Israel Crosses the Jordan
3 Bright and early the next morning Joshua and the Israelites left Shittim and came to the Jordan.[a] They camped there before crossing the river.[b] 2 After three days the leaders went through the camp 3 and commanded the people: “When you see the ark of the covenant of the Lord your God[c] being carried by the Levitical priests, you must leave here[d] and walk[e] behind it. 4 But stay about 3,000 feet behind it.[f] Keep your distance[g] so you can see[h] which way you should go, for you have not traveled this way before.”
5 Joshua told the people, “Ritually consecrate yourselves, for tomorrow the Lord will perform miraculous deeds among you.” 6 Joshua told the priests, “Pick up the ark of the covenant and pass on ahead of the people.” So they picked up the ark of the covenant and went ahead of the people.
7 The Lord told Joshua, “This very day I will begin to honor you before all Israel,[i] so they will know that I am with you just as I was with Moses. 8 Instruct the priests carrying the ark of the covenant, ‘When you reach the bank of the Jordan River,[j] wade into the water.’”[k]
9 Joshua told the Israelites, “Come here and listen to the words of the Lord your God!” 10 Joshua continued,[l] “This is how you will know the living God is among you and that he will truly drive out before you the Canaanites, Hittites, Hivites, Perizzites, Girgashites, Amorites, and Jebusites. 11 Look! The ark of the covenant of the Lord[m] of the whole earth is ready to enter the Jordan ahead of you. 12 Now select for yourselves twelve men from the tribes of Israel, one per tribe. 13 When the feet[n] of the priests carrying the ark of the Lord, the Lord[o] of the whole earth, touch[p] the water of the Jordan, the water coming downstream toward you will stop flowing and pile up.”[q]
14 So when the people left their tents to cross the Jordan, the priests carrying the ark of the covenant went[r] ahead of them. 15 When the ones carrying the ark reached the Jordan, and the feet of the priests carrying the ark touched the surface[s] of the water—(the Jordan is at flood stage all during harvest time)[t]— 16 the water coming downstream toward them stopped flowing.[u] It piled up far upstream[v] at Adam (the city near Zarethan); there was no water at all flowing to the sea of the rift valley (the Salt Sea).[w] The people crossed the river opposite Jericho. 17 The priests carrying the ark of the covenant of the Lord stood firmly on dry ground in the middle of the Jordan. All Israel crossed over on dry ground until the entire nation was on the other side.[x]
Israel Commemorates the Crossing
4 When the entire nation was on the other side,[y] the Lord told Joshua, 2 “Select for yourselves twelve men from the people, one per tribe. 3 Instruct them, ‘Pick up twelve stones from the middle of the Jordan, from the very place where the priests[z] stand firmly, and carry them over with you and put them in the place where you camp tonight.’”
4 Joshua summoned the twelve men he had appointed from the Israelites, one per tribe. 5 Joshua told them, “Go in front of the ark of the Lord your God to the middle of the Jordan. Each of you is to put a stone on his shoulder, according to the number of the Israelite tribes. 6 The stones[aa] will be a reminder to you.[ab] When your children ask someday, ‘Why are these stones important to you?’ 7 tell them how the water of the Jordan stopped flowing[ac] before the ark of the covenant of the Lord. When it crossed the Jordan, the water of the Jordan stopped flowing.[ad] These stones will be a lasting memorial for the Israelites.”
8 The Israelites did just as Joshua commanded. They picked up twelve stones, according to the number of the Israelite tribes, from the middle of the Jordan as the Lord had instructed Joshua. They carried them over with them to the camp and put them there. 9 Joshua also set up twelve stones[ae] in the middle of the Jordan in the very place where the priests carrying the ark of the covenant stood. They remain there to this very day.
10 Now the priests carrying the ark of the covenant were standing in the middle of the Jordan until everything the Lord had commanded Joshua to tell the people was accomplished, in accordance with all that Moses had commanded Joshua. The people went across quickly, 11 and when all the people had finished crossing, the ark of the Lord and the priests crossed as the people looked on.[af] 12 The Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh crossed over armed for battle ahead of the Israelites, just as Moses had instructed them. 13 About 40,000 battle-ready troops[ag] marched past the Lord to fight[ah] on the rift valley plains[ai] of Jericho. 14 That day the Lord brought honor to Joshua before all Israel. They respected[aj] him all his life,[ak] just as they had respected[al] Moses.
15 The Lord told Joshua, 16 “Instruct the priests carrying the ark of the covenantal laws[am] to come up from the Jordan.” 17 So Joshua instructed the priests, “Come up from the Jordan!” 18 The priests carrying the ark of the covenant of the Lord came up from the middle of the Jordan, and as soon as they set foot on dry land,[an] the water of the Jordan flowed again and returned to flood stage.[ao]
19 The people went up from the Jordan on the tenth day of the first month[ap] and camped in Gilgal on the eastern border of Jericho. 20 Now Joshua set up in Gilgal the[aq] twelve stones they had taken from the Jordan. 21 He told the Israelites, “When your children someday ask their fathers, ‘What do these stones represent?’[ar] 22 explain to[as] your children, ‘Israel crossed the Jordan River[at] on dry ground.’ 23 For the Lord your God dried up the water of the Jordan before you while you crossed over. It was just like when the Lord your God dried up the Red Sea before us while we crossed it.[au] 24 He has done this so[av] all the nations[aw] of the earth might recognize the Lord’s power[ax] and so you might always obey[ay] the Lord your God.”
