2 Chronicles 8:11-10:19
11 Solomon moved Pharaoh’s daughter up from the City of David[a] to the palace he had built for her, for he said, “My wife must not live in the palace of King David of Israel, for the places where the ark of the Lord has entered are holy.”
12 Then Solomon offered burnt sacrifices to the Lord on the altar of the Lord which he had built in front of the temple’s porch.[b] 13 He observed the daily requirements for sacrifices that Moses had specified for Sabbaths, new moon festivals, and the three annual celebrations—the Feast of Unleavened Bread, the Feast of Weeks, and the Feast of Shelters.[c] 14 As his father David had decreed, Solomon[d] appointed the divisions of the priests to do their assigned tasks, the Levitical orders to lead worship and help the priests with their daily tasks,[e] and the divisions of the gatekeepers to serve at their assigned gates.[f] This was what David the man of God had ordered.[g] 15 They did not neglect any detail of the king’s orders pertaining to the priests, Levites, and treasuries.[h]
16 All the work ordered by Solomon was completed, from the day the foundation of the Lord’s temple was laid until it was finished; the Lord’s temple was completed.
17 Then Solomon went to Ezion Geber and to Elat on the coast in the land of Edom. 18 Huram sent him ships and some of his sailors, men who were well acquainted with the sea. They sailed with Solomon’s men to Ophir[i] and took from there 450 talents[j] of gold, which they brought back to King Solomon.
Solomon Entertains a Queen
9 When the queen of Sheba heard about Solomon,[k] she came to challenge[l] him[m] with difficult questions.[n] She arrived in Jerusalem with a great display of pomp,[o] bringing with her camels carrying spices,[p] a very large quantity of gold, and precious gems. She visited Solomon and discussed with him everything that was on her mind. 2 Solomon answered all her questions; there was no question too complex for the king.[q] 3 When the queen of Sheba saw for herself Solomon’s wisdom, the palace[r] he had built, 4 the food in his banquet hall,[s] his servants and attendants[t] in their robes, his cupbearers in their robes, and his burnt sacrifices which he presented in the Lord’s temple,[u] she was amazed.[v] 5 She said to the king, “The report I heard in my own country about your wise sayings and insight[w] was true! 6 I did not believe these things until I came and saw them with my own eyes. Indeed, I didn’t hear even half the story![x] Your wisdom surpasses what was reported to me. 7 Your attendants, who stand before you at all times and hear your wise sayings, are truly happy![y] 8 May the Lord your God be praised because he favored[z] you by placing you on his throne as the one ruling on his behalf.[aa] Because of your God’s love for Israel and his lasting commitment to them,[ab] he made you king over them so you could make just and right decisions.”[ac] 9 She gave the king 120 talents[ad] of gold and a very large quantity of spices and precious gems. The quantity of spices the queen of Sheba gave King Solomon has never been matched.[ae] 10 (Huram’s[af] servants, aided by Solomon’s servants, brought gold from Ophir, as well as[ag] fine[ah] timber and precious gems. 11 With the timber the king made steps[ai] for the Lord’s temple and royal palace as well as stringed instruments[aj] for the musicians. No one had seen anything like them in the land of Judah before that.[ak]) 12 King Solomon gave the queen of Sheba everything she requested, more than what she had brought him.[al] Then she left and returned[am] to her homeland with her attendants.
13 Solomon received 666 talents[an] of gold per year,[ao] 14 besides what he collected from the merchants[ap] and traders. All the Arabian kings and the governors of the land also brought gold and silver to Solomon. 15 King Solomon made 200 large shields of hammered gold; 600 measures[aq] of hammered gold were used for each shield. 16 He also made 300 small shields of hammered gold; 300 measures[ar] of gold were used for each of those shields. The king placed them in the Palace of the Lebanon Forest.[as]
17 The king made a large throne decorated with ivory and overlaid it with pure gold. 18 There were six steps leading up to the throne, and a gold footstool was attached to the throne.[at] The throne had two armrests with a statue of a lion standing on each side.[au] 19 There were twelve statues of lions on the six steps, one lion at each end of each step. There was nothing like it in any other kingdom.[av]
20 All of King Solomon’s cups were made of gold, and all the household items in the Palace of the Lebanon Forest were made of pure gold. There were no silver items, for silver was not considered very valuable in Solomon’s time.[aw] 21 The king had a fleet of large merchant ships[ax] manned by Huram’s men[ay] that sailed the sea. Once every three years the fleet[az] came into port with cargoes of[ba] gold, silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks.[bb]
22 King Solomon was wealthier and wiser than any of the kings of the earth.[bc] 23 All the kings of the earth wanted to visit Solomon to see him display his God-given wisdom.[bd] 24 Year after year visitors brought their gifts, which included items of silver, items of gold, clothes, perfume, spices, horses, and mules.[be]
25 Solomon had 4,000 stalls for his chariot horses[bf] and 12,000 horses. He kept them in assigned cities and also with him in Jerusalem.[bg] 26 He ruled all the kingdoms from the Euphrates River[bh] to the land of the Philistines as far as the border of Egypt. 27 The king made silver as plentiful[bi] in Jerusalem as stones; cedar was[bj] as plentiful as sycamore fig trees are in the foothills.[bk] 28 Solomon acquired horses from Egypt and from all the lands.
Solomon’s Reign Ends
29 The rest of the events of Solomon’s reign, from start to finish, are recorded[bl] in the Annals of Nathan the Prophet, the Prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite, and the Vision of Iddo the Seer pertaining to Jeroboam son of Nebat. 30 Solomon ruled over all Israel from Jerusalem for forty years. 31 Then Solomon passed away[bm] and was buried in the city of his father David. His son Rehoboam replaced him as king.
