20 In the seventh year, in the fifth month, on the tenth of the month,[a] some of the elders[b] of Israel came to seek[c] the Lord, and they sat down in front of me. 2 The Lord’s message came to me: 3 “Son of man, speak to the elders of Israel, and tell them: ‘This is what the Sovereign Lord says: Are you coming to seek me? As surely as I live, I will not allow you to seek me,[d] declares the Sovereign Lord.’ 4 Are you willing to pronounce judgment on them?[e] Are you willing to pronounce judgment, son of man? Then confront them with the abominable practices of their fathers, 5 and say to them:
“‘This is what the Sovereign Lord says: On the day I chose Israel I swore[f] to the descendants[g] of the house of Jacob and made myself known to them in the land of Egypt. I swore[h] to them, “I am the Lord your God.” 6 On that day I swore[i] to bring them out of the land of Egypt to a land that I had picked out[j] for them, a land flowing with milk and honey,[k] the most beautiful of all lands. 7 I said to them, “Each of you must get rid of the detestable idols you keep before you,[l] and do not defile yourselves with the idols of Egypt; I am the Lord your God.” 8 But they rebelled against me and refused to listen to me; no one got rid of their detestable idols,[m] nor did they abandon the idols of Egypt. Then I decided to pour out[n] my rage on them and fully vent my anger against them in the midst of the land of Egypt. 9 I acted for the sake of my reputation,[o] so that I would not be profaned before the nations among whom they lived,[p] before whom I revealed myself by bringing them out of the land of Egypt.[q]
10 “‘So I brought them out of the land of Egypt and led them to the wilderness. 11 I gave them my statutes[r] and revealed my regulations to them. The one[s] who carries[t] them out will live by them![u] 12 I also gave them my Sabbaths[v] as a reminder of our relationship,[w] so that they would know that I, the Lord, sanctify them.[x] 13 But the house of Israel rebelled against me in the wilderness; they did not follow my statutes and they rejected my regulations (the one who obeys them will live by them), and they utterly desecrated my Sabbaths. So I decided to pour out[y] my rage on them in the wilderness and destroy them.[z] 14 I acted for the sake of my reputation, so that I would not be profaned before the nations in whose sight I had brought them out. 15 I also swore[aa] to them in the wilderness that I would not bring them to the land I had given them—a land flowing with milk and honey, the most beautiful of all lands. 16 I did this[ab] because they rejected my regulations, did not follow my statutes, and desecrated my Sabbaths; for their hearts followed their idols.[ac] 17 Yet I had pity on[ad] them and did not destroy them, so I did not make an end of them in the wilderness.
18 “‘But I said to their children[ae] in the wilderness, “Do not follow the practices of your fathers; do not observe their regulations,[af] nor defile yourselves with their idols. 19 I am the Lord your God; follow my statutes, observe my regulations, and carry them out. 20 Treat my Sabbaths as holy[ag] and they will be a reminder of our relationship,[ah] and then you will know that I am the Lord your God.” 21 But the children[ai] rebelled against me, did not follow my statutes, did not observe my regulations by carrying them out (the one who obeys[aj] them will live by them), and desecrated my Sabbaths. I decided to pour out[ak] my rage on them and fully vent my anger against them in the wilderness. 22 But I refrained from doing so[al] and acted instead for the sake of my reputation, so that I would not be profaned before the nations in whose sight I had brought them out. 23 I also swore[am] to them in the wilderness that I would scatter them among the nations and disperse them throughout the lands.[an] 24 I did this[ao] because they did not observe my regulations, they rejected my statutes, they desecrated my Sabbaths, and their eyes were fixed on[ap] their fathers’ idols. 25 I also gave[aq] them decrees[ar] that were not good and regulations by which they could not live. 26 I declared them to be defiled because of their sacrifices[as]—they caused all their firstborn to pass through the fire[at]—so that I might devastate them, so that they would know that I am the Lord.’[au]
27 “Therefore, speak to the house of Israel, son of man, and tell them, ‘This is what the Sovereign Lord says: In this way too your fathers blasphemed me when they were unfaithful to me. 28 I brought them to the land that I swore[av] to give them, but whenever they saw any high hill or leafy tree, they offered their sacrifices there and presented the offerings that provoked me to anger. They offered their soothing aroma there and poured out their drink offerings. 29 So I said to them, “What is this high place you go to?”’ (So it is called “High Place”[aw] to this day.)
