2 Chronicles 4:1-6:11
4 He made a bronze altar, 30 feet[a] long, 30 feet[b] wide, and 15 feet[c] high. 2 He also made the big bronze basin called “The Sea.”[d] It measured 15 feet[e] from rim to rim, was circular in shape, and stood 7½[f] high. Its circumference was 45 feet.[g] 3 Images of bulls were under it all the way around, ten every 18 inches[h] all the way around. The bulls were in two rows and had been cast with “The Sea.”[i] 4 “The Sea” stood on top of twelve bulls. Three faced northward, three westward, three southward, and three eastward. “The Sea” was placed on top of them, and they all faced outward.[j] 5 It was four fingers thick, and its rim was like that of a cup shaped like a lily blossom. It could hold 18,000 gallons.[k] 6 He made ten washing basins; he put five on the south side and five on the north side. In them they rinsed the items used for burnt sacrifices; the priests washed in “The Sea.”
7 He made ten gold lampstands according to specifications and put them in the temple, five on the right and five on the left. 8 He made ten tables and set them in the temple, five on the right and five on the left. He also made 100 gold bowls. 9 He made the courtyard of the priests and the large enclosure and its doors;[l] he plated their doors with bronze. 10 He put “The Sea” on the south side, in the southeast corner.
11 Huram Abi[m] made the pots, shovels, and bowls. He finished all the work on God’s temple he had been assigned by King Solomon.[n] 12 He made[o] the two pillars, the two bowl-shaped tops of the pillars, the latticework for the bowl-shaped tops of the two pillars, 13 the 400 pomegranate-shaped ornaments for the latticework of the two pillars (each latticework had two rows of these ornaments at the bowl-shaped top of the pillar), 14 the ten[p] movable stands with their ten[q] basins, 15 the big bronze basin called “The Sea” with its twelve bulls underneath, 16 and the pots, shovels, and meat forks.[r] All the items King Solomon assigned Huram Abi to make for the Lord’s temple[s] were made from polished bronze. 17 The king had them cast in earth foundries[t] in the region of the Jordan between Sukkoth and Zarethan. 18 Solomon made so many of these items they did not weigh the bronze.[u]
19 Solomon also made these items for God’s temple: the gold altar, the tables on which the Bread of the Presence[v] was kept, 20 the pure gold lampstands and their lamps which burned as specified at the entrance to the inner sanctuary, 21 the pure gold flower-shaped ornaments, lamps, and tongs, 22 the pure gold trimming shears, basins, pans, and censers, and the gold door sockets for the inner sanctuary (the Most Holy Place) and for the doors of the main hall of the temple. 5 1 When Solomon had finished constructing the Lord’s temple, he put the holy items that belonged to his father David (the silver, gold, and all the other articles) in the treasuries of God’s temple.
Solomon Moves the Ark into the Temple
2 Then Solomon convened Israel’s elders—all the leaders of the Israelite tribes and families—in Jerusalem, so they could witness the transferal of the ark of the covenant of the Lord from the City of David[w] (that is, Zion).[x] 3 All the men of Israel assembled before the king during the festival[y] in the seventh month.[z] 4 When all Israel’s elders had arrived, the Levites lifted the ark. 5 The priests and Levites carried the ark, the tent where God appeared to his people,[aa] and all the holy items in the tent.[ab] 6 Now King Solomon and all the Israelites who had assembled with him went on ahead of the ark and sacrificed more sheep and cattle than could be counted or numbered.[ac]
7 The priests brought the ark of the covenant of the Lord to its assigned[ad] place in the inner sanctuary of the temple, in the Most Holy Place under the wings of the cherubim. 8 The cherubim’s wings extended over the place where the ark sat; the cherubim overshadowed the ark and its poles.[ae] 9 The poles were so long their ends extending out from the ark were visible from in front of the inner sanctuary, but they could not be seen from beyond that point.[af] They have remained there to this very day. 10 There was nothing in the ark except the two tablets Moses had placed there in Horeb.[ag] (It was there that[ah] the Lord made a covenant with the Israelites after he brought them out of the land of Egypt.)