The Northern Tribes Rebel
10 Rehoboam traveled to Shechem, for all Israel had gathered in[bn] Shechem to make Rehoboam[bo] king. 2 When Jeroboam son of Nebat heard the news, he was still in Egypt, where he had fled from King Solomon. Jeroboam returned from Egypt. 3 They sent for him,[bp] and Jeroboam and all Israel came and spoke to Rehoboam, saying, 4 “Your father made us work too hard![bq] Now if you lighten the demands he made and don’t make us work as hard, we will serve you.”[br] 5 He said to them, “Go away for three days, then return to me.” So the people went away.
6 King Rehoboam consulted with the older advisers who had served[bs] his father Solomon when he had been alive. He asked them,[bt] “How do you advise me to answer these people?” 7 They said to him, “If you are fair to these people, grant their request, and are cordial to them, they will be your servants from this time forward.”[bu] 8 But Rehoboam rejected their advice and consulted the young advisers who served him, with whom he had grown up.[bv] 9 He asked them, “How do you advise me to respond to these people who said to me, ‘Lessen the demands your father placed on us’?”[bw] 10 The young advisers with whom Rehoboam[bx] had grown up said to him, “Say this to these people who have said to you, ‘Your father made us work hard, but now lighten our burden’[by]—say this to them: ‘I am a lot harsher than my father![bz] 11 My father imposed heavy demands on you; I will make them even heavier.[ca] My father punished you with ordinary whips; I will punish you with whips that really sting your flesh.’”[cb]
12 Jeroboam and all the people reported to Rehoboam on the third day, just as the king had ordered when he said, “Return to me on the third day.” 13 The king responded to the people harshly. He[cc] rejected the advice of the older men 14 and followed the advice of the younger ones. He said, “My father imposed heavy demands on you;[cd] I will make them even heavier.[ce] My father punished you with ordinary whips; I will punish you with whips that really sting your flesh.”[cf] 15 The king refused to listen to the people, because God was instigating this turn of events[cg] so that he might bring to pass the prophetic announcement he had made[ch] through Ahijah the Shilonite to Jeroboam son of Nebat.
16 When all Israel saw[ci] that the king refused to listen to them, the people answered the king, “We have no portion in David—no share in the son of Jesse![cj] Return to your homes, O Israel![ck] Now, look after your own dynasty, O David!”[cl] So all Israel returned to their homes.[cm] 17 (Rehoboam continued to rule over the Israelites who lived in the cities of Judah.) 18 King Rehoboam sent Hadoram,[cn] the supervisor of the work crews, out after them, but the Israelites stoned him to death. King Rehoboam managed to jump into his chariot and escape to Jerusalem. 19 So Israel has been in rebellion against the Davidic dynasty to this very day.
- 2 Chronicles 8:11 sn The phrase the City of David refers here to the fortress of Zion in Jerusalem, not to Bethlehem. See 2 Sam 5:7.
- 2 Chronicles 8:12 tn Heb “the porch.”
- 2 Chronicles 8:13 tn The Hebrew phrase הַסֻּכּוֹת[חַג] (khag hassukkot, “[Feast of] shelters” [or “huts”]) is traditionally known as the Feast of Tabernacles. The rendering “booths” (cf. NAB, NASB, NRSV) is probably better than the traditional “tabernacles” in light of the meaning of the term סֻכָּה (sukkah, “hut; booth”), but “booths” are frequently associated with trade shows and craft fairs in contemporary American English. The nature of the celebration during this feast as a commemoration of the wanderings of the Israelites after they left Egypt suggests that a translation like “shelters” is more appropriate.
- 2 Chronicles 8:14 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Solomon) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- 2 Chronicles 8:14 tn Heb “and the Levites, according to their posts, to praise and to serve opposite the priests according to the matter of a day in its day.”
- 2 Chronicles 8:14 tn Heb “and the gatekeepers by their divisions for a gate and a gate.”
- 2 Chronicles 8:14 tn Heb “for so [was] the command of David the man of God.”
- 2 Chronicles 8:15 tn Heb “and they did not turn aside from the command of the king concerning the priests and the Levites with regard to any matter and with regard to the treasuries.”
- 2 Chronicles 8:18 tn Heb “and Huram sent to him by the hand of his servants, ships, and servants [who] know the sea, and they came with the servants of Solomon to Ophir.”
- 2 Chronicles 8:18 tn The Hebrew word כִּכַּר (kikkar, “circle”) refers generally to something that is round. When used of metals it can refer to a disk-shaped weight made of the metal or, by extension, to a standard unit of weight. According to the older (Babylonian) standard the “talent” weighed 130 lbs. (58.9 kg), but later this was lowered to 108.3 lbs. (49.1 kg). More recent research suggests the “light” standard talent was 67.3 lbs. (30.6 kg). Using this as the standard for calculation, the weight of the gold was 30,285 lbs. (13,770 kg).
- 2 Chronicles 9:1 tn Heb “the report about Solomon.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:1 tn Or “test.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:1 tn Heb “Solomon.” The recurrence of the proper name here is redundant in terms of contemporary English style, so the pronoun has been used in the translation instead.
- 2 Chronicles 9:1 tn Or “riddles.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:1 tn Heb “with very great strength.” The Hebrew word חַיִל (khayil, “strength”) may refer here to the size of her retinue or to the great wealth she brought with her.
- 2 Chronicles 9:1 tn Or “balsam oil.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:2 tn Heb “Solomon declared to her all her words; there was not a word hidden from the king which he did not declare to her.” If riddles are specifically in view (see v. 1), then one might translate, “Solomon explained to her all her riddles; there was no riddle too complex for the king.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:3 tn Heb “house.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:4 tn Heb “the food on his table.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:4 tn Heb “the seating of his servants and the standing of his attendants.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:4 tc The Hebrew text has here, “and his upper room [by] which he was going up to the house of the Lord.” But עֲלִיָּתוֹ (ʿaliyyato, “his upper room”) should be emended to עֹלָתוֹ, (ʿolato, “his burnt sacrifice[s]”). See the parallel account in 1 Kgs 10:5.