- Joshua 3:1 tn Heb “And Joshua arose early in the morning and he and the Israelites left Shittim and came to the Jordan.”
- Joshua 3:1 tn The words “the river,” though not in the Hebrew text, have been supplied in the translation for clarity.
- Joshua 3:3 sn The ark of the covenant refers to the wooden chest that symbolized God’s presence among his covenant people.
- Joshua 3:3 tn Heb “set out from your place.”
- Joshua 3:3 tn Or “march.”
- Joshua 3:4 tn Heb “But there should be a distance between you and it, about 2,000 cubits in measurement.”sn The precise distance is uncertain, but the measurement designated אַמָּה (ʾammah, “cubit”) was probably equivalent to approximately 18 inches, or 45 cm) in length.
- Joshua 3:4 tn Heb “do not approach it.”
- Joshua 3:4 tn Heb “know.”
- Joshua 3:7 tn Or more literally, “to exalt you in the eyes of all Israel.”
- Joshua 3:8 tn Heb “the edge of the waters of the Jordan.” The word “River” is not in the Hebrew text, but has been supplied for clarity.
- Joshua 3:8 tn Heb “stand in the Jordan.” Here the repetition of the word “Jordan” would be redundant according to contemporary English style, so it was not included in the translation.
- Joshua 3:10 tn Heb “said.”
- Joshua 3:11 tn Or “Ruler”; or “Master.”
- Joshua 3:13 tn Heb “the soles of the feet.”
- Joshua 3:13 tn Or “Ruler”; or “Master.”
- Joshua 3:13 tn Or “rest in.”
- Joshua 3:13 tn Heb “the waters of the Jordan, the waters descending from above, will be cut off so that they will stand in one pile.”
- Joshua 3:14 tn The verb, though not in the Hebrew, is added for clarification.
- Joshua 3:15 tn Heb “dipped into the edge.”
- Joshua 3:15 tn Heb “and the Jordan overflows all its banks all the days of harvest.”sn The lengthy description of the priests’ arrival at the Jordan and the parenthetical reminder that the Jordan was at flood stage delay the climax of the story and add to its dramatic buildup.
- Joshua 3:16 tn Heb “the waters descending from above stood still.”
- Joshua 3:16 tn Heb “they stood in one pile very far away.”
- Joshua 3:16 tn Heb “the [waters] descending… were completely cut off.”sn The Salt Sea is an ancient name for the Dead Sea.
- Joshua 3:17 tn Heb “and all Israel was crossing over on dry ground until all the nation had finished crossing the Jordan.”
- Joshua 4:1 tn Heb “And when all the nation had finished crossing the Jordan.”
- Joshua 4:3 tn Heb “the feet of the priests.”
- Joshua 4:6 tn Heb “that this may be”; the referent of “this” (the twelve stones) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Joshua 4:6 tn Heb “in order that this might be a sign among you.”
- Joshua 4:7 tn Heb “were cut off from before.”
- Joshua 4:7 tn Heb “how the waters descending from above stood still.”
- Joshua 4:9 tn Here “also” has been supplied in the translation to make it clear (as indicated by v. 20) that these are not the same stones the men took from the river bed.
- Joshua 4:11 tn Heb “in the presence of the people.”
- Joshua 4:13 tn Heb “men equipped for battle.”
- Joshua 4:13 tn Heb “for war.”
- Joshua 4:13 sn The עֲרָבָה (ʿaravah, “rift valley”) extends from Galilee to the Gulf of Aqaba. The עַרְבוֹת (ʿarevot) of Jericho” refer to the parts of the Jordan Valley in the vicinity of Jericho (see HALOT 880 s.v. עֲרָבָה). The region is characterized by gently sloping plains which descend about 450 feet over the five miles from Jericho to the Jordan. Many translation say simply the “plains of Jericho” for the portion west of the Jordan and “plains of Moab” for the eastern portion. The translation here clarifies that the plains are part of the rift valley basin.
- Joshua 4:14 tn Heb “feared.”
- Joshua 4:14 tn Heb “all the days of his life.”
- Joshua 4:14 tn Heb “had feared.”
- Joshua 4:16 tn Traditionally, “the ark of the testimony,” another name for the ark of the covenant. The Hebrew term עֵדוּת (ʿedut, “testimony” or “witness”) here refers to the Mosaic covenant and the body of stipulations contained within it (see HALOT 791 s.v. 2).
- Joshua 4:18 tn Heb “and the soles of the feet of the priests were brought up to the dry land.”
