The Daily Audio Bible Reading for Thursday November 25, 2021 (NIV)

Daniel 1:1-2:23

Daniel Finds Favor in Babylon

In the third[a] year of the reign of King Jehoiakim of Judah, King Nebuchadnezzar[b] of Babylon advanced against Jerusalem and laid it under siege.[c] Now the Lord[d] delivered[e] King Jehoiakim of Judah into his power,[f] along with some of the vessels[g] of the temple of God.[h] He brought them to the land of Babylonia[i] to the temple of his god[j] and put[k] the vessels in the treasury of his god.

The king commanded[l] Ashpenaz,[m] who was in charge of his court officials,[n] to choose[o] some of the Israelites who were of royal and noble descent[p] young men in whom there was no physical defect and who were handsome,[q] well versed in all kinds of wisdom, well educated[r] and having keen insight,[s] and who were capable[t] of entering the king’s royal service[u]—and to teach them the literature and language[v] of the Babylonians.[w] So the king assigned them a daily ration[x] from his royal delicacies[y] and from the wine he himself drank. They were to be trained[z] for the next three years. At the end of that time they were to enter the king’s service.[aa] As it turned out,[ab] among these young men[ac] were some from Judah:[ad] Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah.[ae] But the overseer of the court officials renamed them. He gave[af] Daniel the name Belteshazzar, Hananiah he named Shadrach, Mishael he named Meshach, and Azariah he named Abednego.[ag]

But Daniel made up his mind[ah] that he would not defile[ai] himself with the royal delicacies or the royal wine.[aj] He therefore asked the overseer of the court officials for permission not to defile himself. Then God made the overseer of the court officials sympathetic to Daniel.[ak] 10 But he[al] responded to Daniel, “I fear my master the king. He is the one who has decided[am] your food and drink. What would happen if he saw that you looked malnourished in comparison to the other young men your age?[an] If that happened,[ao] you would endanger my life[ap] with the king!” 11 Daniel then spoke to the warden[aq] whom the overseer of the court officials had appointed over Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah: 12 “Please test your servants for ten days by providing us with some vegetables to eat and water to drink. 13 Then compare our appearance[ar] with that of[as] the young men who are eating the royal delicacies;[at] deal with us[au] in light of what you see.” 14 So the warden[av] agreed to their proposal[aw] and tested them for ten[ax] days.

15 At the end of the ten days their appearance was better and their bodies were healthier[ay] than all the young men who had been eating the royal delicacies. 16 So the warden removed the delicacies and the wine[az] from their diet[ba] and gave them a diet of vegetables instead. 17 Now as for these four young men, God endowed them with knowledge and skill in all sorts of literature and wisdom—and Daniel had insight into all kinds of visions and dreams.

18 When the time appointed by the king arrived,[bb] the overseer of the court officials brought them into Nebuchadnezzar’s presence. 19 When the king spoke with them, he did not find among the entire group[bc] anyone like Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, or Azariah. So they entered the king’s service.[bd] 20 In every matter of wisdom and[be] insight the king asked them about, he found them to be ten times[bf] better than any of the magicians and astrologers that were in his entire empire. 21 Now Daniel lived on until the first[bg] year of Cyrus the king.

Nebuchadnezzar Has a Disturbing Dream

In the second year of his[bh] reign Nebuchadnezzar had many dreams.[bi] His mind[bj] was disturbed and he suffered from insomnia.[bk] The king issued an order[bl] to summon the magicians, astrologers, sorcerers, and wise men[bm] in order to explain his dreams to him.[bn] So they came and awaited the king’s instructions.[bo]

The king told them, “I have had a dream,[bp] and I[bq] am anxious to understand the dream.” The wise men replied to the king: [What follows is in Aramaic[br]] “O king, live forever! Tell your servants the dream, and we will disclose its[bs] interpretation.” The king replied[bt] to the wise men, “My decision is firm.[bu] If you do not inform me of both the dream and its interpretation, you will be dismembered[bv] and your homes reduced to rubble! But if you can disclose the dream and its interpretation, you will receive from me gifts, a reward, and considerable honor. So disclose to me the dream and its interpretation.” They again replied, “Let the king inform us[bw] of the dream; then we will disclose its[bx] interpretation.” The king replied, “I know for sure that you are attempting to gain time, because you see that my decision is firm. If you don’t inform me of the dream, there is only one thing that is going to happen to you.[by] For you have agreed among yourselves to report to me something false and deceitful[bz] until such time as things might change. So tell me the dream, and I will have confidence[ca] that you can disclose its interpretation.”

10 The wise men replied to the king, “There is no man on earth who is able to disclose the king’s secret,[cb] for no king, regardless of his position and power, has ever requested such a thing from any magician, astrologer, or wise man. 11 What the king is asking is too difficult, and no one exists who can disclose it to the king, except for the gods—but they don’t live among mortals!”[cc]

12 Because of this the king got furiously angry[cd] and gave orders to destroy all the wise men of Babylon. 13 So a decree went out, and the wise men were about[ce] to be executed. They also sought[cf] Daniel and his friends so that they could be executed.