- 2 Chronicles 9:4 tn Or “it took her breath away”; Heb “there was no breath still in her.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:5 tn Heb “about your words [or perhaps, “deeds”] and your wisdom.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:6 tn Heb “the half was not told to me.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:7 tn Heb “How happy are your men! How happy are these servants of yours, who stand before you continually, who hear your wisdom!”
- 2 Chronicles 9:8 tn Or “delighted in.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:8 tn Heb “as king for the Lord your God.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:8 tn Heb “to make him stand permanently.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:8 tn Heb “to do justice and righteousness.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:9 tn The Hebrew word כִּכַּר (kikkar, “circle”) refers generally to something that is round. When used of metals it can refer to a disk-shaped weight made of the metal or, by extension, to a standard unit of weight. According to the older (Babylonian) standard the “talent” weighed 130 lbs. (58.9 kg), but later this was lowered to 108.3 lbs. (49.1 kg). More recent research suggests the “light” standard talent was 67.3 lbs. (30.6 kg). Using this as the standard for calculation, the weight of the gold was 8,076 lbs. (3,672 kg).
- 2 Chronicles 9:9 tn Heb “there has not been like those spices which the queen of Sheba gave to King Solomon.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:10 tn Heb “Huram’s” (also in v. 21). Some medieval Hebrew mss, along with the LXX, Syriac, and Vulgate spell the name “Hiram,” agreeing with 1 Chr 14:1. “Huram” is a variant spelling referring to the same individual.
- 2 Chronicles 9:10 tn Heb “who brought gold from Ophir, brought.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:10 tn Heb “algum.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:11 tn Heb “tracks.” The parallel text in 1 Kgs 10:12 has a different term whose meaning is uncertain: “supports,” perhaps “banisters” or “parapets.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:11 tn Two types of stringed instruments are specifically mentioned in the Hebrew text, the כִּנּוֹר (kinnor, “zither”) and נֶבֶל (nevel, “harp”).
- 2 Chronicles 9:11 tn Heb “there was not seen like these formerly in the land of Judah.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:12 tn Heb “besides what she brought to the king.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:12 tn Heb “turned and went.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:13 tn The Hebrew word כִּכַּר (kikkar, “circle”) refers generally to something that is round. When used of metals it can refer to a disk-shaped weight made of the metal or, by extension, to a standard unit of weight. According to the older (Babylonian) standard the “talent” weighed 130 lbs. (58.9 kg), but later this was lowered to 108.3 lbs. (49.1 kg). More recent research suggests the “light” standard talent was 67.3 lbs. (30.6 kg). Using this as the standard for calculation, the weight of the gold Solomon received annually was 44,822 lbs. (20,380 kg).
- 2 Chronicles 9:13 tn Heb “the weight of the gold which came to Solomon in one year was 666 talents of gold.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:14 tn Heb “traveling men.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:15 tn The Hebrew text has simply “600,” with no unit of measure given.
- 2 Chronicles 9:16 tn The Hebrew text has simply “300,” with no unit of measure given.
- 2 Chronicles 9:16 sn This name was appropriate because of the large amount of cedar, undoubtedly brought from Lebanon, used in its construction. The cedar pillars in the palace must have given it the appearance of a forest. See 1 Kgs 7:2.
- 2 Chronicles 9:18 tc The parallel text of 1 Kgs 10:19 has instead “and the back of it was rounded on top.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:18 tn Heb “[There were] armrests on each side of the place of the seat, and two lions standing beside the armrests.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:19 tn Heb “nothing like it had been made for any kingdom.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:20 tn Heb “there was no silver regarded as anything in the days of Solomon.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:21 tn Heb “for ships belonging to the king were going [to] Tarshish.” This probably refers to large ships either made in or capable of traveling to the distant western port of Tarshish.
- 2 Chronicles 9:21 tn Heb “servants.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:21 tn Heb “the fleet of Tarshish [ships].”
- 2 Chronicles 9:21 tn Heb “the ships of Tarshish came carrying.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:21 tn The meaning of this word is unclear; some suggest it refers to “baboons.” NEB has “monkeys,” NASB, NRSV “peacocks,” and NIV “baboons.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:22 tn Heb “King Solomon was greater than all the kings of the earth with respect to wealth and wisdom.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:23 tn Heb “and all the kings of the earth were seeking the face of Solomon to hear his wisdom which God had placed in his heart.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:24 tn Heb “and they were bringing each one his gift, items of silver…and mules, the matter of a year in a year.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:25 tc The parallel text of 1 Kgs 10:26 reads “fourteen hundred chariots.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:25 tn Heb “he placed them in the chariot cities and with the king in Jerusalem.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:26 tn Heb “the River.” In biblical Hebrew the Euphrates River was typically referred to simply as “the River.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:27 tn The words “as plentiful” are supplied for clarification.
- 2 Chronicles 9:27 tn Heb “he made cedar.”
- 2 Chronicles 9:27 sn The foothills (שְׁפֵלָה, shephelah) are the region between the Judean hill country and the Mediterranean coastal plain.
- 2 Chronicles 9:29 tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Solomon, the former and the latter, are they not written?”
- 2 Chronicles 9:31 tn Heb “lay down with his fathers.”
- 2 Chronicles 10:1 tn Heb “come [to].”
- 2 Chronicles 10:1 tn Heb “him”; the referent (Rehoboam) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- 2 Chronicles 10:3 tn Heb “They sent and called for him.”