- Joshua 4:18 tn Heb “and the waters of the Jordan returned to their place and went as formerly over their banks.”sn Verses 15-18 give a more detailed account of the priests’ crossing that had been briefly described in v. 11.
- Joshua 4:19 sn The first month was the month Abib (= late March-early April in the modern calendar). The preparations for Passover also began on the tenth day of the first month (Exod 12:2-3).
- Joshua 4:20 tn Heb “these,” referring specifically to the twelve stones mentioned in vv. 3-7.
- Joshua 4:21 tn Heb “What are these stones?”
- Joshua 4:22 tn Heb “make known to.”
- Joshua 4:22 tn Heb “crossed this Jordan”; the word “River” is not in the Hebrew text, but has been supplied to clarify the meaning.
- Joshua 4:23 tn Heb “just as the Lord your God did to the Red Sea when he dried [it] up before us while we crossed over.”
- Joshua 4:24 tn Heb “in order that.”
- Joshua 4:24 tn Or “peoples.”
- Joshua 4:24 tn Heb “know the hand of the Lord that it is strong.”
- Joshua 4:24 tn Heb “fear.”
On Seeking Seats of Honor
7 Then[a] when Jesus[b] noticed how the guests[c] chose the places of honor,[d] he told them a parable. He said to them, 8 “When you are invited by someone to a wedding feast,[e] do not take[f] the place of honor, because a person more distinguished than you may have been invited by your host.[g] 9 So[h] the host who invited both of you will come and say to you, ‘Give this man your place.’ Then, ashamed,[i] you will begin to move to the least important[j] place. 10 But when you are invited, go and take the least important place, so that when your host[k] approaches he will say to you, ‘Friend, move up here to a better place.’[l] Then you will be honored in the presence of all who share the meal with you. 11 For everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, but[m] the one who humbles[n] himself will be exalted.”
12 He[o] said also to the man[p] who had invited him, “When you host a dinner or a banquet,[q] don’t invite your friends or your brothers or your relatives or rich neighbors so you can be invited by them in return and get repaid. 13 But when you host an elaborate meal,[r] invite the poor, the crippled,[s] the lame, and[t] the blind.[u] 14 Then[v] you will be blessed,[w] because they cannot repay you, for you will be repaid[x] at the resurrection of the righteous.”
The Parable of the Great Banquet
15 When[y] one of those at the meal with Jesus[z] heard this, he said to him, “Blessed is everyone[aa] who will feast[ab] in the kingdom of God!”[ac] 16 But Jesus[ad] said to him, “A man once gave a great banquet[ae] and invited[af] many guests.[ag] 17 At[ah] the time for the banquet[ai] he sent his slave[aj] to tell those who had been invited, ‘Come, because everything is now ready.’ 18 But one after another they all[ak] began to make excuses.[al] The first said to him, ‘I have bought a field,[am] and I must go out and see it. Please excuse me.’[an] 19 Another[ao] said, ‘I have bought five yoke of oxen,[ap] and I am going out[aq] to examine them. Please excuse me.’ 20 Another[ar] said, ‘I just got married, and I cannot come.’[as] 21 So[at] the slave came back and reported this to his master. Then the master of the household was furious[au] and said to his slave, ‘Go out quickly[av] to the streets and alleys of the city,[aw] and bring in the poor,[ax] the crippled,[ay] the blind, and the lame.’ 22 Then[az] the slave said, ‘Sir, what you instructed has been done, and there is still room.’[ba] 23 So[bb] the master said to his[bc] slave, ‘Go out to the highways[bd] and country roads[be] and urge[bf] people[bg] to come in, so that my house will be filled.[bh] 24 For I tell you, not one of those individuals[bi] who were invited[bj] will taste my banquet!’”[bk]
Counting the Cost
25 Now large crowds[bl] were accompanying Jesus,[bm] and turning to them he said, 26 “If anyone comes to me and does not hate[bn] his own father and mother, and wife and children, and brothers and sisters, and even his own life,[bo] he cannot be my disciple. 27 Whoever does not carry his own cross[bp] and follow[bq] me cannot be my disciple. 28 For which of you, wanting to build a tower, doesn’t sit down[br] first and compute the cost[bs] to see if he has enough money to complete it? 29 Otherwise,[bt] when he has laid[bu] a foundation and is not able to finish the tower,[bv] all who see it[bw] will begin to make fun of[bx] him. 30 They will say,[by] ‘This man[bz] began to build and was not able to finish!’[ca] 31 Or what king, going out to confront another king in battle, will not sit down[cb] first and determine whether he is able with 10,000 to oppose[cc] the one coming against him with 20,000? 32 If he cannot succeed,[cd] he will send a representative[ce] while the other is still a long way off and ask for terms of peace.[cf] 33 In the same way therefore not one of you can be my disciple if he does not renounce all his own possessions.[cg]
34 “Salt[ch] is good, but if salt loses its flavor,[ci] how can its flavor be restored? 35 It is of no value[cj] for the soil or for the manure pile; it is to be thrown out.[ck] The one who has ears to hear had better listen!”[cl]
- Luke 14:7 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Luke 14:7 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 14:7 tn Grk “those who were invited.”