30 “Therefore say to the house of Israel, ‘This is what the Sovereign Lord says: Will you defile yourselves like your fathers[ax] and engage in prostitution with detestable idols? 31 When you present your sacrifices[ay]—when you make your sons pass through the fire—you defile yourselves with all your idols to this very day. Will I allow you to seek me,[az] O house of Israel? As surely as I live, declares the Sovereign Lord, I will not allow you to seek me![ba]
32 “‘What you plan[bb] will never happen. You say, “We will be[bc] like the nations, like the clans of the lands, who serve gods of wood and stone.”[bd] 33 As surely as I live, declares the Sovereign Lord, with a powerful hand and an outstretched arm[be] and with an outpouring of rage, I will be king over you. 34 I will bring you out from the nations and will gather you from the lands where you are scattered, with a powerful hand and an outstretched arm and with an outpouring of rage! 35 I will bring you into the wilderness of the nations, and there I will enter into judgment with you face to face. 36 Just as I entered into judgment with your fathers in the wilderness of the land of Egypt, so I will enter into judgment with you, declares the Sovereign Lord. 37 I will make you pass under[bf] the shepherd’s staff,[bg] and I will bring you into the bond of the covenant. 38 I will eliminate from among you the rebels and those who revolt[bh] against me. I will bring them out from the land where they have been residing, but they will not come to the land of Israel. Then you will know that I am the Lord.
39 “‘As for you, O house of Israel, this is what the Sovereign Lord says: Each of you go and serve your idols,[bi] if you will not listen to me.[bj] But my holy name will not be profaned[bk] again by your sacrifices[bl] and your idols. 40 For there on my holy mountain, the high mountain of Israel, declares the Sovereign Lord, all the house of Israel will serve me, all of them[bm] in the land. I will accept them there, and there I will seek your contributions and your choice gifts, with all your holy things. 41 When I bring you out from the nations and gather you from the lands where you are scattered, I will accept you along with your soothing aroma. I will display my holiness among you in the sight of the nations. 42 Then you will know that I am the Lord when I bring you to the land of Israel, to the land I swore[bn] to give to your fathers. 43 And there you will remember your conduct[bo] and all your deeds by which you defiled yourselves. You will despise yourselves[bp] because of all the evil deeds you have done. 44 Then you will know that I am the Lord, when I deal with you for the sake of my reputation and not according to your wicked conduct and corrupt deeds, O house of Israel, declares the Sovereign Lord.’”
Prophecy Against the South
45 (21:1)[bq] The Lord’s message came to me: 46 “Son of man, turn toward[br] the south,[bs] and speak out against the south.[bt] Prophesy against the open scrub[bu] land of the Negev, 47 and say to the scrub land of the Negev, ‘Listen to the Lord’s message! This is what the Sovereign Lord has said: Look here,[bv] I am about to start a fire in you,[bw] and it will devour every green tree and every dry tree in you. The flaming fire will not be extinguished, and the whole surface of the ground from the Negev to the north will be scorched by it. 48 And everyone[bx] will see that I, the Lord, have burned it; it will not be extinguished.’”
49 Then I said, “O Sovereign Lord! They are saying of me, ‘Does he not simply speak in eloquent figures of speech?’”
- Ezekiel 20:1 sn The date would be August 14th, 591 b.c. The seventh year is the seventh year of Jehoiachin’s exile.
- Ezekiel 20:1 tn Heb “men from the elders.”
- Ezekiel 20:1 tn See the note at 14:3.
- Ezekiel 20:3 tn Or “I will not reveal myself to you.”
- Ezekiel 20:4 tn Heb “will you judge.” Here the imperfect form of the verb is probably used with a desiderative nuance. Addressed to the prophet, “judge” means to warn of or pronounce God’s impending judgment.
- Ezekiel 20:5 tn Heb “I lifted up my hand.”
- Ezekiel 20:5 tn Heb “seed.”
- Ezekiel 20:5 tn Heb “I lifted up my hand.”
- Ezekiel 20:6 tn Heb “I lifted up my hand to them.”
- Ezekiel 20:6 tn Or “searched out.” The Hebrew word is used to describe the activity of the spies in “spying out” the land of Canaan (Num 13-14); cf. KJV “I had espied for them.”
- Ezekiel 20:6 sn The phrase “a land flowing with milk and honey,” a figure of speech describing the land’s abundant fertility, occurs in v. 15 as well as Exod 3:8, 17; 13:5; 33:3; Lev 20:24; Num 13:27; Deut 6:3; 11:9; 26:9; 27:3; Josh 5:6; Jer 11:5; 32:23 (see also Deut 1:25; 8:7-9).
- Ezekiel 20:7 tn Heb “each one, the detestable things of his eyes, throw away.” The Pentateuch does not refer to the Israelites worshiping idols in Egypt, but Josh 24:14 appears to suggest that they did so.