14 Then Daniel spoke with prudent counsel[cg] to Arioch, who was in charge of the king’s executioners and who had gone out to execute the wise men of Babylon. 15 He inquired of Arioch the king’s deputy, “Why is the decree from the king so urgent?”[ch] Then Arioch informed Daniel about the matter. 16 So Daniel went in and[ci] requested the king to grant him time, that he might disclose the interpretation to the king. 17 Then Daniel went to his home and informed his friends Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah of the matter. 18 He asked them to pray for mercy from the God of heaven concerning this mystery so that he[cj] and his friends would not be destroyed along with the rest of the wise men of Babylon. 19 Then in a night vision the mystery was revealed to Daniel. So Daniel praised[ck] the God of heaven, 20 saying:[cl]

“Let the name of God[cm] be praised[cn] forever and ever,
for wisdom and power belong to him.
21 He changes times and seasons,
deposing some kings
and establishing others.[co]
He gives wisdom to the wise;
he imparts knowledge to those with understanding;[cp]
22 he reveals deep and hidden things.
He knows what is in the darkness,
and light resides with him.
23 O God of my fathers, I acknowledge and glorify you,
for you have bestowed wisdom and power on me.
Now you have enabled me to understand what we[cq] requested from you.
For you have enabled us to understand the king’s dilemma.”[cr]