- Luke 14:7 tn Or “the best places.” The “places of honor” at the meal would be those closest to the host.
- Luke 14:8 tn Or “banquet.” This may not refer only to a wedding feast, because this term can have broader sense (note the usage in Esth 2:18; 9:22 LXX). However, this difference does not affect the point of the parable.
- Luke 14:8 tn Grk “do not recline in the place of honor.” 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.
- Luke 14:8 tn Grk “by him”; the referent (the host) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 14:9 tn Grk “host, and.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate this action is a result of the situation described in the previous verse. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
- Luke 14:9 tn Or “then in disgrace”; Grk “with shame.” In this culture avoiding shame was important.
- Luke 14:9 tn Grk “lowest place” (also in the repetition of the phrase in the next verse).
- Luke 14:10 tn Grk “the one who invited you.”
- Luke 14:10 tn Grk “Go up higher.” This means to move to a more important place.
- Luke 14:11 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context, which involves the reversal of expected roles.
- Luke 14:11 sn The point of the statement the one who humbles himself will be exalted is humility and the reversal imagery used to underline it is common: Luke 1:52-53; 6:21; 10:15; 18:14.
- Luke 14:12 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
- Luke 14:12 sn That is, the leader of the Pharisees (v. 1).
- Luke 14:12 tn The meaning of the two terms for meals here, ἄριστον (ariston) and δεῖπνον (deipnon), essentially overlap (L&N 23.22). Translators usually try to find two terms for a meal to use as equivalents (e.g., lunch and dinner, dinner and supper, etc.). In this translation “dinner” and “banquet” have been used, since the expected presence of rich neighbors later in the verse suggests a rather more elaborate occasion than an ordinary meal.
- Luke 14:13 tn This term, δοχή (dochē), is a third term for a meal (see v. 12) that could also be translated “banquet, feast.”
- Luke 14:13 sn Normally the term means crippled as a result of being maimed or mutilated (L&N 23.177).
- Luke 14:13 tn Here “and” has been supplied between the last two elements in the series in keeping with English style.
- Luke 14:13 sn This list of needy is like Luke 7:22. See Deut 14:28-29; 16:11-14; 26:11-13.
- Luke 14:14 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate that this follows from the preceding action. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
- Luke 14:14 sn You will be blessed. God notes and approves of such generosity.
- Luke 14:14 sn The passive verb will be repaid looks at God’s commendation.
- Luke 14:15 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
- Luke 14:15 tn The reference to “Jesus” has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 14:15 tn Grk “whoever” (the indefinite relative pronoun). This has been translated as “everyone who” to conform to contemporary English style.
- Luke 14:15 tn Or “will dine”; Grk “eat bread.” This refers to those who enjoy the endless fellowship of God’s coming rule.
- Luke 14:15 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus’ teaching. The nature of the kingdom of God in the NT and in Jesus’ teaching has long been debated by interpreters and scholars, with discussion primarily centering around the nature of the kingdom (earthly, heavenly, or both) and the kingdom’s arrival (present, future, or both). An additional major issue concerns the relationship between the kingdom of God and the person and work of Jesus himself. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.
- Luke 14:16 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 14:16 tn Or “dinner.”
- Luke 14:16 sn Presumably those invited would have sent a reply with the invitation stating their desire to attend, much like a modern R.S.V.P. Then they waited for the servant to announce the beginning of the celebration (D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 2:1272).
- Luke 14:16 tn The word “guests” is not in the Greek text but is implied.
- Luke 14:17 tn Grk “And at.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 14:17 tn Or “dinner.”
- Luke 14:17 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 7:2.
- Luke 14:18 tn Or “all unanimously” (BDAG 107 s.v. ἀπό 6). “One after another” is suggested by L&N 61.2.
- Luke 14:18 sn To make excuses and cancel at this point was an insult in the culture of the time. Regardless of customs concerning responses to invitations, refusal at this point was rude.
- Luke 14:18 sn I have bought a field. An examination of newly bought land was a common practice. It was this person’s priority.
- Luke 14:18 sn The expression Please excuse me is probably a polite way of refusing, given the dynamics of the situation, although it is important to note that an initial acceptance had probably been indicated and it was now a bit late for a refusal. The semantic equivalent of the phrase may well be “please accept my apologies.”
- Luke 14:19 tn Grk “And another.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 14:19 sn Five yoke of oxen. This was a wealthy man, because the normal farmer had one or two yoke of oxen.
- Luke 14:19 tn The translation “going out” for πορεύομαι (poreuomai) is used because “going” in this context could be understood to mean “I am about to” rather than the correct nuance, “I am on my way to.”
- Luke 14:20 tn Grk “And another.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 14:20 sn I just got married, and I cannot come. There is no request to be excused here; just a refusal. Why this disqualifies attendance is not clear. The OT freed a newly married man from certain responsibilities such as serving in the army (Deut 20:7; 24:5), but that would hardly apply to a banquet. The invitation is not respected in any of the three cases.