- Ezekiel 20:8 tn Heb “each one, the detestable things of their eyes did not throw away.”
- Ezekiel 20:8 tn Heb “and I said/thought to pour out.”
- Ezekiel 20:9 tn Heb “for the sake of my name.”
- Ezekiel 20:9 tn Heb “before the eyes of the nations in whose midst they were.”
- Ezekiel 20:9 tn Heb “to whom I made myself known before their eyes to bring them out from the land of Egypt.” The translation understands the infinitive construct (“to bring them out”) as indicating manner. God’s deliverance of his people from Egypt was an act of self-revelation in that it displayed his power and his commitment to his promises.
- Ezekiel 20:11 sn The laws were given at Mount Sinai.
- Ezekiel 20:11 tn Heb “the man.”
- Ezekiel 20:11 tn Heb “does.”
- Ezekiel 20:11 tn The wording and the concept are contained in Lev 18:5 and Deut 30:15-19.
- Ezekiel 20:12 sn Ezekiel’s contemporary, Jeremiah, also stressed the importance of obedience to the Sabbath law (Jer 17).
- Ezekiel 20:12 tn Heb “to become a sign between me and them.”
- Ezekiel 20:12 tn Or “set them apart.” The last phrase of verse 12 appears to be a citation of Exod 31:13.
- Ezekiel 20:13 tn Heb “and I said/thought to pour out.”
- Ezekiel 20:13 tn Heb “to bring them to an end.”
- Ezekiel 20:15 tn Heb “I lifted up my hand.”
- Ezekiel 20:16 tn The words “I did this” are not in the Hebrew text but are supplied for stylistic reasons. Verses 15-16 are one long sentence in the Hebrew text. The translation divides this sentence into two for stylistic reasons.
- Ezekiel 20:16 tn Heb “for after their idols their heart was going.” The use of the active participle (“was going”) in the Hebrew text draws attention to the ongoing nature of their idolatrous behavior.
- Ezekiel 20:17 tn Heb “my eye pitied.”
- Ezekiel 20:18 tn Heb “sons,” reflecting the patriarchal idiom of the culture.
- Ezekiel 20:18 tn Or “standard of justice.” See Ezek 7:27.
- Ezekiel 20:20 tn Or “set apart my Sabbaths.”
- Ezekiel 20:20 tn Heb “and they will become a sign between me and you.”
- Ezekiel 20:21 tn Heb “sons.”
- Ezekiel 20:21 tn Or “carries them out.”
- Ezekiel 20:21 tn Heb “and I said/thought to pour out.”
- Ezekiel 20:22 tn Heb “drew my hand back.” This idiom also occurs in Lam 2:8 and Ps 74:11.
- Ezekiel 20:23 tn Heb “I lifted up my hand.”
- Ezekiel 20:23 sn Though the Pentateuch does not seem to know of this episode, Ps 106:26-27 may speak of God’s oath to exile the people before they had entered Canaan.
- Ezekiel 20:24 tn The words “I did this” are not in the Hebrew text but are supplied for stylistic reasons. Verses 23-24 are one long sentence in the Hebrew text. The translation divides this sentence into two for stylistic reasons.
- Ezekiel 20:24 tn Or “they worshiped” (NCV, TEV, CEV); Heb “their eyes were on” or “were after” (cf. v. 16).
- Ezekiel 20:25 tn Or “permitted.” sn The content of the verse is shocking: that God would “give” bad decrees. This probably does not refer to the Mosaic law but to the practices of the Canaanites who were left in the land in order to test Israel. See Judg 2:20-23, the note on “decrees” here in Ezek 20:25, and the note on “pass through the fire” in v. 26.
- Ezekiel 20:25 tn The Hebrew term חֻקּוֹת (khuqqot; translated “statutes” elsewhere in this chapter) is normally feminine. Here Ezekiel changes the form to masculine: חֻקִּים (khuqqim). Further, they are not called “my decrees” as vv. 11 and 13 refer to “my statutes.” The change is a signal that Ezekiel is not talking about the same statutes in vv. 11 and 13, which lead to life.
- Ezekiel 20:26 tn Or “gifts.”
- Ezekiel 20:26 sn This act is prohibited in Deut 12:29-31 and Jer 7:31; 19:5; 32:35. See also 2 Kgs 21:6; 23:10. This custom indicates that the laws the Israelites were following were the disastrous laws of pagan nations (see Ezek 16:20-21).
- Ezekiel 20:26 sn God sometimes punishes sin by inciting the sinner to sin even more, as the biblical examples of divine hardening and deceit make clear. See Robert B. Chisholm, Jr., “Divine Hardening in the Old Testament,” BSac 153 (1996): 410-34; idem, “Does God Deceive?” BSac 155 (1998): 11-28. For other instances where the Lord causes individuals to act unwisely or even sinfully as punishment for sin, see 1 Sam 2:25; 2 Sam 17:14; 1 Kgs 12:15; 2 Chr 25:20.