- 2 Chronicles 10:4 tn Heb “made our yoke burdensome.”
- 2 Chronicles 10:4 tn Heb “but you, now, lighten the burdensome work of your father and the heavy yoke which he placed on us, and we will serve you.” In the Hebrew text the prefixed verbal form with vav (וְנַעַבְדֶךָ, venaʿavedekha, “and we will serve you”) following the imperative (הָקֵל, haqel, “lighten”) indicates purpose/result. The conditional sentence used in the present translation is an attempt to bring out the logical relationship between these forms.
- 2 Chronicles 10:6 tn Heb “stood before.”
- 2 Chronicles 10:6 tn Heb “saying.”
- 2 Chronicles 10:7 tn Heb “If you are for good to these people and you are favorable to them and speak to them good words, they will be your servants all the days.”
- 2 Chronicles 10:8 tn Heb “Rehoboam rejected the advice of the elders which they advised and he consulted the young men with whom he had grown up, who stood before him.”
- 2 Chronicles 10:9 tn Heb “Lighten the yoke which your father placed on us.”
- 2 Chronicles 10:10 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Rehoboam) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- 2 Chronicles 10:10 tn Heb “Your father made our yoke heavy, but make it lighter upon us.”
- 2 Chronicles 10:10 tn Heb “My little one is thicker than my father’s hips.” The referent of “my little one” is not clear. The traditional view is that it refers to the little finger (so NEB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT). As the following statement makes clear, Rehoboam’s point is that he is more harsh and demanding than his father.
- 2 Chronicles 10:11 tn Heb “and now my father placed upon you a heavy yoke, but I will add to your yoke.”
- 2 Chronicles 10:11 tn Heb “My father punished you with whips, but I [will punish you] with scorpions.” “Scorpions” might allude to some type of torture, but more likely it refers to a type of whip that inflicts an especially biting, painful wound.
- 2 Chronicles 10:13 tn Heb “King Rehoboam.” The pronoun “he” has been used in the translation in place of the proper name in keeping with contemporary English style.
- 2 Chronicles 10:14 tc The Hebrew text reads, “I will make heavy your yoke,” but many medieval Hebrew mss and other ancient textual witnesses have, “my father made heavy your yoke.”
- 2 Chronicles 10:14 tn Heb “but I will add to your yoke.”
- 2 Chronicles 10:14 tn Heb “My father punished you with whips, but I [will punish you] with scorpions.” “Scorpions” might allude to some type of torture, but more likely it refers to a type of whip that inflicts an especially biting, painful wound.
- 2 Chronicles 10:15 tn Heb “because this turn of events was from God.”
- 2 Chronicles 10:15 tn Heb “so that the Lord might bring to pass his word which he spoke.”
- 2 Chronicles 10:16 tc The MT does not include the word “saw,” but many medieval Hebrew mss as well as several ancient versions have it. See the parallel text of 1 Kings 12:16, which has the verb וַיַּרְא (from רָאָה, raʾah, “to see”).
- 2 Chronicles 10:16 sn The people’s point seems to be that they have no familial relationship with David that brings them any benefits or places upon them any obligations. They are being treated like outsiders.
- 2 Chronicles 10:16 tn Heb “each one to your tents, Israel.” The word “return” is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
- 2 Chronicles 10:16 tn Heb “Now see your house, David.”
- 2 Chronicles 10:16 tn Heb “went to their tents.”
- 2 Chronicles 10:18 sn In the parallel account in 1 Kgs 12:18 this name appears as “Adoniram.”
9 You, however, are not in[a] the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God lives in you. Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, this person does not belong to him. 10 But if Christ is in you, your body is dead because of sin, but[b] the Spirit is your life[c] because of righteousness. 11 Moreover if the Spirit of the one[d] who raised Jesus from the dead lives in you, the one who raised Christ[e] from the dead will also make your mortal bodies alive through his Spirit who lives in you.[f]
12 So then,[g] brothers and sisters,[h] we are under obligation, not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh 13 (for if you live according to the flesh, you will[i] die),[j] but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body you will live. 14 For all who are led by the Spirit of God are[k] the sons of God. 15 For you did not receive the spirit of slavery leading again to fear,[l] but you received the Spirit of adoption,[m] by whom[n] we cry, “Abba,[o] Father.” 16 The Spirit himself bears witness to[p] our spirit that we are God’s children. 17 And if children, then heirs (namely, heirs of God and also fellow heirs with Christ)[q]—if indeed we suffer with him so we may also be glorified with him.
18 For I consider that our present sufferings cannot even be compared[r] to the coming glory that will be revealed to us. 19 For the creation eagerly waits for the revelation of the sons of God. 20 For the creation was subjected to futility—not willingly but because of God[s] who subjected it—in hope 21 that the creation itself will also be set free from the bondage of decay into the glorious freedom of God’s children. 22 For we know that the whole creation groans and suffers together until now. 23 Not only this, but we ourselves also, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit,[t] groan inwardly as we eagerly await our adoption,[u] the redemption of our bodies.[v] 24 For in hope we were saved. Now hope that is seen is not hope, because who hopes for what he sees? 25 But if we hope for what we do not see, we eagerly wait for it with endurance.[w]
- Romans 8:9 tn Or “are not controlled by the flesh but by the Spirit.”
- Romans 8:10 tn Greek emphasizes the contrast between these two clauses more than can be easily expressed in English.
- Romans 8:10 tn Or “life-giving.” Grk “the Spirit is life.”
- Romans 8:11 sn The one who raised Jesus from the dead refers to God (also in the following clause).