- Luke 14:21 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the preceding responses.
- Luke 14:21 tn Grk “being furious, said.” The participle ὀργισθείς (orgistheis) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
- Luke 14:21 sn It was necessary to go out quickly because the banquet was already prepared. All the food would spoil if not eaten immediately.
- Luke 14:21 tn Or “town.”
- Luke 14:21 sn The poor, the crippled, the blind and the lame. Note how the list matches v. 13, illustrating that point. Note also how the party goes on; it is not postponed until a later date. Instead new guests are invited.
- Luke 14:21 tn Grk “and the crippled.” Normally crippled as a result of being maimed or mutilated (L&N 23.177). Καί (kai) has not been translated here and before the following category (Grk “and the blind and the lame”) since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
- Luke 14:22 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the order of events within the parable.
- Luke 14:22 sn And still there is room. This comment suggests the celebration was quite a big one, picturing the openness of God’s grace.
- Luke 14:23 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the master’s response to the slave’s report.
- Luke 14:23 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).
- Luke 14:23 sn Go out to the highways and country roads. This suggests the inclusion of people outside the town, even beyond the needy (poor, crippled, blind, and lame) in the town, and so is an allusion to the inclusion of the Gentiles.
- Luke 14:23 tn The Greek word φραγμός (phragmos) refers to a fence, wall, or hedge surrounding a vineyard (BDAG 1064 s.v. 1). “Highways” and “country roads” probably refer not to separate places, but to the situation outside the town where the rural roads run right alongside the hedges or fences surrounding the fields (cf. J. A. Fitzmyer, Luke [AB], 1057).
- Luke 14:23 tn Traditionally “force” or “compel,” but according to BDAG 60 s.v. ἀναγκάζω 2 this is a weakened nuance: “strongly urge/invite.” The meaning in this context is more like “persuade.”
- Luke 14:23 tn The word “people” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
- Luke 14:23 sn So that my house will be filled. God will bless many people.
- Luke 14:24 tn The Greek word here is ἀνήρ (anēr), which frequently stresses males or husbands (in contrast to women or wives). However, the emphasis in the present context is on identifying these individuals as the ones previously invited, examples of which were given in vv. 18-20. Cf. also BDAG 79 s.v. ἀνήρ 2.
- Luke 14:24 sn None of those individuals who were invited. This is both the point and the warning. To be a part of the original invitation does not mean one automatically has access to blessing. One must respond when the summons comes in order to participate. The summons came in the person of Jesus and his proclamation of the kingdom. The statement here refers to the fact that many in Israel will not be blessed with participation, for they have ignored the summons when it came.
- Luke 14:24 tn Or “dinner.”
- Luke 14:25 sn It is important to note that the following remarks are not just to disciples, but to the large crowds who were following Jesus.
- Luke 14:25 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 14:26 tn This figurative use operates on a relative scale. God is to be loved more than family or self.
- Luke 14:26 tn Grk “his own soul,” but ψυχή (psuchē) is frequently used of one’s physical life. It clearly has that meaning in this context.
- Luke 14:27 sn It was customary practice in a Roman crucifixion for the prisoner to be made to carry his own cross. Jesus is speaking figuratively here in the context of rejection. If the priority is not one’s allegiance to Jesus, then one will not follow him in the face of possible rejection; see Luke 9:23.
- Luke 14:27 tn Grk “and come after.” In combination with the verb ἔρχομαι (erchomai) the improper preposition ὀπίσω (opisō) means “follow.”
- Luke 14:28 tn The participle καθίσας (kathisas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
- Luke 14:28 tn The first illustration involves checking to see if enough funds exist to build a watchtower. Both ψηφίζω (psēphizō, “compute”) and δαπάνη (dapanē, “cost”) are economic terms.
- Luke 14:29 tn Grk “to complete it, lest.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation and ἵνα μήποτε (hina mēpote, “lest”) has been translated as “Otherwise.”
- Luke 14:29 tn The participle θέντος (thentos) has been taken temporally.
- Luke 14:29 tn The words “the tower” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
- Luke 14:29 tn The word “it” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
- Luke 14:29 tn Or “mock,” “ridicule.” The person who did not plan ahead becomes an object of joking and ridicule.
- Luke 14:30 tn Grk “make fun of him, saying.”
- Luke 14:30 sn The phrase this man is often used in Luke in a derogatory sense; see “this one” and expressions like it in Luke 5:21; 7:39; 13:32; 23:4, 14, 22, 35.
- Luke 14:30 sn The failure to finish the building project leads to embarrassment (in a culture where avoiding public shame was extremely important). The half completed tower testified to poor preparation and planning.
- Luke 14:31 tn The participle καθίσας (kathisas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
- Luke 14:31 tn On the meaning of this verb see also L&N 55.3, “to meet in battle, to face in battle.”
- Luke 14:32 tn Grk “And if not.” Here δέ (de) has not been translated; “succeed” is implied and has been supplied in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 14:32 tn Grk “a messenger.”