- Ezekiel 20:28 tn Heb “that I lifted up my hand.”
- Ezekiel 20:29 tn The Hebrew word בָּמָה (bamah) means “high place.”
- Ezekiel 20:30 tn Heb “in the way of your fathers.”
- Ezekiel 20:31 tn Or “gifts.”
- Ezekiel 20:31 tn Or “Will I reveal myself to you?”
- Ezekiel 20:31 tn Or “I will not reveal myself to you.”
- Ezekiel 20:32 tn Heb “what comes upon your mind.”
- Ezekiel 20:32 tn The Hebrew could also read: “Let us be.”
- Ezekiel 20:32 tn Heb “serving wood and stone.” sn This verse echoes the content of 1 Sam 8:20.
- Ezekiel 20:33 sn This phrase occurs frequently in Deuteronomy (Deut 4:34; 5:15; 7:19; 11:2; 26:8).
- Ezekiel 20:37 tn This is the same Hebrew verb used to describe the passing of the children through the fire.
- Ezekiel 20:37 sn The metaphor may be based in Lev 27:32 (see also Jer 33:13 and Matt 25:32-33). A shepherd would count his sheep as they passed beneath his staff.
- Ezekiel 20:38 tn See the note at 2:3.
- Ezekiel 20:39 sn Compare the irony here to Amos 4:4 and Jer 44:25.
- Ezekiel 20:39 tn Heb “and after, if you will not listen to me.” The translation leaves out “and after” for smoothness. The text is difficult. M. Greenberg (Ezekiel [AB], 1:374) suggests that it may mean “but afterwards, if you will not listen to me…” with an unspoken threat.
- Ezekiel 20:39 sn A similar concept may be found in Lev 18:21 and 20:3.
- Ezekiel 20:39 tn Or “gifts.”
- Ezekiel 20:40 tn Heb “all of it.”
- Ezekiel 20:42 tn Heb “I lifted up my hand.”
- Ezekiel 20:43 tn Heb “ways.”
- Ezekiel 20:43 tn Heb “loathe yourselves in your faces.”
- Ezekiel 20:45 sn Beginning with 20:45, the verse numbers through 21:32 in the English Bible differ by five from the verse numbers in the Hebrew text (BHS), with 20:45 ET = 21:1 HT, 20:46 ET = 21:2 HT, 21:1 ET = 21:6 HT etc., through 21:32 ET = 21:37 HT. Beginning with 22:1 the verse numbers in the English Bible and the Hebrew Bible are again the same.
- Ezekiel 20:46 tn Heb “set your face toward.” This expression occurs as well in Ezek 6:2 and 13:17.
- Ezekiel 20:46 tn Or “the way toward the south,” or “the way toward Teman.” Teman is in the south and may be a location or the direction.
- Ezekiel 20:46 tn Or “toward Darom.” Darom may mean the south or a region just north of the southern city of Beer Sheba. See M. Greenberg, Ezekiel (AB), 2:417-18.
- Ezekiel 20:46 tn The Hebrew term can also mean “forest,” but a meaning of uncultivated wasteland fits the Negev region far better. See M. Greenberg, Ezekiel (AB), 2:418.
- Ezekiel 20:47 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.
- Ezekiel 20:47 tn Fire also appears as a form of judgment in Ezek 15:4-7 and 19:12, 14.
- Ezekiel 20:48 tn Heb “all flesh.”
Christ’s Service in the Heavenly Sanctuary
11 But now Christ has come[a] as the high priest of the good things to come. He passed through the greater and more perfect tent not made with hands, that is, not of this creation, 12 and he entered once for all into the Most Holy Place not by the blood of goats and calves but by his own blood, and so he himself secured[b] eternal redemption. 13 For if the blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a young cow sprinkled on those who are defiled consecrated them and provided ritual purity,[c] 14 how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify our[d] consciences from dead works to worship the living God.