11 The priests left the Holy Place.[ai] All the priests who participated had consecrated themselves, no matter which division they represented.[aj] 12 All the Levites who were musicians, including Asaph, Heman, Jeduthun, and their sons and relatives, wore linen. They played cymbals and stringed instruments as they stood east of the altar. They were accompanied by 120 priests who blew trumpets. 13 The trumpeters and musicians played together, praising and giving thanks to the Lord. Accompanied by trumpets, cymbals, and other instruments, they loudly praised the Lord, singing:[ak] “Certainly he is good; certainly his loyal love endures!” Then a cloud filled the Lord’s temple.[al] 14 The priests could not carry out their duties[am] because of the cloud; the Lord’s splendor filled God’s temple.
6 Then Solomon said, “The Lord has said that he lives in thick darkness. 2 O Lord,[an] I have built a lofty temple for you, a place where you can live permanently.” 3 Then the king turned around[ao] and pronounced a blessing over the whole Israelite assembly as they stood there.[ap] 4 He said, “The Lord God of Israel is worthy of praise because he has fulfilled[aq] what he promised[ar] my father David. 5 He told David,[as] ‘Since the day I brought my people out of the land of Egypt, I have not chosen a city from all the tribes of Israel to build a temple in which to live.[at] Nor did I choose a man as leader of my people Israel. 6 But now I have chosen Jerusalem as a place to live,[au] and I have chosen David to lead my people Israel.’ 7 Now my father David had a strong desire to build a temple to honor the Lord God of Israel.[av] 8 The Lord told my father David, ‘It is right for you to have a strong desire to build a temple to honor me.[aw] 9 But you will not build the temple; your very own son will build the temple for my honor.’[ax] 10 The Lord has kept the promise he made. I have taken my father David’s place and have occupied the throne of Israel, as the Lord promised. I have built this temple for the honor of the Lord God of Israel 11 and set up in it a place for the ark containing the covenant the Lord made with the Israelites.”
- 2 Chronicles 4:1 tn Heb “20 cubits.” Assuming a cubit of 18 inches (45 cm), the length would have been 30 feet (9 m).
- 2 Chronicles 4:1 tn Heb “20 cubits.”
- 2 Chronicles 4:1 tn Heb “10 cubits.” Assuming a cubit of 18 inches (45 cm), the height would have been 15 feet (4.5 m).
- 2 Chronicles 4:2 tn Heb “He made the sea, cast.”sn The large bronze basin known as “The Sea” was mounted on twelve bronze bulls and contained water for the priests to bathe themselves (see v. 6; cf. Exod 30:17-21).
- 2 Chronicles 4:2 tn Heb “10 cubits.” Assuming a cubit of 18 inches (45 cm), the diameter would have been 15 feet (4.5 m).
- 2 Chronicles 4:2 tn Heb “5 cubits.” Assuming a cubit of 18 inches (45 cm), the height would have been 7.5 feet (2.25 m).
- 2 Chronicles 4:2 tn Heb “and a measuring line went around it 30 cubits all around.”
- 2 Chronicles 4:3 tn Heb “ten every cubit.”
- 2 Chronicles 4:3 tn Heb “rows being cast with its casting.”
- 2 Chronicles 4:4 tn Heb “all their hindquarters were toward the inside.”
- 2 Chronicles 4:5 tn Heb “3,000 baths” (note that the capacity is given in 1 Kings 7:26 as “2,000 baths”). A bath was a liquid measure roughly equivalent to six gallons (about 22 liters), so 3,000 baths was a quantity of about 18,000 gallons (66,000 liters).
- 2 Chronicles 4:9 tn Heb “and the doors for the enclosure.”
- 2 Chronicles 4:11 tn Heb “Huram,” but here this refers to Huram Abi (2 Chr 2:13). The complete name has been used in the translation to avoid possible confusion with King Huram of Tyre.
- 2 Chronicles 4:11 tn Heb “Huram finished doing all the work which he did for King Solomon [on] the house of God.”
- 2 Chronicles 4:12 tn The words “he made” are added for stylistic reasons.