- Luke 14:32 sn This image is slightly different from the former one about the tower (vv. 28-30). The first part of the illustration (sit down first and determine) deals with preparation. The second part of the illustration (ask for terms of peace) has to do with recognizing who is stronger. This could well suggest thinking about what refusing the “stronger one” (God) might mean, and thus constitutes a warning. Achieving peace with God, the more powerful king, is the point of the illustration.
- Luke 14:33 tn Grk “Likewise therefore every one of you who does not renounce all his own possessions cannot be my disciple.” The complex double negation is potentially confusing to the modern reader and has been simplified in the translation. See L&N 57.70.sn The application of the saying is this: Discipleship requires that God be in first place. The reference to renunciation of all his own possessions refers to all earthly attachments that have first place.
- Luke 14:34 tn Grk “Now salt…”; here οὖν has not been translated.sn Salt was used as seasoning or fertilizer (BDAG 41 s.v. ἅλας a), or as a preservative. If salt ceased to be useful, it was thrown away. With this illustration Jesus warned about a disciple who ceased to follow him.
- Luke 14:34 sn The difficulty of this saying is understanding how salt could lose its flavor since its chemical properties cannot change. It is thus often assumed that Jesus was referring to chemically impure salt, perhaps a natural salt which, when exposed to the elements, had all the genuine salt leached out, leaving only the sediment or impurities behind. Others have suggested the background of the saying is the use of salt blocks by Arab bakers to line the floor of their ovens: Under the intense heat these blocks would eventually crystallize and undergo a change in chemical composition, finally being thrown out as unserviceable. A saying in the Talmud (b. Bekhorot 8b) attributed to R. Joshua ben Chananja (ca. a.d. 90), recounts how when he was asked the question “When salt loses its flavor, how can it be made salty again?” is said to have replied, “By salting it with the afterbirth of a mule.” He was then asked, “Then does the mule (being sterile) bear young?” to which he replied: “Can salt lose its flavor?” The point appears to be, both are impossible. The saying, while admittedly late, suggests that culturally the loss of flavor by salt was regarded as an impossibility. Genuine salt can never lose its flavor. In this case the saying by Jesus here may be similar to Matt 19:24, where it is likewise impossible for the camel to go through the eye of a sewing needle.
- Luke 14:35 tn Or “It is not useful” (L&N 65.32).
- Luke 14:35 tn Grk “they throw it out.” The third person plural with unspecified subject is a circumlocution for the passive here.
- Luke 14:35 tn The translation “had better listen!” captures the force of the third person imperative more effectively than the traditional “let him hear,” which sounds more like a permissive than an imperative to the modern English reader. This was Jesus’ common expression to listen and heed carefully (cf. Matt 11:15; 13:9, 43; Mark 4:9, 23; Luke 8:8).
For the music director, according to the shushan-eduth style;[b] a psalm of Asaph.
80 O Shepherd of Israel, pay attention,
you who lead Joseph like a flock of sheep.
You who sit enthroned above the cherubim,[c] reveal your splendor.[d]
2 In the sight of Ephraim, Benjamin, and Manasseh reveal[e] your power.
Come and deliver us.[f]
3 O God, restore us.
Smile on us.[g] Then we will be delivered.[h]
4 O Lord God of Heaven’s Armies,[i]
how long will you remain angry at your people while they pray to you?[j]
5 You have given them tears as food;[k]
you have made them drink tears by the measure.[l]
6 You have made our neighbors dislike us,[m]
and our enemies insult us.
7 O God of Heaven’s Armies,[n] restore us.
Smile on us.[o] Then we will be delivered.[p]
8 You uprooted a vine[q] from Egypt;
you drove out nations and transplanted it.
9 You cleared the ground for it;[r]
it took root,[s]
and filled the land.
10 The mountains were covered by its shadow,
the highest cedars[t] by its branches.
11 Its branches reached the Mediterranean Sea,[u]
and its shoots the Euphrates River.[v]
12 Why did you break down its walls,[w]
so that all who pass by pluck its fruit?[x]
13 The wild boars of the forest ruin it;[y]
the insects[z] of the field feed on it.
14 O God of Heaven’s Armies,[aa] come back.
Look down from heaven and take notice.
Take care of this vine,
15 the root[ab] your right hand planted,
the shoot you made to grow.[ac]
16 It is burned[ad] and cut down.
May those who did this die because you are displeased with them.[ae]
17 May you give support to the one you have chosen,[af]
to the one whom you raised up for yourself.[ag]
18 Then we will not turn away from you.
Revive us and we will pray to you.[ah]
19 O Lord God of Heaven’s Armies,[ai] restore us.
Smile on us.[aj] Then we will be delivered.[ak]
- Psalm 80:1 sn Psalm 80. The psalmist laments Israel’s demise and asks the Lord to show favor toward his people, as he did in earlier times.
- Psalm 80:1 tn The Hebrew expression shushan-eduth means “lily of the testimony.” It may refer to a particular music style or to a tune title. See the superscription to Ps 60.