15 And so he is the mediator[e] of a new covenant, so that those who are called may receive the eternal inheritance he has promised,[f] since he died[g] to set them free from the violations committed under the first covenant. 16 For where there is a will, the death of the one who made it must be proven.[h] 17 For a will takes effect only at death, since it carries no force while the one who made it is alive. 18 So even the first covenant was inaugurated with blood.[i] 19 For when Moses had spoken every command to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves and goats with water and scarlet wool and hyssop and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, 20 and said, “This is the blood of the covenant that God has commanded you to keep.”[j] 21 And both the tabernacle and all the utensils of worship he likewise sprinkled with blood. 22 Indeed according to the law almost everything was purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness. 23 So it was necessary for the sketches[k] of the things in heaven to be purified with these sacrifices,[l] but the heavenly things themselves required[m] better sacrifices than these. 24 For Christ did not enter a sanctuary made with hands—the representation[n] of the true sanctuary[o]—but into heaven itself, and he appears now in God’s presence for us. 25 And he did not enter to offer[p] himself again and again, the way the high priest enters the sanctuary year after year with blood that is not his own, 26 for then he would have had to suffer again and again since the foundation of the world. But now he has appeared once for all at the consummation of the ages to put away sin by his sacrifice. 27 And just as people[q] are appointed to die once, and then to face judgment,[r] 28 so also, after Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many,[s] to those who eagerly await him he will appear a second time, not to bear sin[t] but to bring salvation.[u]
- Hebrews 9:11 tn Grk “But Christ, when he came,” introducing a sentence that includes all of Heb 9:11-12. The main construction is “Christ, having come…, entered…, having secured…,” and everything else describes his entrance.
- Hebrews 9:12 tn This verb occurs in the Greek middle voice, which here intensifies the role of the subject, Christ, in accomplishing the action: “he alone secured”; “he and no other secured.”
- Hebrews 9:13 tn Grk “for the purifying of the flesh.” The “flesh” here is symbolic of outward or ritual purity in contrast to inner purity, that of the conscience (cf. Heb 9:9).
- Hebrews 9:14 tc The reading adopted by the translation is attested by many authorities (A D* K P 365 1739* al). But many others (א D2 0278 33 1739c 1881 M lat sa) read “your” instead of “our.” The diversity of evidence makes this a difficult case to decide from external evidence alone. The first and second person pronouns differ by only one letter in Greek, as in English, also making this problem difficult to decide based on internal evidence and transcriptional probability. In the context, the author’s description of sacrificial activities seems to invite the reader to compare his own possible participation in OT liturgy as over against the completed work of Christ, so the second person pronoun “your” might make more sense. On the other hand, TCGNT 599 argues that “our” is preferable because the author of Hebrews uses direct address (i.e., the second person) only in the hortatory sections. What is more, the author seems to prefer the first person in explanatory remarks or when giving the logical grounds for an assertion (cf. Heb 4:15; 7:14). It is hard to reach a definitive conclusion in this case, but the data lean slightly in favor of the first person pronoun.
- Hebrews 9:15 tn The Greek word μεσίτης (mesitēs, “mediator”) in this context does not imply that Jesus was a mediator in the contemporary sense of the word, i.e., he worked for compromise between opposing parties. Here the term describes his function as the one who was used by God to enact a new covenant which established a new relationship between God and his people, but entirely on God’s terms.
- Hebrews 9:15 tn Grk “the promise of the eternal inheritance.”
- Hebrews 9:15 tn Grk “a death having occurred.”
- Hebrews 9:16 tn Grk “there is a necessity for the death of the one who made it to be proven.”
- Hebrews 9:18 sn The Greek text reinforces this by negating the opposite (“not even the first covenant was inaugurated without blood”), but this double negation is not used in contemporary English.
- Hebrews 9:20 tn Grk “which God commanded for you (or in your case).”sn A quotation from Exod 24:8.
- Hebrews 9:23 tn Or “prototypes,” “outlines,” referring to the earthly sanctuary. See Heb 8:5 above for the prior use of this term.
- Hebrews 9:23 tn Grk “with these”; in the translation the referent (sacrifices) has been specified for clarity.
- Hebrews 9:23 tn Grk “the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these.”
- Hebrews 9:24 tn Or “prefiguration.”
- Hebrews 9:24 tn The word “sanctuary” is not in the Greek text at this point, but has been supplied for clarity.
- Hebrews 9:25 tn Grk “and not that he might offer,” continuing the previous construction.
- Hebrews 9:27 tn Here ἀνθρώποις (anthrōpois) has been translated as a generic noun (“people”).
- Hebrews 9:27 tn Grk “and after this—judgment.”
- Hebrews 9:28 sn An allusion to Isa 53:12.
- Hebrews 9:28 tn Grk “without sin,” but in context this does not refer to Christ’s sinlessness (as in Heb 4:15) but to the fact that sin is already dealt with by his first coming.
- Hebrews 9:28 tn Grk “for salvation.” This may be construed with the verb “await” (those who wait for him to bring them salvation), but the connection with “appear” (as in the translation) is more likely.