- 2 Chronicles 4:14 tc The Hebrew text has עָשָׂה (ʿasah, “he made”), which probably should be emended to עֶשֶׂר (ʿeser, “ten”; see 1 Kgs 7:43).
- 2 Chronicles 4:14 tc The Hebrew text has עָשָׂה (ʿasah, “he made”), which probably should be emended to עֲשָׂרָה (ʿasarah, “ten”; see 1 Kgs 7:43).
- 2 Chronicles 4:16 tc Some prefer to read here “bowls,” see v. 11 and 1 Kgs 7:45.
- 2 Chronicles 4:16 tn Heb “Huram Abi made for King Solomon [for] the house of the Lord.”
- 2 Chronicles 4:17 tn Or perhaps, “molds.”
- 2 Chronicles 4:18 tn Heb “Solomon made all these items in great abundance so that the weight of the bronze was not sought.”
- 2 Chronicles 4:19 tn Heb “the bread of the face/presence.”sn This bread offered to God was viewed as a perpetual offering to God. See Lev 24:5-9.
- 2 Chronicles 5:2 sn The phrase the City of David refers here to the fortress of Zion in Jerusalem, not to Bethlehem. See 2 Sam 5:7.
- 2 Chronicles 5:2 tn Heb “Then Solomon convened the elders of Israel, the heads of the tribes, the chiefs of the fathers belonging to the sons of Israel to Jerusalem to bring up the ark of the covenant of the Lord from the City of David (it is Zion).”
- 2 Chronicles 5:3 sn This festival in the seventh month was the Feast of Tabernacles, see Lev 23:34.
- 2 Chronicles 5:3 sn The seventh month would be September-October in modern reckoning.
- 2 Chronicles 5:5 tn Heb “the tent of assembly.”sn See Exod 33:7-11.
- 2 Chronicles 5:5 tn Heb “and they carried the ark of the Lord…. The priests and the Levites carried them.”
- 2 Chronicles 5:6 tn Heb “And King Solomon and all the assembly of Israel, those who had been gathered to him, [were] before the ark, sacrificing sheep and cattle which could not be counted or numbered because of the abundance.”
- 2 Chronicles 5:7 tn The word “assigned” is supplied in the translation for clarification.
- 2 Chronicles 5:8 sn These poles were used to carry the ark. The Levites were to carry it with the poles on their shoulders. See Exod 25:13-15; 1 Chr 15:15.
- 2 Chronicles 5:9 tn Heb “they could not be seen outside.”
- 2 Chronicles 5:10 sn Horeb is another name for Mount Sinai (cf. Exod 3:1).
- 2 Chronicles 5:10 tn Heb “in Horeb where.”
- 2 Chronicles 5:11 tn Heb “and when the priests went from the holy place.” The syntactical relationship of this temporal clause to the following context is unclear. Perhaps the thought is completed in v. 14 after a lengthy digression.
- 2 Chronicles 5:11 tn Heb “Indeed [or “for”] all the priests who were found consecrated themselves without guarding divisions.”
- 2 Chronicles 5:13 tn Heb “like one were the trumpeters and the musicians, causing one voice to be heard, praising and giving thanks to the Lord, and while raising a voice with trumpets and with cymbals and with instruments of music, and while praising the Lord.”
- 2 Chronicles 5:13 tn Heb “and the house was filled with a cloud, the house of the Lord.”
- 2 Chronicles 5:14 tn Heb “were not able to stand to serve.”
- 2 Chronicles 6:2 tn The words “O Lord” do not appear in the Hebrew text, but they are supplied in the translation for clarification; Solomon addresses the Lord in prayer at this point.
- 2 Chronicles 6:3 tn Heb “turned his face.”
- 2 Chronicles 6:3 tn Heb “and he blessed all the assembly of Israel, and all the assembly of Israel was standing.”
- 2 Chronicles 6:4 tn The Hebrew text reads, “fulfilled by his hand,” but the phrase “by his hand” is somewhat redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
- 2 Chronicles 6:4 tn The Hebrew text reads, “promised by his mouth,” but the phrase “by his mouth” is somewhat redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
- 2 Chronicles 6:5 tn Heb “saying.”