- Psalm 80:1 sn Cherubim are winged angels. As depicted in the OT, they possess both human and animal (lion, ox, and eagle) characteristics (see Ezek 1:10; 10:14, 21; 41:18). They are pictured as winged creatures (Exod 25:20; 37:9; 1 Kgs 6:24-27; Ezek 10:8, 19) and serve as the very throne of God when the ark of the covenant is in view (Ps 99:1; see Num 7:89; 1 Sam 4:4; 2 Sam 6:2; 2 Kgs 19:15). The picture of the Lord seated on the cherubim suggests they might be used by him as a vehicle, a function they carry out in Ezek 1:22-28 (the “living creatures” mentioned here are identified as cherubim in Ezek 10:20). In Ps 18:10 the image of a cherub serves to personify the wind.
- Psalm 80:1 tn Heb “shine forth.”sn Reveal your splendor. The psalmist may allude to Deut 33:2, where God “shines forth” from Sinai and comes to superintend Moses’ blessing of the tribes.
- Psalm 80:2 tn Heb “stir up”; “arouse.”
- Psalm 80:2 tn Heb “come for our deliverance.”
- Psalm 80:3 tn The idiom “cause your face to shine” probably refers to a smile (see Eccl 8:1), which in turn suggests favor and blessing (see Num 6:25; Pss 4:6; 31:16; 44:3; 67:1; 89:15; Dan 9:17).
- Psalm 80:3 tn Heb “cause your face to shine in order that we may be delivered.” After the imperative, the cohortative with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose/result.
- Psalm 80:4 tn Heb “Lord, God, hosts.” One expects the construct form אֱלֹהֵי (ʾelohe) before צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot; “hosts”; see Ps 89:9), but יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים (yehvah ʾelohim) precedes צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot) in Pss 59:5 and 84:8 as well. In this context the term “hosts” has been rendered “Heaven’s Armies.”
- Psalm 80:4 tn Heb “How long will you remain angry during the prayer of your people.” Some take the preposition ב (bet) in an adversative sense here (“at/against the prayer of your people”), but the temporal sense is preferable. The psalmist expects persistent prayer to pacify God.
- Psalm 80:5 tn Heb “you have fed them the food of tears.”
- Psalm 80:5 tn Heb “[by] the third part [of a measure].” The Hebrew term שָׁלִישׁ (shalish, “third part [of a measure]”) occurs only here and in Isa 40:12.
- Psalm 80:6 tn Heb “you have made us an object of contention to our neighbors.”
- Psalm 80:7 tn Heb “O God, hosts.” One expects the construct form אֱלֹהֵי before צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot, “hosts”; see Ps 89:9), but יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים (yehvah ʾelohim) precedes צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot) in Pss 59:5 and 84:8 as well. See also v. 4 for a similar construction.
- Psalm 80:7 tn The idiom “cause your face to shine” probably refers to a smile (see Eccl 8:1), which in turn suggests favor and blessing (see Num 6:25; Pss 4:6; 31:16; 44:3; 67:1; 89:15; Dan 9:17).
- Psalm 80:7 tn Heb “cause your face to shine in order that we may be delivered.” After the imperative, the cohortative with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose/result.
- Psalm 80:8 sn The vine is here a metaphor for Israel (see Ezek 17:6-10; Hos 10:1).
- Psalm 80:9 tn Heb “you cleared away before it.”
- Psalm 80:9 tn Heb “and it took root [with] its roots.”
- Psalm 80:10 tn Heb “cedars of God.” The divine name אֵל (ʾel, “God”) is here used in an idiomatic manner to indicate the superlative.
- Psalm 80:11 tn Heb “to [the] sea.” The “sea” refers here to the Mediterranean Sea.
- Psalm 80:11 tn Heb “to [the] river.” The “river” is the Euphrates River in Mesopotamia. Israel expanded both to the west and to the east.
- Psalm 80:12 sn The protective walls of the metaphorical vineyard are in view here (see Isa 5:5).
- Psalm 80:12 tn Heb “pluck it.”
- Psalm 80:13 tn The Hebrew verb כִּרְסֵם (kirsem, “to eat away; to ruin”) occurs only here in the OT.
- Psalm 80:13 tn The precise referent of the Hebrew word translated “insects,” which occurs only here and in Ps 50:11, is uncertain. Aramaic, Arabic, and Akkadian cognates refer to insects, such as locusts or crickets.
- Psalm 80:14 tn Heb “O God, hosts.” One expects the construct form אֱלֹהֵי before צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot, “hosts”; see Ps 89:9), but יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים (yehvah ʾelohim) precedes צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot) in Pss 59:5 and 84:8 as well. See also vv. 4, 7 for a similar construction.
- Psalm 80:15 tn The form וְכַנָּה (vekhannah, “and a root”) is understood as וְכַנָּהּ (vekhannah), taking the ה (he) at the end as the third feminine singular pronominal suffix הּ (he with mappiq is hard “h”) rather than as the noun ending (see HALOT 483 s.v. III כֵּן). Elsewhere the noun refers to a pedestal or base, most often for the wash basin between the tabernacle and the altar. Translations here vary as “root” (NIV), “shoot” (NASB), “stock” (ASV, ESV, RSV), or the contextually driven “vineyard” (KJV).