Book 5 (Psalms 107-150)
107 Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good,
and his loyal love endures.[b]
2 Let those delivered by the Lord speak out,[c]
those whom he delivered[d] from the power[e] of the enemy,
3 and gathered from foreign lands,[f]
from east and west,
from north and south.
4 They wandered through the wilderness, in a wasteland;[g]
they found no road to a city in which to live.
5 They were hungry and thirsty;
they fainted from exhaustion.[h]
6 They cried out to the Lord in their distress;
he delivered them from their troubles.
7 He led them on a level road,[i]
that they might find a city in which to live.
8 Let them give thanks to the Lord for his loyal love,
and for the amazing things he has done for people.[j]
9 For he has satisfied those who thirst,[k]
and those who hunger he has filled with food.[l]
10 They sat in utter darkness,[m]
bound in painful iron chains,[n]
11 because they had rebelled against God’s commands,[o]
and rejected the instructions of the Most High.[p]
12 So he used suffering to humble them;[q]
they stumbled and no one helped them up.
13 They cried out to the Lord in their distress;
he delivered them from their troubles.
14 He brought them out of the utter darkness,[r]
and tore off their shackles.
15 Let them give thanks to the Lord for his loyal love,
and for the amazing things he has done for people.[s]
16 For he shattered the bronze gates,
and hacked through the iron bars.[t]
17 They acted like fools in their rebellious ways,[u]
and suffered because of their sins.
18 They lost their appetite for all food,[v]
and they drew near the gates of death.
19 They cried out to the Lord in their distress;
he delivered them from their troubles.
20 He sent them an assuring word[w] and healed them;
he rescued them from the pits where they were trapped.[x]
21 Let them give thanks to the Lord for his loyal love,
and for the amazing things he has done for people.[y]
22 Let them present thank offerings,
and loudly proclaim what he has done.[z]
23 [aa] Some traveled on[ab] the sea in ships,
and carried cargo over the vast waters.[ac]
24 They witnessed the acts of the Lord,
his amazing feats on the deep water.
25 He gave the order for a windstorm,[ad]
and it stirred up the waves of the sea.[ae]
26 They[af] reached up to the sky,
then dropped into the depths.
The sailors’ strength[ag] left them[ah] because the danger was so great.[ai]
27 They swayed[aj] and staggered like drunks,
and all their skill proved ineffective.[ak]
28 They cried out to the Lord in their distress;
he delivered them from their troubles.
29 He calmed the storm,[al]
and the waves[am] grew silent.
30 The sailors[an] rejoiced because the waves[ao] grew quiet,
and he led them to the harbor[ap] they desired.
31 Let them give thanks to the Lord for his loyal love,
and for the amazing things he has done for people.[aq]
32 Let them exalt him in the assembly of the people.
Let them praise him in the place where the leaders preside.[ar]
33 He turned[as] streams into a desert,
springs of water into arid land,
34 and a fruitful land into a barren place,[at]
because of the sin of its inhabitants.
35 As for his people,[au] he turned[av] a desert into a pool of water,
and a dry land into springs of water.
36 He allowed the hungry to settle there,
and they established a city in which to live.
37 They cultivated[aw] fields,
and planted vineyards,
which yielded a harvest of fruit.[ax]
38 He blessed[ay] them so that they became very numerous.
He would not allow their cattle to decrease in number.[az]
39 As for their enemies,[ba] they decreased in number and were beaten down,
because of painful distress[bb] and suffering.
40 He would pour[bc] contempt upon princes,
and he made them wander in a wasteland with no road.
41 Yet he protected[bd] the needy from oppression,
and cared for his families like a flock of sheep.
42 When the godly see this, they rejoice,
and every sinner[be] shuts his mouth.
43 Whoever is wise, let him take note of these things.
Let them consider the Lord’s acts of loyal love.
- Psalm 107:1 sn Psalm 107. The psalmist praises God for his kindness to his exiled people.
- Psalm 107:1 tn Heb “for forever [is] his loyal love.”
- Psalm 107:2 tn Or “let the redeemed of the Lord say [so].”
- Psalm 107:2 tn Or “redeemed.”
- Psalm 107:2 tn Heb “hand.”
- Psalm 107:3 tn Heb “from lands.” The word “foreign” is supplied in the translation for clarification.
- Psalm 107:4 tc The MT divides the verse so the line ends “on a wasteland of a road.” The LXX divides the line before “road” as in the translation.
- Psalm 107:5 tn Heb “and their soul in them fainted.”
- Psalm 107:7 sn A level road. See Jer 31:9.
- Psalm 107:8 tn Heb “and [for] his amazing deeds for the sons of man.”