- 2 Chronicles 6:5 tn Heb “to build a house for my name to be there.” Here “name” is used by metonymy for the Lord himself, and thus the expression “to be there” refers to his taking up residence there (hence the translation, “a temple in which to live”). In this case the temple is referred to as a “house” where the Lord himself can reside.
- 2 Chronicles 6:6 tn Heb “for my name to be there.” See also the note on the word “live” in v. 5.
- 2 Chronicles 6:7 tn Heb “and it was with the heart of David my father to build a house for the name of the Lord God of Israel.”sn On the significance of the Lord’s “name,” see the note on the word “live” in v. 5.
- 2 Chronicles 6:8 tn Heb “Because it was with your heart to build a house for my name, you did well that it was with your heart.”
- 2 Chronicles 6:9 tn Heb “your son, the one who came out of your body, he will build the temple for my name.”
The Believer’s Relationship to the Law
7 Or do you not know, brothers and sisters[a] (for I am speaking to those who know the law), that the law is lord over a person[b] as long as he lives? 2 For a married woman is bound by law to her husband as long as he lives, but if her[c] husband dies, she is released from the law of the marriage.[d] 3 So then,[e] if she is joined to another man while her husband is alive, she will be called an adulteress. But if her[f] husband dies, she is free from that law, and if she is joined to another man, she is not an adulteress. 4 So, my brothers and sisters,[g] you also died to the law through the body of Christ, so that you could be joined to another, to the one who was raised from the dead, to bear fruit to God.[h] 5 For when we were in the flesh,[i] the sinful desires,[j] aroused by the law, were active in the members of our body[k] to bear fruit for death. 6 But now we have been released from the law, because we have died[l] to what controlled us, so that we may serve in the new life of the Spirit and not under the old written code.[m]
7 What shall we say then? Is the law sin? Absolutely not! Certainly, I[n] would not have known sin except through the law. For indeed I would not have known what it means to desire something belonging to someone else[o] if the law had not said, “Do not covet.”[p] 8 But sin, seizing the opportunity through the commandment, produced in me all kinds of wrong desires.[q] For apart from the law, sin is dead. 9 And I was once alive apart from the law, but with the coming of the commandment sin became alive 10 and I died. So[r] I found that the very commandment that was intended to bring life brought death![s] 11 For sin, seizing the opportunity through the commandment, deceived me and through it I died.[t] 12 So then, the law is holy, and the commandment is holy, righteous, and good.
13 Did that which is good, then, become death to me? Absolutely not! But sin, so that it would be shown to be sin, produced death in me through what is good, so that through the commandment sin would become utterly sinful.
- Romans 7:1 tn Grk “brothers.” See note on the phrase “brothers and sisters” in 1:13.
- Romans 7:1 sn Here person refers to a human being.
- Romans 7:2 tn Grk “the,” with the article used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).
- Romans 7:2 tn Grk “husband.”sn Paul’s example of the married woman and the law of the marriage illustrates that death frees a person from obligation to the law. Thus, in spiritual terms, a person who has died to what controlled us (v. 6) has been released from the law to serve God in the new life produced by the Spirit.
- Romans 7:3 tn There is a double connective here that cannot be easily preserved in English: “consequently therefore,” emphasizing the conclusion of what he has been arguing.
- Romans 7:3 tn Grk “the,” with the article used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).
- Romans 7:4 tn Grk “brothers.” See note on the phrase “brothers and sisters” in 1:13.
- Romans 7:4 tn Grk “that we might bear fruit to God.”
- Romans 7:5 tn That is, before we were in Christ.
- Romans 7:5 tn Or “sinful passions.”
- Romans 7:5 tn Grk “our members”; the words “of our body” have been supplied to clarify the meaning.
- Romans 7:6 tn Grk “having died.” The participle ἀποθανόντες (apothanontes) has been translated as a causal adverbial participle.
- Romans 7:6 tn Grk “in the newness of the Spirit and not in the oldness of the letter.”