- Psalm 80:15 tn Heb “and upon a son you strengthened for yourself.” In this context, where the extended metaphor of the vine dominates, בֵּן (ben, “son”) probably refers to the shoots that grow from the vine. Cf. Gen 49:22.
- Psalm 80:16 tn Heb “burned with fire.”
- Psalm 80:16 tn Heb “because of the rebuke of your face they perish.”
- Psalm 80:17 tn Heb “may your hand be upon the man of your right hand.” The referent of the otherwise unattested phrase “man of your right hand,” is unclear. It may refer to the nation collectively as a man. (See the note on the word “yourself” in v. 17b.)
- Psalm 80:17 tn Heb “upon the son of man you strengthened for yourself.” In its only other use in the Book of Psalms, the phrase “son of man” refers to the human race in general (see Ps 8:4). Here the phrase may refer to the nation collectively as a man. Note the use of the statement “you strengthened for yourself” both here and in v. 15, where the “son” (i.e., the branch of the vine) refers to Israel.
- Psalm 80:18 tn Heb “and in your name we will call.”
- Psalm 80:19 tn Heb “O Lord, God, hosts.” One expects the construct form אֱלֹהֵי before צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot, “hosts”; see Ps 89:9), but יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים (yehvah ʾelohim) precedes צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot) in Pss 59:5 and 84:8 as well. See also vv. 4, 7, 14 for a similar construction.
- Psalm 80:19 tn The idiom “cause your face to shine” probably refers to a smile (see Eccl 8:1), which in turn suggests favor and blessing (see Num 6:25; Pss 4:6; 31:16; 44:3; 67:1; 89:15; Dan 9:17).
- Psalm 80:19 tn Heb “cause your face to shine in order that we may be delivered.” After the imperative, the cohortative with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose/result.
- Proverbs 12:27 tc The MT reads יַחֲרֹךְ (yakharokh) from II חָרַךְ (kharakh, “to roast”?). On the other hand, several versions (LXX, Syriac, Vulgate) reflect a Hebrew Vorlage of יַדְרִיךְ (yadrikh) from דָרַךְ (darakh, “to gain”), meaning: “a lazy person cannot catch his prey” (suggested by Gemser; cf. NAB). The MT is the more difficult reading, being a hapax legomenon, and therefore should be retained; the versions are trying to make sense out of a rare expression.tn The verb II חָרַךְ (kharakh) is a hapax legomenon, appearing in the OT only here. BDB suggests that it means “to start; to set in motion” (BDB 355 s.v.). The related Aramaic and Syriac verb means “to scorch; to parch,” and the related Arabic verb means “to roast; to scorch by burning”; so it may mean “to roast; to fry” (HALOT 353 s.v. I חרך). The lazy person can’t be bothered cooking what he has hunted. The Midrash sees an allusion to Jacob and Esau in Genesis 25. M. Dahood translates it: “the languid man will roast no game for himself, but the diligent will come on the wealth of the steppe” (“The Hapax harak in Proverbs 12:27, ” Bib 63 : 60-62). This hyperbole means that the lazy person does not complete a project.
- Proverbs 12:27 tn Heb “the precious possession of a man, diligent.” The LXX reads “but a valuable possession [is] a pure man” while Rashi, a highly esteemed 11th century Rabbi, interpreted it as “a precious possession of a man is to be diligent” (R. Murphy, Proverbs [WBC] 88). The translation assumes that the word יָקָר (yaqar, “precious”) should either be a construct form or transposed into predicate position. The implication is not to desire or overvalue possessions themselves but to take care of what one has.
- Proverbs 12:28 tc The MT has דֶרֶך נְתִיבָה (derekh netivah) “a way, a path.” The duplication of meaning is awkward. If the first word is repointed as a Qal participle (דֹּרֵך, dorekh) it could be understood as “treading a path [that leads to…].” The editors of BHS propose that the second word be emended to מְשׁוּבָה (meshuvah, “[way of] apostacy”) or תּוֹעֵבָה (toʿevah, “[way of] abomination”). The LXX reads “the ways of the revengeful [lead] to death.”
- Proverbs 12:28 tc The consonants אל־מות (ʾl mvt) are vocalized by the MT as אַל־מָוֶת (ʾal mavet, “no death”), perhaps meaning immortality (“the journey of [her] path is no-death”). M. Dahood suggests that it means permanence (“Immortality in Proverbs 12:28, ” Bib 41 : 176-81). However, many medieval Hebrew mss and all the versions vocalize it as אֶל־מָוֶת (ʾel mavet), meaning “leads to death” (cf. NAB, NCV). W. McKane adopts this reading, and suggests that MT is a scribal change toward eternal life (Proverbs [OTL], 451-52). Others adopt this reading because they do not find the term “life” used in Proverbs for eternal life, nor do they find references to immortality elsewhere in Proverbs.