  1. Daniel 1:1 sn The third year of the reign of Jehoiakim would be ca. 605 b.c. At this time Daniel would have been a teenager. The reference to Jehoiakim’s third year poses a serious crux interpretum, since elsewhere these events are linked to his fourth year (Jer 25:1; cf. 2 Kgs 24:1; 2 Chr 36:5-8). Apparently Daniel is following an accession year chronology, whereby the first partial year of a king’s reign was reckoned as the accession year rather than as the first year of his reign. Jeremiah, on the other hand, is following a nonaccession year chronology, whereby the accession year is reckoned as the first year of the king’s reign. In that case, the conflict is only superficial. Most modern scholars, however, have concluded that Daniel is historically inaccurate here.
  2. Daniel 1:1 sn King Nebuchadnezzar ruled Babylon from ca. 605-562 b.c.
  3. Daniel 1:1 sn This attack culminated in the first of three major deportations of Jews to Babylon. The second one occurred in 597 b.c. and included among many other Jewish captives the prophet Ezekiel. The third deportation occurred in 586 b.c., at which time the temple and the city of Jerusalem were thoroughly destroyed.
  4. Daniel 1:2 tn The Hebrew term translated “Lord” here is אֲדֹנָי (ʾadonay).
  5. Daniel 1:2 tn Heb “gave.”
  6. Daniel 1:2 tn Heb “hand,” which is often used idiomatically for one’s power and authority. See BDB 390 s.v. יָד 2.
  7. Daniel 1:2 tn Or “utensils”; or “articles.”
  8. Daniel 1:2 tn Heb “house of God.”
  9. Daniel 1:2 sn The land of Babylonia (Heb “the land of Shinar”) is another name for Sumer and Akkad, where Babylon was located (cf. Gen 10:10; 11:2; 14:1, 9; Josh 7:21; Isa 11:11; Zech 5:11).
  10. Daniel 1:2 tn Or “gods” (NCV, NRSV, TEV; also later in this verse). The Hebrew term can be used as a numerical plural for many gods or as a plural of majesty for one particular god. Since Nebuchadnezzar was a polytheist, it is not clear if the reference here is to many gods or one particular deity. The plural of majesty, while normally used for Israel’s God, is occasionally used of foreign gods (cf. BDB 43 s.v. אֱלֹהִים 1, 2). See Judg 11:24 (of the Moabite god Chemosh); 1 Sam 5:7 (of the Philistine god Dagon); 1 Kgs 11:33 (of the Canaanite goddess Astarte, the Moabite god Chemosh, and the Ammonite god Milcom); and 2 Kgs 19:37 (of the Assyrian god Nisroch). Since gods normally had their own individual temples, Dan 1:2 probably refers to a particular deity, perhaps Marduk, the supreme god of Babylon, or Marduk’s son Nabu, after whom Nebuchadnezzar was named. The name Nebuchadnezzar means “Nabu has protected the son who will inherit” (HALOT 660 s.v. נְבוּכַדְרֶאצַּר). For a discussion of how temples functioned in Babylonian religion, see H. Ringgren, Religions of the Ancient Near East, 77-81.
  11. Daniel 1:2 tn Heb “brought.” Though the Hebrew verb “brought” is repeated in this verse, the translation uses “brought…put” for stylistic variation.
  12. Daniel 1:3 tn Or “gave orders to.” Heb “said to.”
  13. Daniel 1:3 sn It is possible that the word Ashpenaz is not a proper name at all but a general term for “innkeeper.” See J. J. Collins, Daniel (Hermeneia), 127, n. 9. However, the ancient versions understand the term to be a name, and the present translation (along with most English versions) understands the word in this way.
  14. Daniel 1:3 sn The word court official (Hebrew saris) need not mean “eunuch” in a technical sense (see Gen 37:36, where the term refers to Potiphar, who had a wife), although in the case of the book of Daniel there was in Jewish literature a common tradition to that effect. On the OT usage of this word see HALOT 769-70 s.v. סָרֹיס.
  15. Daniel 1:3 tn Heb “bring.”
  16. Daniel 1:3 tn Heb “and from the seed of royalty and from the nobles.”
  17. Daniel 1:4 tn Heb “good of appearance.”
  18. Daniel 1:4 tn Heb “knowers of knowledge.”
  19. Daniel 1:4 tn Heb “understanders of knowledge.”
  20. Daniel 1:4 tn Heb “who had strength.”
  21. Daniel 1:4 tn Heb “to stand in the palace of the king” (cf. vv. 5, 19).
  22. Daniel 1:4 sn The language of the Chaldeans referred to here is Akkadian, an East Semitic cuneiform language.
  23. Daniel 1:4 tn Heb “Chaldeans” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NRSV). This is an ancient name for the Babylonians.
  24. Daniel 1:5 tn Heb “a thing of a day in its day.”
  25. Daniel 1:5 tn Heb “from the delicacies of the king.”
  26. Daniel 1:5 tn Or “educated.” See HALOT 179 s.v. I גדל.
  27. Daniel 1:5 tn Heb “stand before the king.”
  28. Daniel 1:6 tn Heb “and it happened that.”
  29. Daniel 1:6 tn Heb “among them.” The referent (the young men taken captive from Judah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  30. Daniel 1:6 tn Heb “the sons of Judah.”
  31. Daniel 1:6 sn The names reflect a Jewish heritage. In Hebrew Daniel means “God is my judge”; Hananiah means “the Lord is gracious”; Mishael means “who is what God is?”; and Azariah means “the Lord has helped.”
  32. Daniel 1:7 tc The LXX and Vulgate lack the verb here.
  33. Daniel 1:7 sn The meanings of the Babylonian names are more conjectural than is the case with the Hebrew names. The probable etymologies are as follows: Belteshazzar means “protect his life,” although the MT vocalization may suggest “Belti, protect the king” (cf. Dan 4:8); Shadrach perhaps means “command of Aku”; Meshach is of uncertain meaning; and Abednego means “servant of Nego.” Assigning Babylonian names to the Hebrew youths may have been an attempt to erase from their memory their Israelite heritage.
  34. Daniel 1:8 tn Heb “placed on his heart.”
  35. Daniel 1:8 tn Or “would not make himself ceremonially unclean”; TEV “become ritually unclean.”sn Various reasons have been suggested as to why such food would defile Daniel. Perhaps it had to do with violations of Mosaic law with regard to unclean foods, or perhaps it was food that had been offered to idols. Daniel’s practice in this regard is strikingly different from that of Esther, who was able successfully to conceal her Jewish identity.
  36. Daniel 1:8 tn Heb “with the delicacies of the king and with the wine of his drinking.”
  37. Daniel 1:9 tn Heb “Then God granted Daniel loyal love and compassion before the overseer of the court officials.” The expression “loyal love and compassion” is a hendiadys; the two words combine to express one idea.
  38. Daniel 1:10 tn Heb “The overseer of the court officials.” The subject has been specified in the translation for the sake of clarity.
  39. Daniel 1:10 tn Heb “assigned” (see v. 5).
  40. Daniel 1:10 tn Heb “Why should he see your faces thin from the young men who are according to your age?” The term translated “thin” occurs only here and in Gen 40:6, where it appears to refer to a dejected facial expression. The word is related to an Arabic root meaning “be weak.” See HALOT 277 s.v. II זעף.
  41. Daniel 1:10 tn The words “if that happened” are not in the Hebrew text but have been added in the translation for clarity.
  42. Daniel 1:10 tn Heb “my head.” Presumably this is an implicit reference to capital punishment (cf. NCV, TEV, CEV, NLT), although this is not entirely clear.
  43. Daniel 1:11 sn Having failed to convince the overseer, Daniel sought the favor of the warden whom the overseer had appointed to care for the young men.
  44. Daniel 1:13 tn Heb “let our appearance be seen before you.”
  45. Daniel 1:13 tn Heb “the appearance of.”
  46. Daniel 1:13 tn Heb “delicacies of the king,” as also in v. 15.
