshot, impairing his vision. See Ps 69:3.
- Psalm 119:82 tn Heb “saying.”
- Psalm 119:83 tn Or “even though.”
- Psalm 119:83 tn The Hebrew word נֹאד (noʾd, “leather container”) refers to a container made from animal skin which is used to hold wine or milk (see Josh 9:4, 13; Judg 4:19; 1 Sam 16:20).
- Psalm 119:83 tn Heb “in the smoke.”
- Psalm 119:84 tn Heb “How long are the days of your servant?”
- Psalm 119:85 tn Heb “for me.”
- Psalm 119:85 tn Heb “which [is] not according to your law.”
- Psalm 119:86 sn God’s commands are a reliable guide to right and wrong. By keeping them the psalmist is doing what is right, yet he is still persecuted.
- Psalm 119:88 tn Heb “according to.”
- Psalm 119:88 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
- Psalm 119:88 tn Heb “of your mouth.”
- Psalm 119:89 tn Heb “Forever, O Lord, your word stands firm in heaven,” or “Forever, O Lord, [is] your word; it stands firm in heaven.” The translation assumes that “your word” refers here to the body of divine instructions contained in the law (note the frequent references to the law in vv. 92-96). See vv. 9, 16-17, 57, 101, 105, 130, 139 and 160-61. The reference in v. 86 to God’s law being faithful favors this interpretation. Another option is that “your word” refers to God’s assuring word of promise, mentioned in vv. 25, 28, 42, 65, 74, 81, 107, 114, 147 and 169. In this case one might translate, “O Lord, your promise is reliable, it stands firm in heaven.”
- Psalm 119:90 tn Heb “to a generation and a generation [is] your faithfulness.”
- Psalm 119:92 tn Heb “if your law had not been my delight.”
- Psalm 119:92 tn Or “my suffering.”
- Psalm 119:95 tn Heb “the wicked wait for me to kill me.”
- Psalm 119:96 tn Heb “to every perfection I have seen an end, your command is very wide.” God’s law is beyond full comprehension, which is why the psalmist continually studies it (vv. 95, 97).
15 Like[a] a roaring lion or a roving bear,[b]
so is a wicked ruler over a poor people.[c]
16 The prince who is a great oppressor lacks wisdom,[d]
but the one who hates[e] unjust gain will prolong his days.
- Proverbs 28:15 tn The term “like” is not in the Hebrew text, but is supplied in the translation for clarity and smoothness.
- Proverbs 28:15 sn The comparison uses animals that are powerful, terrifying, insensitive, and in search of prey. Because political tyrants are like this, animal imagery of this sort is also used in Dan 7:1-8 for the series of ruthless world powers.
- Proverbs 28:15 sn A poor nation under the control of political tyrants who are dangerous and destructive is helpless. The people of that nation will crumble under them because they cannot meet their demands and are of no use to them.
- Proverbs 28:16 tn Heb “A prince lacking of understanding [is] also a great oppressor” (both KJV, ASV similar) The last clause, “and a great oppressor,” appears to modify “the prince.” There is little difference in meaning, only in emphasis. The LXX has “lacks income” (reading תְּבוּאוֹת [tevuʾot] instead of תְּבוּנוֹת [tevunot]). C. H. Toy (Proverbs [ICC], 501) suggests deleting the word for “prince” altogether, but this emendation is gratuitous.
- Proverbs 28:16 tc This follows the Qere reading of the participle which is singular (as opposed to the plural). The implication is that this one is also a ruler, paralleling the first half. But since he “hates” (= rejects) unjust gain he will extend [his] days, meaning he will enjoy a long and happy life (cf. NIV, NRSV, CEV).