- Psalm 107:9 tn Heb “[the] longing throat.” The noun נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh), which frequently refers to one’s very being or soul, here probably refers to one’s parched “throat” (note the parallelism with נֶפֶשׁ רְעֵבָה, nefesh reʿevah, “hungry throat”).
- Psalm 107:9 tn Heb “and [the] hungry throat he has filled [with] good.”
- Psalm 107:10 tn Heb “those who sat in darkness and deep darkness.” Synonyms are joined here to emphasize the degree of “darkness” experienced by the exiles. The Hebrew term צַלְמָוֶת (tsalmavet, “deep darkness”) has traditionally been understood as a compound noun, meaning “shadow of death” (צֵל + מָוֶת [tsel + mavet]; see BDB 853 s.v. צַלְמָוֶת; cf. NASB). Other authorities prefer to vocalize the form צַלְמוּת (tsalmut) and understand it as an abstract noun (from the root צלם) meaning “darkness.” An examination of the word’s usage favors the latter derivation. It is frequently associated with darkness/night and contrasted with light/morning (see Job 3:5; 10:21-22; 12:22; 24:17; 28:3; 34:22; Ps 107:10, 14; Isa 9:1; Jer 13:16; Amos 5:8). In some cases the darkness described is associated with the realm of death (Job 10:21-22; 38:17), but this is a metaphorical application of the word and does not reflect its inherent meaning. In Ps 107:10 the word refers metonymically to a dungeon, which in turn metaphorically depicts the place of Israel’s exile (see vv. 2-3).
- Psalm 107:10 tn Heb “those bound in suffering and iron.” “Suffering and iron” is a hendiadys (like English “good and angry”), where both words contribute to one idea. In this case the first word characterizes the second; the iron (chains) contribute to the prisoners’ pain and suffering.
- Psalm 107:11 tn Heb “the words of God.”
- Psalm 107:11 sn The divine title “Most High” (עֶלְיוֹן ʿelyon) pictures God as the exalted ruler of the universe who vindicates the innocent and judges the wicked. See especially Pss 7:17; 9:2; 18:13; 21:7; 47:2.
- Psalm 107:12 tn Heb “and he subdued with suffering their heart.”
- Psalm 107:14 tn Heb “darkness and deep darkness.” See the note on the word “darkness” in v. 10.
- Psalm 107:15 tn Heb “and [for] his amazing deeds for the sons of man.” See v. 8.
- Psalm 107:16 sn The language of v. 16 recalls Isa 45:2.
- Psalm 107:17 tn Heb “fools [they were] because of the way of their rebellion.”
- Psalm 107:18 tn Heb “all food their appetite loathed.”
- Psalm 107:20 tn Heb “he sent his word.” This probably refers to an oracle of assurance which announced his intention to intervene (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 59).
- Psalm 107:20 tn Heb “he rescued from their traps.” The Hebrew word שְׁחִית (shekhit, “trap”) occurs only here and in Lam 4:20, where it refers to a trap or pit in which one is captured. Because of the rarity of the term and the absence of an object with the verb “rescued,” some prefer to emend the text of Ps 107:20, reading מִשַּׁחַת חַיָּתָם (mishakhat khayyatam, “[he rescued] their lives from the pit”). Note also NIV “from the grave,” which interprets the “pit” as Sheol or the grave.
- Psalm 107:21 tn Heb “and [for] his amazing deeds for the sons of man.” See v. 8.
- Psalm 107:22 tn Heb “and let them proclaim his works with a ringing cry.”
- Psalm 107:23 sn Verses 23-30, which depict the Lord rescuing sailors from a storm at sea, do not seem to describe the exiles’ situation, unless the word picture is metaphorical. Perhaps the psalmist here broadens his scope and offers an example of God’s kindness to the needy beyond the covenant community.
- Psalm 107:23 tn Heb “those going down [into].”
- Psalm 107:23 tn Heb “doers of work on the mighty waters.”
- Psalm 107:25 tn Heb “he spoke and caused to stand a stormy wind.”
- Psalm 107:25 tn Heb “and it stirred up its [i.e., the sea’s, see v. 23] waves.”
- Psalm 107:26 tn That is, the waves (see v. 25).
- Psalm 107:26 tn Heb “their being”; traditionally “their soul” (referring to that of the sailors). This is sometimes translated “courage” (cf. NIV, NRSV).
- Psalm 107:26 tn Or “melted.”
- Psalm 107:26 tn Heb “from danger.”
- Psalm 107:27 tn Only here does the Hebrew verb חָגַג (khagag; normally meaning “to celebrate”) carry the nuance “to sway.”
- Psalm 107:27 tn The Hitpael of בָּלַע (balaʿ) occurs only here in the OT. Traditionally the form is derived from the verbal root בלע (“to swallow”), but HALOT 135 s.v. III בלע understands a homonym here with the meaning “to be confused.”