- Romans 7:7 sn Romans 7:7-25. There has been an enormous debate over the significance of the first person singular pronouns (“I”) in this passage and how to understand their referent. Did Paul intend (1) a reference to himself and other Christians too; (2) a reference to his own pre-Christian experience as a Jew, struggling with the law and sin (and thus addressing his fellow countrymen as Jews); or (3) a reference to himself as a child of Adam, reflecting the experience of Adam that is shared by both Jews and Gentiles alike (i.e., all people everywhere)? Good arguments can be assembled for each of these views, and each has problems dealing with specific statements in the passage. The classic argument against an autobiographical interpretation was made by W. G. Kümmel, Römer 7 und die Bekehrung des Paulus. A good case for seeing at least an autobiographical element in the chapter has been made by G. Theissen, Psychologische Aspekte paulinischer Theologie [FRLANT], 181-268. One major point that seems to favor some sort of an autobiographical reading of these verses is the lack of any mention of the Holy Spirit for empowerment in the struggle described in Rom 7:7-25. The Spirit is mentioned beginning in 8:1 as the solution to the problem of the struggle with sin (8:4-6, 9).
- Romans 7:7 tn Grk “I would not have known covetousness.”
- Romans 7:7 sn A quotation from Exod 20:17 and Deut 5:21.
- Romans 7:8 tn Or “covetousness.”
- Romans 7:10 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “So” to indicate the result of the statement in the previous verse. Greek style often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” but English style generally does not.
- Romans 7:10 tn Grk “and there was found in/for me the commandment which was for life—this was for death.”
- Romans 7:11 tn Or “and through it killed me.”
A prayer of David.
17 Lord, consider my just cause.[b]
Pay attention to my cry for help.
Listen to the prayer
I sincerely offer.[c]
2 Make a just decision on my behalf.[d]
Decide what is right.[e]
3 You have scrutinized my inner motives;[f]
you have examined me during the night.[g]
You have carefully evaluated me, but you find no sin.
I am determined I will say nothing sinful.[h]
4 As for the actions of people[i]—
just as you have commanded,
I have not followed in the footsteps of violent men.[j]
5 I carefully obey your commands;[k]
I do not deviate from them.[l]
6 I call to you because you will answer me, O God.
Listen to me![m]
Hear what I say![n]
7 Accomplish awesome, faithful deeds,[o]
you who powerfully deliver those who look to you for protection from their enemies.[p]
8 Protect me as you would protect the pupil of your eye.[q]
Hide me in the shadow of your wings.[r]
9 Protect me from[s] the wicked men who attack[t] me,
my enemies who crowd around me for the kill.[u]
10 They are calloused;[v]
they speak arrogantly.[w]
11 They attack me, now they surround me;[x]
they intend to throw me to the ground.[y]
12 He[z] is like a lion[aa] that wants to tear its prey to bits,[ab]
like a young lion crouching[ac] in hidden places.
13 Rise up, Lord!
Confront him.[ad] Knock him down.[ae]
Use your sword to rescue me from the wicked man.[af]
14 Lord, use your power to deliver me from these murderers,[ag]
from the murderers of this world.[ah]
They enjoy prosperity;[ai]
you overwhelm them with the riches they desire.[aj]
They have many children,
and leave their wealth to their offspring.[ak]
15 As for me, because I am innocent I will see your face;[al]
when I awake you will reveal yourself to me.[am]
- Psalm 17:1 sn Psalm 17. The psalmist asks God to intervene on his behalf because his life is threatened by dangerous enemies. He appeals to divine justice, for he is certain of his own innocence. Because he is innocent, he expects to encounter God and receive an assuring word.
- Psalm 17:1 tn Heb “hear, Lord, what is just.”
- Psalm 17:1 tn Heb “Listen to my prayer, [made] without lips of deceit.”
- Psalm 17:2 tn Heb “From before you may my justice come out.” The prefixed verbal form יָצָא (yatsaʾ) could be taken as an imperfect, but following the imperatives in v. 1, it is better understood as a jussive of prayer.
- Psalm 17:2 tn Heb “May your eyes look at what is right.” The prefixed verbal form is understood as jussive. (See also the preceding note on the word “behalf.”)
- Psalm 17:3 tn Heb “you tested my heart.”
- Psalm 17:3 tn Heb “you visited [at] night.”