  47. Daniel 1:13 tn Heb “your servants.”
  48. Daniel 1:14 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the warden mentioned in v. 11) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  49. Daniel 1:14 tn Heb “listened to them with regard to this matter.”
  50. Daniel 1:14 sn The number ten is sometimes used in the OT as an ideal number of completeness (cf. v. 20; Zech 8:23; Rev 2:10).
  51. Daniel 1:15 tn Heb “fat of flesh”; KJV, ASV “fatter in flesh”; NASB, NRSV “fatter” (although this is no longer a sign of health in Western culture).
  52. Daniel 1:16 tn Heb “the wine of their drinking.”
  53. Daniel 1:16 tn The words “from their diet” are not in the Hebrew text but have been added in the translation for clarity.
  54. Daniel 1:18 tn Heb “at the end of the days that the king said to bring them.”
  55. Daniel 1:19 tn Heb “from all of them.”
  56. Daniel 1:19 tn Heb “stood before the king.”
  57. Daniel 1:20 tc The MT lacks the conjunction, reading the first word in the phrase as a construct (“wisdom of insight”). While this reading is not impossible, it seems better to follow Theodotion, the Syriac, the Vulgate, and the Sahidic Coptic, all of which have the conjunction.
  58. Daniel 1:20 tn Heb “hands.”
  59. Daniel 1:21 sn The Persian king Cyrus’ first year in control of Babylon was 539 b.c. Daniel actually lived beyond the first year of Cyrus, as is clear from 10:1. The purpose of the statement in 1:21 is merely to say that Daniel’s life spanned the entire period of the neo-Babylonian empire. His life span also included the early years of the Persian control of Babylon. However, by that time his age was quite advanced; he probably died sometime in the 530’s b.c.
  60. Daniel 2:1 tn Heb “Nebuchadnezzar’s.” The possessive pronoun is substituted in the translation for stylistic reasons.
  61. Daniel 2:1 tn Heb “dreamed dreams.” The plural is used here and in v. 2, but the singular in v. 3. The plural “dreams” has been variously explained. Some interpreters take the plural as denoting an indefinite singular (so GKC 400 §124.o). But it may be that it is describing a stream of related dreams, or a dream state. In the latter case, one might translate: “Nebuchadnezzar was in a trance.” See further, J. A. Montgomery, Daniel (ICC), 142.
  62. Daniel 2:1 tn Heb “his spirit.”
  63. Daniel 2:1 tn Heb “his sleep left (?) him.” The use of the verb הָיָה (hayah, “to be”) here is unusual. The context suggests a meaning such as “to be finished” or “gone” (cf. Dan 8:27). Some scholars emend the verb to read נָדְדָה (nadedah, “fled”); cf. Dan 6:19. See further, DCH 2:540 s.v. היה I Ni.3; HALOT 244 s.v. היה nif; BDB 227-28 s.v. הָיָה Niph.2.
  64. Daniel 2:2 tn Heb “said.” So also in v. 12.
  65. Daniel 2:2 tn Heb “Chaldeans.” The term Chaldeans (Hebrew כַּשְׂדִּים, kasdim) is used in the book of Daniel both in an ethnic sense and, as here, to refer to a caste of Babylonian wise men and astrologers.
  66. Daniel 2:2 tn Heb “to explain to the king his dreams.”
  67. Daniel 2:2 tn Heb “stood before the king.”
  68. Daniel 2:3 tn Heb “I have dreamed a dream” (so KJV, ASV).
  69. Daniel 2:3 tn Heb “my spirit.”
  70. Daniel 2:4 sn Contrary to common belief, the point here is not that the wise men (Chaldeans) replied to the king in the Aramaic language, or that this language was uniquely the language of the Chaldeans. It was this view that led in the past to Aramaic being referred to as “Chaldee.” Aramaic was used as a lingua franca during this period; its origins and usage were not restricted to the Babylonians. Rather, this phrase is better understood as an editorial note (cf. NAB) marking the fact that from 2:4b through 7:28 the language of the book shifts from Hebrew to Aramaic. In 8:1, and for the remainder of the book, the language returns to Hebrew. Various views have been advanced to account for this change of language, most of which are unconvincing. The change in language likely reflects stages in the transmission history of the book of Daniel or factors in its composition history.
  71. Daniel 2:4 tn Or “the.”
  72. Daniel 2:5 tn Aram “answered and said,” a common idiom to indicate a reply, but redundant in contemporary English.
  73. Daniel 2:5 tn It seems clear from what follows that Nebuchadnezzar clearly recalls the content of the dream, although obviously he does not know what to make of it. By not divulging the dream itself to the would-be interpreters, he intends to find out whether they are simply leading him on. If they can tell him the dream’s content, which he is able to verify, he then can have confidence in their interpretation, which is what eludes him. The translation “the matter is gone from me” (cf. KJV, ASV), suggesting that the king had simply forgotten the dream, is incorrect. The Aramaic word used here (אַזְדָּא, ʾazdaʾ) is probably of Persian origin; it occurs in the OT only here and in v. 8. There are two main possibilities for the meaning of the word: “the matter is promulgated by me” (see KBL 1048 s.v.) and therefore “publicly known” (cf. NRSV; F. Rosenthal, Grammar, 62-63, §189), or “the matter is irrevocable” (cf. NAB, NIV, TEV, CEV, NLT; HALOT 1808 s.v. אזד; cf. also BDB 1079 s.v.). The present translation reflects this latter option. See further E. Vogt, Lexicon linguae aramaicae, 3.
  74. Daniel 2:5 tn Aram “made limbs” (cf. 3:29).
  75. Daniel 2:7 tn Aram “his servants.”
  76. Daniel 2:7 tn Or “the.”
  77. Daniel 2:9 tn Aram “one is your law,” i.e., only one thing is applicable to you.
  78. Daniel 2:9 tn Aram “a lying and corrupt word.”
  79. Daniel 2:9 tn Aram “I will know.”
  80. Daniel 2:10 tn Aram “matter, thing.”
  81. Daniel 2:11 tn Aram “whose dwelling is not with flesh.”
  82. Daniel 2:12 tn Aram “was angry and very furious.” The expression is a hendiadys (two words or phrases expressing a single idea).
  83. Daniel 2:13 tn The Aramaic participle is used here to express the imminent future.
  84. Daniel 2:13 tn The impersonal active plural (“they sought”) of the Aramaic verb could also be translated as an English passive: “Daniel and his friends were sought” (cf. NAB).
  85. Daniel 2:14 tn Aram “returned prudence and counsel.” The expression is a hendiadys.
  86. Daniel 2:15 tn The Aramaic word מְהַחְצְפָה (mehakhtsefah) may refer to the severity of the king’s decree (i.e., “harsh”; so HALOT 1879 s.v. חצף; BDB 1093 s.v. חֲצַף), although it would seem that in a delicate situation such as this Daniel would avoid this kind of criticism of the king’s actions. The translation above understands the word to refer to the immediacy, not harshness, of the decree. See further, F. Rosenthal, Grammar, 50, §116; E. Vogt, Lexicon linguae aramaicae, 67.
  87. Daniel 2:16 tc Theodotion and the Syriac lack the words “went in and.”
  88. Daniel 2:18 tn Aram “Daniel.” The proper name is redundant here in English and has not been included in the translation.
  89. Daniel 2:19 tn Or “blessed.”
  90. Daniel 2:20 tn Aram “Daniel answered and said.”
  91. Daniel 2:20 sn As is often the case in the Bible, here the name represents the person.
  92. Daniel 2:20 tn Or “blessed.”
  93. Daniel 2:21 tn Aram “kings.”
  94. Daniel 2:21 tn Aram “the knowers of understanding.”
  95. Daniel 2:23 tn Various explanations have been offered for the plurals we and us. They could be editorial plurals, or refer to Daniel and his three friends who were also praying about the matter.
  96. Daniel 2:23 tn Aram “the word of the king.”
New English Translation (NET)