- Romans 8:11 tc Several mss read ᾿Ιησοῦν (Iēsoun, “Jesus”) after Χριστόν (Christon, “Christ”; א* A D* 630 1506 1739 1881 bo); C 81 104 lat have ᾿Ιησοῦν Χριστόν. The shorter reading is more likely to be autographic, though, both because of external evidence (א2 B D2 F G Ψ 33 1175 1241 1505 2464 M sa) and internal evidence (scribes were much more likely to add the name “Jesus” if it were lacking than to remove it if it were already present in the text, especially to harmonize with the earlier mention of Jesus in the verse).
- Romans 8:11 tc Most mss (B D F G Ψ 33 1175 1241 1739 1881 M lat) have διά (dia) followed by the accusative: “because of his Spirit who lives in you.” The genitive “through his Spirit” is supported by א A C 81 104 1505 1506 al, and is slightly preferred.
- Romans 8:12 tn There is a double connective here that cannot be easily preserved in English: “consequently therefore,” emphasizing the conclusion of what he has been arguing.
- Romans 8:12 tn Grk “brothers.” See note on the phrase “brothers and sisters” in 1:13.
- Romans 8:13 tn Grk “are about to, are certainly going to.”
- Romans 8:13 sn This remark is parenthetical to Paul’s argument.
- Romans 8:14 tn Grk “For as many as are being led by the Spirit of God, these are.”
- Romans 8:15 tn Grk “slavery again to fear.”
- Romans 8:15 tn The Greek term υἱοθεσία (huiothesia) was originally a legal technical term for adoption as a son with full rights of inheritance. BDAG 1024 s.v. notes, “a legal t.t. of ‘adoption’ of children, in our lit., i.e. in Paul, only in a transferred sense of a transcendent filial relationship between God and humans (with the legal aspect, not gender specificity, as major semantic component).”
- Romans 8:15 tn Or “in that.”
- Romans 8:15 tn The term “Abba” is the Greek transliteration of the Aramaic אַבָּא (’abba’), literally meaning “my father” but taken over simply as “father,” used in prayer and in the family circle, and later taken over by the early Greek-speaking Christians (BDAG 1 s.v. ἀββα).sn This Aramaic word is found three times in the New Testament (Mark 14:36; Rom 8:15; Gal 4:6), and in each case is followed by its Greek equivalent, which is translated “father.” It is a term expressing warm affection and filial confidence. It has no perfect equivalent in English. It has passed into European languages as an ecclesiastical term, “abbot.” Over the past fifty years a lot has been written about this term and Jesus’ use of it. Joachim Jeremias argued that Jesus routinely addressed God using this Aramaic word, and he also noted this was a “child’s word,” leading many to conclude its modern equivalent was “Daddy.” This conclusion Jeremias soon modified (the term on occasion is used of an adult son addressing his father) but the simplistic equation of abba with “Daddy” is still heard in some circles today. Nevertheless, the term does express a high degree of closeness with reverence, and in addition to the family circle could be used by disciples of a much loved and revered teacher.
- Romans 8:16 tn Or possibly “with.” ExSyn 160-61, however, notes the following: “At issue, grammatically, is whether the Spirit testifies alongside of our spirit (dat. of association), or whether he testifies to our spirit (indirect object) that we are God’s children. If the former, the one receiving this testimony is unstated (is it God? or believers?). If the latter, the believer receives the testimony and hence is assured of salvation via the inner witness of the Spirit. The first view has the advantage of a σύν- (sun-) prefixed verb, which might be expected to take an accompanying dat. of association (and is supported by NEB, JB, etc.). But there are three reasons why πνεύματι (pneumati) should not be taken as association: (1) Grammatically, a dat. with a σύν- prefixed verb does not necessarily indicate association. This, of course, does not preclude such here, but this fact at least opens up the alternatives in this text. (2) Lexically, though συμμαρτυρέω (summartureō) originally bore an associative idea, it developed in the direction of merely intensifying μαρτυρέω (martureō). This is surely the case in the only other NT text with a dat. (Rom 9:1). (3) Contextually, a dat. of association does not seem to support Paul’s argument: ‘What standing has our spirit in this matter? Of itself it surely has no right at all to testify to our being sons of God’ [C. E. B. Cranfield, Romans [ICC], 1:403]. In sum, Rom 8:16 seems to be secure as a text in which the believer’s assurance of salvation is based on the inner witness of the Spirit. The implications of this for one’s soteriology are profound: The objective data, as helpful as they are, cannot by themselves provide assurance of salvation; the believer also needs (and receives) an existential, ongoing encounter with God’s Spirit in order to gain that familial comfort.”
- Romans 8:17 tn Grk “on the one hand, heirs of God; on the other hand, fellow heirs with Christ.” Some prefer to render v. 17 as follows: “And if children, then heirs—that is, heirs of God. Also fellow heirs with Christ if indeed we suffer with him so we may also be glorified with him.” Such a translation suggests two distinct inheritances, one coming to all of God’s children, the other coming only to those who suffer with Christ. The difficulty of this view, however, is that it ignores the correlative conjunctions μέν…δέ (men…de, “on the one hand…on the other hand”): The construction strongly suggests that the inheritances cannot be separated since both explain “then heirs.” For this reason, the preferred translation puts this explanation in parentheses.
- Romans 8:18 tn Grk “are not worthy [to be compared].”
- Romans 8:20 tn Grk “because of the one”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Romans 8:23 tn Or “who have the Spirit as firstfruits.” The genitive πνεύματος (pneumatos) can be understood here as possessive (“the firstfruits belonging to the Spirit”) although it is much more likely that this is a genitive of apposition (“the firstfruits, namely, the Spirit”); cf. TEV, NLT.
- Romans 8:23 tn See the note on “adoption” in v. 15.
- Romans 8:23 tn Grk “body.”
- Romans 8:25 tn Or “perseverance.”
16 He reached down[a] from above and took hold of me;
he pulled me from the surging water.[b]
17 He rescued me from my strong enemy,[c]
from those who hate me,
for they were too strong for me.