- Psalm 17:3 tc Heb “you tested me, you do not find, I plan, my mouth will not cross over.” The Hebrew verbal form זַמֹּתִי (zammoti) is a Qal perfect, first person singular from the root זָמַם (zamam, “plan, plan evil”). Some emend the form to a suffixed form of the noun, זִמָּתִי (zimmati, “my plan/evil plan”), and take it as the object of the preceding verb “find.” However, the suffix seems odd, since the psalmist is denying that he has any wrong thoughts. If one takes the form with what precedes, it might make better sense to read זִמּוֹת (zimmot, “evil plans”). However, this emendation leaves an unclear connection with the next line. The present translation maintains the verbal form found in the MT and understands it in a neutral sense, “I have decided” (see Jer 4:28). The words “my mouth will not cross over” (i.e., “transgress, sin”) can then be taken as a noun clause functioning as the object of the verb.
- Psalm 17:4 tn Heb “with regard to the deeds of man[kind].”
- Psalm 17:4 tn Heb “by the word of your lips, I, I have watched the paths of the violent” (i.e., “watched” in the sense of “watched for the purpose of avoiding”).
- Psalm 17:5 tn Heb “my steps stay firm in your tracks.” The infinitive absolute functions here as a finite verb (see GKC 347 §113.gg). God’s “tracks” are his commands, i.e., the moral pathways he has prescribed for the psalmist.
- Psalm 17:5 tn Heb “my footsteps do not stagger.”
- Psalm 17:6 tn Heb “Turn your ear toward me.”
- Psalm 17:6 tn Heb “my word.”
- Psalm 17:7 tn Heb “Set apart faithful acts.”
- Psalm 17:7 tn Heb “[O] one who delivers those who seek shelter from the ones raising themselves up, by your right hand.” The Lord’s “right hand” here symbolizes his power to protect and deliver.sn Those who look to you for protection from their enemies. “Seeking shelter” in the Lord is an idiom for seeking his protection. Seeking his protection presupposes and even demonstrates the subject’s loyalty to the Lord. In the psalms those who “take shelter” in the Lord are contrasted with the wicked and equated with those who love, fear and serve the Lord (Pss 5:11-12; 31:17-20; 34:21-22).
- Psalm 17:8 tc Heb “Protect me like the pupil, a daughter of an eye.” The noun בַּת (bat, “daughter”) should probably be emended to בָּבַת (bavat, “pupil”). See Zech 2:12 HT (2:8 ET) and HALOT 107 s.v. *בָּבָה.
- Psalm 17:8 sn Your wings. The metaphor compares God to a protective mother bird.
- Psalm 17:9 tn Heb “from before”; or “because.” In the Hebrew text v. 9 is subordinated to v. 8. The words “protect me” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
- Psalm 17:9 tn Heb “destroy.” The psalmist uses the perfect verbal form to emphasize the degree of danger. He describes the wicked as being already in the process of destroying him.
- Psalm 17:9 tn Heb “my enemies, at the risk of life they surround me.” The Hebrew phrase בְּנֶפֶשׁ (benefesh) sometimes has the nuance “at the risk of [one’s] life” (see 1 Kgs 2:23; Prov 7:23; Lam 5:9).
- Psalm 17:10 tn Heb “their fat they close.” The Hebrew term חֵלֶב (khelev, “fat”) appears to stand by metonymy for their calloused hearts. They attack the psalmist without feeling any pity or remorse. Some propose emending the text to חֵלֶב לִבָּמוֹ (khelev libbamo, “fat of their heart[s]; cf. Ps 119:70, “their heart is insensitive like fat”). This assumes haplography of the לב (lamed-bet) consonantal sequence.
- Psalm 17:10 tn Heb “[with] their mouth they speak with arrogance.”
- Psalm 17:11 tc Heb “our steps, now they surround me.” The Kethib (consonantal text) has “surround me,” while the Qere (marginal reading) has “surround us,” harmonizing the pronoun to the preceding “our steps.” The first person plural pronoun does not fit the context, where the psalmist speaks as an individual. In the preceding verses the psalmist uses a first person singular verbal or pronominal form twenty times. For this reason it is preferable to emend “our steps” to אִשְּׁרוּנִי (ʾisheruni, “they attack me”) from the verbal root אָשַׁר (ʾashar, “march, stride, track”).