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1 Peter 3:8-4:6

Suffering for Doing Good

Finally, all of you be harmonious,[a] sympathetic, affectionate, compassionate, and humble. Do not return evil for evil or insult for insult, but instead bless[b] others[c] because you were called to inherit a blessing. 10 For

the one who wants to love life and see good days must keep[d] his tongue from evil and his lips from uttering deceit.
11 And he must turn away from evil and do good;
he must seek peace and pursue it.
12 For the eyes of the Lord are[e] upon the righteous and his ears are open to their prayer.
But the Lord’s face is against those who do evil.[f]

13 For[g] who is going to harm you if you are devoted to what is good? 14 But in fact, if you happen to suffer[h] for doing what is right,[i] you are blessed. But do not be terrified of them[j] or be shaken.[k] 15 But set Christ[l] apart[m] as Lord in your hearts and always be ready to give an answer to anyone who asks about the hope you possess.[n] 16 Yet do it with courtesy and respect,[o] keeping a good conscience, so that those who slander your good conduct in Christ may be put to shame when they accuse you.[p] 17 For it is better to suffer for doing good, if God wills it,[q] than for doing evil.

18 [r] Because Christ also suffered[s] once for sins,
the just for the unjust,[t]
to bring you to God,
by being put to death in the flesh
but[u] by being made alive in the spirit.[v]
19 In it[w] he went and preached to the spirits in prison,[x]

20 after they were disobedient long ago[y] when God patiently waited[z] in the days of Noah as an ark was being constructed. In the ark[aa] a few, that is eight souls, were delivered through water. 21 And this prefigured baptism, which now saves you[ab]—not the washing off of physical dirt[ac] but the pledge[ad] of a good conscience to God—through the resurrection of Jesus Christ, 22 who went into heaven and is at the right hand of God[ae] with angels and authorities and powers subject to him.[af]

So, since Christ suffered[ag] in the flesh, you also arm yourselves with the same attitude, because the one who has suffered in the flesh has finished with sin,[ah] in that he spends the rest of his time[ai] on earth concerned about the will of God and not human desires. For the time that has passed was sufficient for you to do what the non-Christians[aj] desire.[ak] You lived then[al] in debauchery, evil desires, drunkenness, carousing, drinking bouts,[am] and wanton idolatries.[an] So[ao] they are astonished[ap] when you do not rush with them into the same flood of wickedness, and they vilify you.[aq] They will face a reckoning before[ar] Jesus Christ[as] who stands ready to judge the living and the dead. Now it was for this very purpose[at] that the gospel was preached to those who are now dead,[au] so that though[av] they were judged in the flesh[aw] by human standards[ax] they may live spiritually[ay] by God’s standards.[az]