18 They confronted[d] me in my day of calamity,
but the Lord helped me.[e]
19 He brought me out into a wide open place;
he delivered me because he was pleased with me.[f]
20 The Lord repaid[g] me for my godly deeds;[h]
he rewarded[i] my blameless behavior.[j]
21 For I have obeyed the Lord’s commands;[k]
I have not rebelled against my God.[l]
22 For I am aware of all his regulations,[m]
and I do not reject his rules.[n]
23 I was innocent before him,
and kept myself from sinning.[o]
24 The Lord rewarded me for my godly deeds;[p]
he took notice of my blameless behavior.[q]
25 You prove to be loyal[r] to one who is faithful;[s]
you prove to be trustworthy[t] to one who is innocent.[u]
26 You prove to be reliable[v] to one who is blameless,
but you prove to be deceptive[w] to one who is perverse.[x]
27 For you deliver oppressed[y] people,
but you bring down those who have a proud look.[z]
28 Indeed,[aa] you light my lamp, Lord.[ab]
My God[ac] illuminates the darkness around me.[ad]
29 Indeed,[ae] with your help[af] I can charge against[ag] an army;[ah]
by my God’s power[ai] I can jump over a wall.[aj]
30 The one true God acts in a faithful manner;[ak]
the Lord’s promise[al] is reliable.[am]
He is a shield to all who take shelter[an] in him.
31 Indeed,[ao] who is God besides the Lord?
Who is a protector[ap] besides our God?[aq]
32 The one true God[ar] gives[as] me strength;[at]
he removes[au] the obstacles in my way.[av]
33 He gives me the agility of a deer;[aw]
he enables me to negotiate the rugged terrain.[ax]
34 He trains my hands for battle;[ay]
my arms can bend even the strongest bow.[az]
35 You give me your protective shield;[ba]
your right hand supports me.[bb]
Your willingness to help[bc] enables me to prevail.[bd]
36 You widen my path;[be]
my feet[bf] do not slip.
- Psalm 18:16 tn Heb “stretched.” Perhaps “his hand” should be supplied by ellipsis (see Ps 144:7). In this poetic narrative context the three prefixed verbal forms in this verse are best understood as preterites indicating past tense, not imperfects.
- Psalm 18:16 tn Heb “mighty waters.” The waters of the sea symbolize the psalmist’s powerful enemies, as well as the realm of death they represent (see v. 4 and Ps 144:7).
- Psalm 18:17 tn The singular refers either to personified death or collectively to the psalmist’s enemies. The following line, which refers to “those [plural] who hate me,” favors the latter.
- Psalm 18:18 tn The same verb is translated “trapped” in v. 5. In this poetic narrative context the prefixed verbal form is best understood as a preterite indicating past tense, not imperfect.
- Psalm 18:18 tn Heb “became my support.”
- Psalm 18:19 tn Or “delighted in me.”
- Psalm 18:20 tn In this poetic narrative context the prefixed verbal form is best understood as a preterite indicating past tense, not imperfect.
- Psalm 18:20 tn Heb “according to my righteousness.” As vv. 22-24 make clear, the psalmist refers here to his unwavering obedience to God’s commands. In these verses the psalmist explains that the Lord was pleased with him and willing to deliver him because he had been loyal to God and obedient to his commandments. Ancient Near Eastern literature contains numerous parallels. A superior (a god or king) would typically reward a subject (a king or the servant of a king, respectively) for loyalty and obedience. See R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 211-13.
- Psalm 18:20 tn The unreduced Hiphil prefixed verbal form appears to be an imperfect, in which case the psalmist would be generalizing. However, both the preceding and following contexts (see especially v. 24) suggest he is narrating his experience. Despite its unreduced form, the verb is better taken as a preterite. For other examples of unreduced Hiphil preterites, see Pss 55:14a; 68:9a, 10b; 80:8a; 89:43a; 107:38b; 116:6b.
- Psalm 18:20 tn Heb “according to the purity of my hands he repaid to me.” “Hands” suggest activity and behavior.
- Psalm 18:21 tn Heb “for I have kept the ways of the Lord.” The phrase “ways of the Lord” refers here to the “conduct required” by the Lord. In Ps 25 the Lord’s “ways” are associated with his covenantal demands (see vv. 4, 9-10). See also Ps 119:3 (cf. vv. 1, 4), as well as Deut 8:6; 10:12; 11:22; 19:9; 26:17; 28:9; 30:16.
- Psalm 18:21 tn Heb “I have not acted wickedly from my God.” The statement is elliptical; the idea is, “I have not acted wickedly and, in so doing, departed from my God.”
- Psalm 18:22 tn Heb “for all his regulations [are] before me.” The Hebrew term מִשְׁפָּטִים (mishpatim, “regulations”) refers to God’s covenantal requirements, especially those which the king is responsible to follow (cf. Deut 17:18-20). See also Pss 19:9 (cf. vv. 7-8); 89:30; 147:20 (cf. v. 19), as well as the numerous uses of the term in Ps 119.
- Psalm 18:22 tn Heb “and his rules I do not turn aside from me.” 2 Sam 22:23 reads, “and his rules, I do not turn aside from it.” The prefixed verbal form is probably an imperfect; the psalmist here generalizes about his loyalty to God’s commands. The Lord’s “rules” are the stipulations of the covenant which the king was responsible to obey (see Ps 89:31; cf. v. 30 and Deut 17:18-20).
- Psalm 18:23 tn Heb “from my sin,” that is, from making it my own in any way.sn Kept myself from sinning. Leading a blameless life meant that the king would be loyal to God’s covenant, purge the government and society of evil and unjust officials, and reward loyalty to the Lord (see Ps 101).