- Psalm 107:29 tn Heb “he raised [the] storm to calm.”
- Psalm 107:29 tn Heb “their waves.” The antecedent of the third masculine plural pronominal suffix is not readily apparent, unless it refers back to “waters” in v. 23.
- Psalm 107:30 tn Heb “they”; the referent (the sailors) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Psalm 107:30 tn Heb “they”; the referent (the waves) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Psalm 107:30 tn The Hebrew noun occurs only here in the OT.
- Psalm 107:31 tn Heb “and [for] his amazing deeds for the sons of man.” See v. 8.
- Psalm 107:32 tn Heb “in the seat of the elders.”
- Psalm 107:33 tn The verbal form appears to be a preterite, which is most naturally taken as narrational. (The use of prefixed forms with vav [ו] consecutive in vv. 36-37 favor this.) The psalmist may return to the theme of God’s intervention for the exiles (see vv. 4-22, especially vv. 4-9). However, many regard vv. 33-41 as a hymnic description which generalizes about God’s activities among men. In this case it would be preferable to use the English present tense throughout (cf. NEB, NRSV).
- Psalm 107:34 tn Heb “a salty land.”
- Psalm 107:35 tn The words “As for his people” are not included in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied in the translation for the sake of clarity. The psalmist contrasts God’s judgment on his enemies with his blessing of his people. See the note on the word “enemies” in v. 39 for further discussion.
- Psalm 107:35 tn The verbal form appears to be a preterite, which is most naturally taken as narrational. See the note on the word “turned” in v. 33.
- Psalm 107:37 tn Heb “sowed seed in.”
- Psalm 107:37 tn Heb “fruit [as] produce.”
- Psalm 107:38 tn “Bless” here carries the nuance “endue with sexual potency, make fertile.” See Gen 1:28, where the statement “he blessed them” directly precedes the command “be fruitful and populate the earth” (see also 1:22). The verb “bless” carries this same nuance in Gen 17:16 (where God’s blessing of Sarai imparts to her the capacity to bear a child); 48:16 (where God’s blessing of Joseph’s sons is closely associated with their having numerous descendants); and Deut 7:13 (where God’s blessing is associated with fertility in general, including numerous descendants). See also Gen 49:25 (where Jacob uses the noun derivative in referring to “blessings of the breast and womb,” an obvious reference to fertility) and Gen 27:27 (where the verb is used of a field to which God has given the capacity to produce vegetation).
- Psalm 107:38 tn The verbal form in this line appears to be an imperfect, which may be taken as customary (drawing attention to typical action in a past time frame) or as generalizing (in which case one should use the English present tense, understanding a move from narrative to present reality).
- Psalm 107:39 tn The words “As for their enemies” are not included in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied in the translation for the sake of clarity. Without such clarification, one might think that v. 39 refers to those just mentioned in v. 38 as objects of divine blessing, which would contradict the point just emphasized by the psalmist. The structure of vv. 33-42 is paneled (A-B-A-B). In vv. 33-34 the psalmist describes God’s judgment upon his enemies (perhaps those who had enslaved his people). In vv. 35-38 he contrasts this judgment with the divine blessing poured out on God’s people. (See the note on the word “people” in v. 35.) In vv. 39-40 he contrasts this blessing with the judgment experienced by enemies, before returning in vv. 41-42 to the blessing experienced by God’s people.
- Psalm 107:39 tn Heb “from the oppression of calamity.”
- Psalm 107:40 tn The active participle is understood as past durative here, drawing attention to typical action in a past time frame. However, it could be taken as generalizing (in which case one should translate using the English present tense), in which case the psalmist moves from narrative to present reality. Perhaps the participial form appears because the statement is lifted from Job 12:21.
- Psalm 107:41 tn Heb “set on high.”
- Psalm 107:42 tn Heb “all evil,” which stands metonymically for those who do evil.
- Proverbs 27:11 tn Heb “my son”; the reference to a “son” is retained in the translation here because in the following lines the advice is to avoid women who are prostitutes.
- Proverbs 27:11 tn The verb is the cohortative of שׁוּב (shuv); after the two imperatives that provide the instruction, this form with the vav will indicate the purpose or result (indirect volitive sequence).
- Proverbs 27:11 sn The expression anyone who taunts me refers to those who would reproach or treat the sage with contempt, condemning him as a poor teacher. Teachers are often criticized for the faults and weaknesses of their students, but any teacher criticized that way takes pleasure in pointing to those who have learned as proof that he has not labored in vain (e.g., 1 Thess 2:19-20; 3:8).