  1. 1 Peter 3:8 tn There is no main verb in this verse (Grk “Finally, all [ ] harmonious”), but it continues the sense of command from the previous paragraphs.
  2. 1 Peter 3:9 tn Grk “not returning…but blessing,” continuing the sense of command from the preceding.
  3. 1 Peter 3:9 tn The direct object “others” is omitted but implied in Greek, and must be supplied to suit English style.
  4. 1 Peter 3:10 tn Grk “stop.”
  5. 1 Peter 3:12 tn The verbs are implied but not expressed in this verse: “the Lord’s eyes [ ] on the righteous and his ears [ ] to their prayer, but his face [ ] against those who do evil.”
  6. 1 Peter 3:12 sn Verses 10-12 are a quotation from Ps 34:12-16.
  7. 1 Peter 3:13 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “For” to indicate that what follows gives an explanation.
  8. 1 Peter 3:14 sn The Greek construction here implies that such suffering was not the norm, even though it could happen, and in fact may well have happened to some of the readers (cf. 4:4, 12-19).
  9. 1 Peter 3:14 tn Grk “because of righteousness.”
  10. 1 Peter 3:14 tn Grk “do not fear their fear,” referring to those who cause their suffering. The phrase “their fear” may mean “what they fear” (subjective genitive), but in a situation of persecution it more likely means “fear of them” (objective genitive).
  11. 1 Peter 3:14 sn A quotation from Isa 8:12.
  12. 1 Peter 3:15 tc Most later mss, including some significant ones (P 5 81 436 442 1735 2344 2492 M) have θεόν (theon, “God”) instead of Χριστόν (Christon; “Christ”) here. But Χριστόν is widely supported by excellent and early witnesses (P72 א A B C Ψ 33 1175 1243 1611 1739 1852 latt sy co), and as a less common idiom better explains the rise of the other reading.
  13. 1 Peter 3:15 tn Or “sanctify Christ as Lord.”
  14. 1 Peter 3:15 tn Grk “the hope in you.”
  15. 1 Peter 3:16 tn Grk “but with courtesy and respect,” continuing the command of v. 15. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  16. 1 Peter 3:16 tn Grk “when you are spoken against.”
  17. 1 Peter 3:17 tn Grk “if the will of God should will it.” As in 3:14 the Greek construction here implies that suffering for doing good was not what God normally willed, even though it could happen, and in fact may have happened to some of the readers (cf. 4:4, 12-19).
  18. 1 Peter 3:18 sn This passage has been typeset as poetry because many scholars regard this passage as poetic or hymnic. These terms are used broadly to refer to the genre of writing, not to the content. There are two broad criteria for determining if a passage is poetic or hymnic: “(a) stylistic: a certain rhythmical lilt when the passages are read aloud, the presence of parallelismus membrorum (i.e., an arrangement into couplets), the semblance of some metre, and the presence of rhetorical devices such as alliteration, chiasmus, and antithesis; and (b) linguistic: an unusual vocabulary, particularly the presence of theological terms, which is different from the surrounding context” (P. T. O’Brien, Philippians [NIGTC], 188-89). Classifying a passage as hymnic or poetic is important because understanding this genre can provide keys to interpretation. However, not all scholars agree that the above criteria are present in this passage, so the decision to typeset it as poetry should be viewed as a tentative decision about its genre.
  19. 1 Peter 3:18 tc The variants here are legion (B. M. Metzger produces eight variants in a nice layout of the evidence [TCGNT 622]). Most of these variants involve pronouns, prepositions, or word order changes, but the major problem involves whether Christ “suffered” (ἔπαθεν, epathen) or “died” (ἀπέθανεν, apethanen). The witnesses that read ἀπέθανεν are P72 א*,2 A Cvid Ψ 0285 5 436 442 614 630 945 1175 1241 1243 1505 1611 1735 1739 1852 2344; the witnesses that read ἔπαθεν are B L P 81 2492 M. Although the external evidence slightly favors ἀπέθανεν, such may be a secondary reading. Intrinsically, ἔπαθεν both fits the context better, especially the verbal link between v. 17 and v. 18 (note in particular the introductory causal ὅτι [hoti, “because”] and the emphatic καί [kai, “also”]), and fits the author’s style (1 Peter never uses ἀποθνῄσκω [apothnēskō], but uses πάσχω [paschō] 11 other times, more than any other NT book). However, scribes would most likely realize this, and might conform the verb in v. 18 to the author’s typical usage. It may be argued, however, that scribes tended to alter the text in light of more common NT idioms, and did not have as much sensitivity to the literary features in the immediate context. In this instance, it may not be insignificant that the NT collocates ἀποθνῄσκω with ἁμαρτία (hamartia, “sin”) seven other times, though only once (1 Cor 15:3) with a meaning similar to what would be demanded here, but collocates πάσχω with ἁμαρτία in only one other place, 1 Pet 4:1, where the meaning also detours from what is seen here. All in all, a decision is difficult, but ἔπαθεν is to be preferred slightly.
  20. 1 Peter 3:18 sn The reference to the just suffering for the unjust is an allusion to Isa 53:11-12.
  21. 1 Peter 3:18 tn Greek emphasizes the contrast between these two phrases more than can be easily expressed in English.
  22. 1 Peter 3:18 sn Put to death in the flesh…made alive in the spirit. The contrast of flesh and spirit is not between two parts of Christ’s person (material versus immaterial) but between two broader modes of existence: the realm of unregenerate earthly life versus eternal heavenly life. The reference may not be to the Holy Spirit directly, but indirectly, since the Spirit permeates and characterizes the spiritual mode of existence. However, ExSyn 343 (n. 76) states “It is often objected that the Holy Spirit cannot be in view because the two datives of v 18 (σαρκί, πνεύματι [sarki, pneumati]) would then have a different syntactical force (sphere, means). But if 1 Pet 3:18 is a hymnic or liturgical fragment, this can be no objection because of ‘poetic license’: poetry is replete with examples of grammatical and lexical license, not the least of which is the use of the same morpho-syntactic categories, in parallel lines, with entirely different senses (note, e.g., the dat. expressions in 1 Tim 3:16).”