- Psalm 18:24 tn Heb “according to my righteousness.”
- Psalm 18:24 tn Heb “according to the purity of my hands before his eyes.” 2 Sam 22:25 reads “according to my purity before his eyes.” The verbal repetition (compare vv. 20 and 24) sets off vv. 20-24 as a distinct sub-unit within the psalm.
- Psalm 18:25 tn The imperfect verbal forms in vv. 25-29 draw attention to God’s characteristic actions. Based on his experience, the psalmist generalizes about God’s just dealings with people (vv. 25-27) and about the way in which God typically empowers him on the battlefield (vv. 28-29). The Hitpael stem is used in vv. 26-27 in a reflexive resultative (or causative) sense. God makes himself loyal, etc. in the sense that he conducts or reveals himself as such. On this use of the Hitpael stem, see GKC 149-50 §54.e.
- Psalm 18:25 tn Or “to a faithful follower.” A “faithful follower” (חָסִיד, khasid) is one who does what is right in God’s eyes and remains faithful to God (see Pss 4:3; 12:1; 16:10; 31:23; 37:28; 86:2; 97:10).
- Psalm 18:25 tn Or “innocent.”
- Psalm 18:25 tn Heb “a man of innocence.”
- Psalm 18:26 tn Or “blameless.”
- Psalm 18:26 tn The Hebrew verb פָּתַל (patal) is used in only three other texts. In Gen 30:8 it means literally “to wrestle,” or “to twist.” In Job 5:13 it refers to devious individuals, and in Prov 8:8 to deceptive words.
- Psalm 18:26 tn The adjective עִקֵּשׁ (ʿiqqesh) has the basic nuance “twisted, crooked,” and by extension refers to someone or something that is morally perverse. It appears frequently in Proverbs, where it is used of evil people (22:5), speech (8:8; 19:1), thoughts (11:20; 17:20), and life styles (2:15; 28:6). A righteous king opposes such people (Ps 101:4).sn Verses 25-26 affirm God’s justice. He responds to people in accordance with their moral character. His response mirrors their actions. The faithful and blameless find God to be loyal and reliable in his dealings with them. But deceivers discover he is able and willing to use deceit to destroy them. For a more extensive discussion of the theme of divine deception in the OT, see R. B. Chisholm, “Does God Deceive?” BSac 155 (1998): 11-28.
- Psalm 18:27 tn Or perhaps, “humble” (note the contrast with those who are proud).
- Psalm 18:27 tn Heb “but proud eyes you bring low.” 2 Sam 22:28 reads, “your eyes [are] upon the proud, [whom] you bring low.”
- Psalm 18:28 tn Or “for.” The translation assumes that כִּי (ki) is asseverative here.
- Psalm 18:28 tn Ps 18:28 reads: “you light my lamp, Lord,” while 2 Sam 22:29 has, “you are my lamp, Lord.” The Ps 18 reading may preserve two variants, נֵרִי (neri, “my lamp”) and אוֹרִי (ʾori, “my light”), cf. Ps 27:1. The verb תָּאִיר (taʾir, “you light”) in Ps 18:28 could be a corruption of the latter. See F. M. Cross and D. N. Freedman, Studies in Ancient Yahwistic Poetry (SBLDS), 150, n. 64. The metaphor, which likens the Lord to a lamp or light, pictures him as the psalmist’s source of life. For other examples of “lamp” used in this way, see Job 18:6; 21:17; Prov 13:9; 20:20; 24:20. For other examples of “light” as a symbol for life, see Job 3:20; 33:30; Ps 56:13.
- Psalm 18:28 tn 2 Sam 22:29 repeats the name “Lord.”
- Psalm 18:28 tn Heb “my darkness.”
- Psalm 18:29 tn Or “for.” The translation assumes that כִּי (ki) is asseverative here.
- Psalm 18:29 tn Heb “by you.”
- Psalm 18:29 tn Heb “I will run.” The imperfect verbal forms in v. 29 indicate the subject’s potential or capacity to perform an action. Though one might expect a preposition to follow the verb here, this need not be the case with the verb רוּץ (ruts; see 1 Sam 17:22). Some emend the Qal to a Hiphil form of the verb and translate, “I put to flight [Heb “cause to run”] an army.”
- Psalm 18:29 tn More specifically, the noun גְּדוּד (gedud) refers to a raiding party or to a contingent of troops.sn I can charge against an army. The picture of a divinely empowered warrior charging against an army in almost superhuman fashion appears elsewhere in ancient Near Eastern literature. See R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 228.
- Psalm 18:29 tn Heb “and by my God.”
- Psalm 18:29 sn I can jump over a wall. The psalmist uses hyperbole to emphasize his God-given military superiority.
- Psalm 18:30 tn Heb “[As for] the God, his way is blameless.” The term הָאֵל (haʾel, “the God”) stands as a nominative (or genitive) absolute in apposition to the resumptive pronominal suffix on “way.” The prefixed article emphasizes his distinctiveness as the one true God (cf. Deut 33:26). God’s “way” in this context refers to his protective and salvific acts in fulfillment of his promise (see also Deut 32:4; Pss 67:2; 77:13 [note vv. 11-12, 14]; 103:7; 138:5; 145:17).
- Psalm 18:30 sn The Lord’s promise. In the ancient Near East kings would typically seek and receive oracles from their god(s) prior to battle. For examples, see R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 241-42.
- Psalm 18:30 tn Heb “the word of the Lord is purified.” The Lord’s “word” probably refers here to his oracle(s) of victory delivered to the psalmist before the battle(s) described in the following context. See also Pss 12:5-7 and 138:2-3. David frequently received such oracles before going into battle (see 1 Sam 23:2, 4-5, 10-12; 30:8; 2 Sam 5:19). The Lord’s word of promise is absolutely reliable; it is compared to metal that has been refined in fire and cleansed of impurities. See Ps 12:6.
- Psalm 18:30 sn Take shelter. See the note on the word “shelter” in v. 2.
- Psalm 18:31 tn Or “for.”
- Psalm 18:31 tn Heb “rocky cliff,” which is a metaphor of divine protection. See v. 2, where the Hebrew term צוּר (tsur) is translated “rocky summit.”
- Psalm 18:31 tn The rhetorical questions anticipate the answer, “No one.” In this way the psalmist indicates that the Lord is the only true God and reliable source of protection. See also Deut 32:39, where the Lord affirms that he is the only true God. Note as well the emphasis on his role as protector (Heb “rocky cliff,” צוּר, tsur) in Deut 32:4, 15, 17-18, 30.
- Psalm 18:32 tn Heb “the God.” The prefixed article emphasizes the Lord’s distinctiveness as the one true God (cf. Deut 33:26). See v. 30.
- Psalm 18:32 tn Heb “is the one who clothes.” For similar language see 1 Sam 2:4; Pss 65:6; 93:1. The psalmist employs a generalizing hymnic style in vv. 32-34; he uses participles in vv. 32a, 33a, and 34a to describe what God characteristically does on his behalf.
- Psalm 18:32 tn 2 Sam 22:33 reads, “the God is my strong refuge.”sn Gives me strength. As the following context makes clear, this refers to physical and emotional strength for battle (see especially v. 39).
- Psalm 18:32 tn The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive here carries along the generalizing force of the preceding participle.
- Psalm 18:32 tn Heb “he made my path smooth.” The Hebrew term תָּמִים (tamim, “smooth”) usually carries a moral or ethical connotation, “blameless, innocent.” However, in Ps 18:33 it refers to a pathway free of obstacles. The reality underlying the metaphor is the psalmist’s ability to charge into battle without tripping (see vv. 33, 36).
- Psalm 18:33 tn Heb “[the one who] makes my feet like [those of ] a deer.”
- Psalm 18:33 tn Heb “and on my high places he makes me walk.” The imperfect verbal form emphasizes God’s characteristic provision. The psalmist compares his agility in battle to the ability of a deer to negotiate rugged, high terrain without falling or being injured.sn Habakkuk uses similar language to describe his faith during difficult times. See Hab 3:19.
- Psalm 18:34 sn He trains my hands. The psalmist attributes his skill with weapons to divine enablement. Egyptian reliefs picture gods teaching the king how to shoot a bow. See O. Keel, The Symbolism of the Biblical World, 265.
- Psalm 18:34 tn Heb “and a bow of bronze is bent by my arms”; or “my arms bend a bow of bronze.” The verb נָחַת (nakhat) apparently means “pull back, bend” here (see HALOT 692 s.v. נחת). The third feminine singular verbal form appears to agree with the feminine singular noun קֶשֶׁת (qeshet, “bow”). In this case the verb must be taken as Niphal (passive). However, it is possible that “my arms” is the subject of the verb and “bow” the object. In this case the verb is Piel (active). For other examples of a feminine singular verb being construed with a plural noun, see GKC 464 §145.k.sn The strongest bow (Heb “bow of bronze”) probably refers to a bow laminated with bronze strips, or to a purely ceremonial or decorative bow made entirely from bronze. In the latter case the language is hyperbolic, for such a weapon would not be functional in battle.
- Psalm 18:35 tn Heb “and you give to me the shield of your deliverance.”sn You give me your protective shield. Ancient Near Eastern literature often refers to a god giving a king special weapons. See R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 260-61.
- Psalm 18:35 tc 2 Sam 22:36 omits this line, perhaps due to homoioarcton. A scribe’s eye may have jumped from the vav (ו) prefixed to “your right hand” to the vav prefixed to the following “and your answer,” causing the copyist to omit by accident the intervening words (“your right hand supports me and”).
- Psalm 18:35 tn The MT of Ps 18:35 appears to read, “your condescension,” apparently referring to God’s willingness to intervene (cf. NIV “you stoop down”). However, the noun עֲנָוָה (ʿanavah) elsewhere means “humility” and is used only here of God. The form עַנְוַתְךָ (ʿanvatekha) may be a fully written form of the suffixed infinitive construct of עָנָה (ʿanah, “to answer”; a defectively written form of the infinitive appears in 2 Sam 22:36). In this case the psalmist refers to God’s willingness to answer his prayer; one might translate, “your favorable response.”
- Psalm 18:35 tn Heb “makes me great.”
- Psalm 18:36 tn Heb “you make wide my step under me.” “Step” probably refers metonymically to the path upon which the psalmist walks. Another option is to translate, “you widen my stride.” This would suggest that God gives the psalmist the capacity to run quickly.
- Psalm 18:36 tn Heb “lower legs.” On the meaning of the Hebrew noun, which occurs only here, see H. R. Cohen, Biblical Hapax Legomena (SBLDS), 112. A cognate Akkadian noun means “lower leg.”
- Proverbs 19:26 tn The construction joins the Piel participle מְשַׁדֶּד (meshadded, “one who robs”) with the Hiphil imperfect יַבְרִיחַ (yavriakh, “causes to flee” = chases away). The imperfect given a progressive imperfect nuance matches the timeless description of the participle as a substantive.
- Proverbs 19:26 sn “Father” and “mother” here represent a stereotypical word pair in the book of Proverbs, rather than describing separate crimes against each individual parent. Both crimes are against both parents.
- Proverbs 19:26 tn The more generic “child” does not fit the activities described in this verse and so “son” is retained in the translation. In the ancient world a “son” was more likely than a daughter to behave as stated. Such behavior may reflect the son wanting to take over his father’s lands prematurely.