  23. 1 Peter 3:19 tn Grk “in which.” ExSyn 343 notes: “The antecedent of the RP [relative pronoun] is by no means certain. Some take it to refer to πνεύματι immediately preceding, the meaning of which might be either the Holy Spirit or the spiritual state. Others see the phrase as causal (‘for which reason,’ ‘because of this’), referring back to the entire clause, while still other scholars read the phrase as temporal (if so, it could be with or without an antecedent: ‘on which occasion’ or ‘meanwhile’). None of these options is excluded by syntax. It may be significant, however, that every other time ἐν ᾧ is used in 1 Peter it bears an adverbial/conjunctive force (cf. 1:6; 2:12; 3:16 [here, temporal]; 4:4).” Also, because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  24. 1 Peter 3:19 sn And preached to the spirits in prison. The meaning of this preaching and the spirits to whom he preached are much debated. It is commonly understood to be: (1) Christ’s announcement of his victory over evil to the fallen angels who await judgment for their role in leading the Noahic generation into sin; this proclamation occurred sometime between Christ’s death and ascension; or (2) Christ’s preaching of repentance through Noah to the unrighteous humans, now dead and confined in hell, who lived in the days of Noah. The latter is preferred because of the temporal indications in v. 20a and the wider argument of the book. These verses encourage Christians to stand for righteousness and try to influence their contemporaries for the gospel in spite of the suffering that may come to them. All who identify with them and their Savior will be saved from the coming judgment, just as in Noah’s day.
  25. 1 Peter 3:20 tn This reflects a Greek participle, literally “having been disobedient formerly,” that refers to the “spirits” in v. 19. Many translations take this as adjectival describing the spirits (“who had once been disobedient”; cf. NASB, NIV, NKJV, NLT, NRSV, TEV), but the grammatical construction strongly favors an adverbial interpretation describing the time of the preaching, as reflected above.
  26. 1 Peter 3:20 tn Grk “the patience of God waited.”
  27. 1 Peter 3:20 tn Grk “in which,” referring to the ark; the referent (the ark) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  28. 1 Peter 3:21 tn Grk “which also, [as] an antitype, now saves you, [that is] baptism.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  29. 1 Peter 3:21 tn Grk “the removal of the dirt of the flesh,” where flesh refers to the physical make-up of the body with no moral connotations.
  30. 1 Peter 3:21 tn Or “response”; “answer.”
  31. 1 Peter 3:22 tn Grk “who is at the right hand…having gone into heaven.”
  32. 1 Peter 3:22 tn Grk “angels…having been subjected to him.”
  33. 1 Peter 4:1 tc Most mss (א2 A P 5 33 81 436 442 1175 1611 1852 M) add ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν (huper hēmōn, “for us”); others (א* 69 1505 syp) add ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν (huper humōn, “for you”), the first hand of א also has ἀποθανόντος (apothanontos, “since he died”) instead of παθόντος (pathontos, “since he suffered”). But the reading without ὑπὲρ ἡ/ὑμῶν best explains the rise of the other readings, for not only is there confusion as to which pronoun belongs here, but the longer readings, being clarifications, are evidently scribally motivated. The shortest reading is found in significant and early witnesses (P72 B C Ψ 323 1243 1739 sa) and is strongly preferred.
  34. 1 Peter 4:1 sn Has finished with sin. The last sentence in v. 1 may refer to Christ as the one who suffered in the flesh (cf. 2:21, 23; 3:18; 4:1a) and the latter part would then mean, “he has finished dealing with sin.” But it is more likely that it refers to the Christian who suffers unjustly (cf. 2:19-20; 3:14, 17). This shows that he has made a break with sin as vs. 2 describes.
  35. 1 Peter 4:2 tn This verse may give the purpose or result of their “arming” themselves as called for in v. 1b and then the translation would be: “so that you may spend the rest of your time…” But it is better to take it as explanatory of the last phrase in v. 1: what it means to be finished with sin.
  36. 1 Peter 4:3 tn Grk “the Gentiles,” used here of those who are not God’s people.
  37. 1 Peter 4:3 tn Grk “to accomplish the desire of the Gentiles.”
  38. 1 Peter 4:3 tn Grk “having gone along,” referring to the readers’ behavior in time past.
  39. 1 Peter 4:3 tn According to BDAG 857 s.v. πότος the term refers to a social gathering at which wine is served, hence “drinking parties” (cf. TEV, NASB). However, the collocation with the other terms in v. 4 suggests something less sophisticated and more along the lines of wild and frenzied drinking bouts.
  40. 1 Peter 4:3 tn The Greek words here all occur in the plural to describe their common practice in the past.
  41. 1 Peter 4:4 tn Grk “in/by which,” referring to the change of behavior described in v. 3. The unbelievers are astonished by the readers’ moral transformation. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  42. 1 Peter 4:4 tn Or “are surprised, are taken aback.” The same verb occurs in 4:12.
  43. 1 Peter 4:4 tn Grk “blaspheming,” giving the result of their astonishment. Here the target of their “blasphemy/vilification” is not God but the Christian.
  44. 1 Peter 4:5 tn Grk “give an account to.”
  45. 1 Peter 4:5 tn Grk “the one”; the referent (Jesus Christ) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  46. 1 Peter 4:6 tn Grk “since for this purpose the gospel was preached even to the dead,” referring to the purpose described in the clause to follow in v. 6b.
  47. 1 Peter 4:6 sn In context the phrase those who are dead refers to those now dead who had accepted the gospel while they were still living and had suffered persecution for their faith. Though they “suffered judgment” in this earthly life (i.e., they died, in the midst of physical abuse from the ungodly), they will enjoy life from God in the spiritual, heavenly realm because of the gospel (v. 6b). It clearly does not assume a second chance for conversion offered to unbelievers who had died; why would Peter urge people to suffer in this life for the sake of the gospel if he believed that mercy would be extended to all the dead in the hereafter (cf. 2:7-8; 4:1-5, 12-19)?
  48. 1 Peter 4:6 tn Grk “so that they may be judged…but may live.” Greek emphasizes the contrast between these two clauses more than can be easily expressed in English.
  49. 1 Peter 4:6 tn Or “in their earthly lives,” since “flesh” here denotes the physical, earthly life. The phrase “in the flesh” is retained to preserve the links with 3:18 and 4:1 which use the same wording.
  50. 1 Peter 4:6 tn Grk “according to men.”
  51. 1 Peter 4:6 tn Grk “in spirit,” referring to the heavenly, eternal realm of existence (cf. 3:18).
  52. 1 Peter 4:6 tn Grk “according to God.”
New English Translation (NET)

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Psalm 119:65-80

ט (Tet)

65 You are good[a] to your servant,
O Lord, just as you promised.[b]
66 Teach me proper discernment[c] and understanding.
For I consider your commands to be reliable.[d]
67 Before I was afflicted I used to stray off,[e]
but now I keep your instructions.[f]
68 You are good and you do good.
Teach me your statutes.
69 Arrogant people smear my reputation with lies,[g]
but I observe your precepts with all my heart.
70 Their hearts are calloused,[h]
but I find delight in your law.
71 It was good for me to suffer,
so that I might learn your statutes.
72 The law you have revealed is more important to me
than thousands of pieces of gold and silver.[i]

י (Yod)

73 Your hands made me and formed me.[j]
Give me understanding so that I might learn[k] your commands.
74 Your loyal followers will be glad when they see me,[l]
for I find hope in your word.
75 I know, Lord, that your regulations[m] are just.
You disciplined me because of your faithful devotion to me.[n]
76 May your loyal love console me,
as you promised your servant.[o]
77 May I experience your compassion,[p] so I might live.
For I find delight in your law.
78 May the arrogant be humiliated, for they have slandered me.[q]
But I meditate on your precepts.
79 May your loyal followers[r] turn to me,
those who know your rules.
80 May I be fully committed to your statutes,[s]
so that I might not be ashamed.


  1. Psalm 119:65 tn Heb “do good.”
  2. Psalm 119:65 tn Heb “according to your word.”
  3. Psalm 119:66 tn Heb “goodness of taste.” Here “taste” refers to moral and ethical discernment.
  4. Psalm 119:66 tn Heb “for I believe in your commands.”
  5. Psalm 119:67 tn Heb “before I suffered, I was straying off.”
  6. Psalm 119:67 tn Heb “your word.”
  7. Psalm 119:69 tn Heb “smear over me a lie.”
  8. Psalm 119:70 tn Heb “their heart is insensitive like fat.”
  9. Psalm 119:72 tn Heb “better to me [is] the law of your mouth than thousands of gold and silver.”
  10. Psalm 119:73 tn Heb “made me and established me.” The two verbs also appear together in Deut 32:6, where God, compared to a father, is said to have “made and established” Israel.
  11. Psalm 119:73 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
  12. Psalm 119:74 tn Heb “those who fear you will see me and rejoice.”
  13. Psalm 119:75 tn In this context (note the second line) the Hebrew term מִשְׁפָּטִים (mishpatim), which so often refers to the regulations of God’s law elsewhere in this psalm, may refer instead to his decisions or disciplinary judgment.
  14. Psalm 119:75 tn Heb “and [in] faithfulness you afflicted me.”
  15. Psalm 119:76 tn Heb “according to your word to your servant.”
  16. Psalm 119:77 tn Heb “and may your compassion come to me.”
  17. Psalm 119:78 tn Heb “for [with] falsehood they have denied me justice.”
  18. Psalm 119:79 tn Heb “those who fear you.”
  19. Psalm 119:80 tn Heb “may my heart be complete in your statutes.”
New English Translation (NET)

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Proverbs 28:14

14 Blessed is the one who is always cautious,[a]
but whoever hardens his heart[b] will fall into evil.


  1. Proverbs 28:14 tn Most commentators (and some English versions, e.g., NIV) assume that the participle מְפַחֵד (mefakhed, “fears”) means “fears the Lord,” even though “the Lord” is not present in the text. Such an assumption would be more convincing if the word יִרְאַת (yirʾat) had been used. It is possible that the verse refers to fearing sin or its consequences. In other words, the one who is always apprehensive about the nature and consequences of sin will avoid sin and find God’s blessing. Of course the assumption that the phrase means “fear the Lord” could be correct as well. There would be little difference in the outcome; in either case sin would be avoided.
  2. Proverbs 28:14 sn The one who “hardens his heart” in this context is the person who refuses to fear sin and its consequences. The image of the “hard heart” is one of a stubborn will, unyielding and unbending (cf. NCV, TEV, NLT). This individual will fall into sin.
New English Translation (NET)

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