- Psalm 17:11 tn Heb “their eyes they set to bend down in the ground.”
- Psalm 17:12 tn Here the psalmist switches to the singular pronoun; he views his enemies collectively, or singles out a representative of the group, perhaps its leader.
- Psalm 17:12 tn Heb “his likeness [is] like a lion.”
- Psalm 17:12 tn Heb “[that] longs to tear.”
- Psalm 17:12 tn Heb “sitting.”
- Psalm 17:13 tn Heb “Be in front of his face.”
- Psalm 17:13 tn Or “bring him to his knees.”
- Psalm 17:13 tn Heb “rescue my life from the wicked [one] [by] your sword.”
- Psalm 17:14 tc Heb “from men [by] your hand, Lord.” The translation assumes an emendation (both here and in the following line) of מִמְתִים (mimetim, “from men”) to מִמְּמִתִים (mimmemitim, “from those who kill”). For other uses of the plural form of the Hiphil participle of מוּת (mut, “die”), see 2 Kgs 17:26 (used with lions as subject), Job 33:22 (apparently referring to the agents of death), and Jer 26:15 (used of those seeking Jeremiah’s life).
- Psalm 17:14 tn Heb “from men, from [the] world.” On the emendation of “men” to “murderers,” see the preceding note on the word “murderers.”
- Psalm 17:14 tn Heb “their portion, in life.”
- Psalm 17:14 tn Heb “and [with] your treasures you fill their belly.”sn You overwhelm them with the riches they desire. The psalmist is not accusing God of being unjust; he is simply observing that the wicked often prosper and that God is the ultimate source of all blessings that human beings enjoy (see Matt 5:45). When the wicked are ungrateful for God’s blessings, they become even more culpable and deserving of judgment. So this description of the wicked actually supports the psalmist’s appeal for deliverance. God should rescue him because he is innocent (see vv. 3-5) and because the wicked, though blessed abundantly by God, still have the audacity to attack God’s people.
- Psalm 17:14 tn Heb “they are satisfied [with] sons and leave their abundance to their children.”
- Psalm 17:15 tn Heb “I, in innocence, I will see your face.” To “see” God’s “face” means to have access to his presence and to experience his favor (see Ps 11:7; see also Job 33:26 [where רָאָה (ra’ah), not חָזַה (khazah), is used]). Here, however, the psalmist may be anticipating a mystical experience. See the following note on the word “me.”
- Psalm 17:15 tn Heb “I will be satisfied, when I awake, [with] your form.” The noun תְּמוּנָה (temunah) normally carries the nuance “likeness” or “form.” In Job 4:16 it refers to a ghostlike spiritual entity (see Job 4:15) that revealed itself to Eliphaz during the night. The psalmist may anticipate a mystical encounter with God in which he expects to see a manifestation of God’s presence (i.e., a theophany), perhaps in conjunction with an oracle of deliverance. During the quiet darkness of the night, God examines the psalmist’s inner motives and finds them to be pure (see v. 3). The psalmist is confident that when he awakens, perhaps sometime during the night or in the morning, he will be visited by God and assured of vindication.sn When I awake you will reveal yourself to me. Some see in this verse an allusion to resurrection. According to this view, when the psalmist awakens from the sleep of death, he will see God. It is unlikely that the psalmist had such a highly developed personal eschatology. As noted above, it is more likely that he is anticipating a divine visitation and mystical encounter as a prelude to his deliverance from his enemies.
22 What is desirable[a] for a person is to show loyal love,[b]
and a poor person is better than a liar.[c]
23 Fearing the Lord[d] leads[e] to life,[f]
and one who does so will live[g] satisfied; he will not be afflicted[h] by calamity.
- Proverbs 19:22 tn Heb “the desire of a man” (so KJV). The noun in construct is תַּאֲוַת (taʾavat), “desire [of].” Here it refers to “the desire of a man [= person].” Two problems surface here, the connotation of the word and the kind of genitive. “Desire” can also be translated “lust,” and so J. H. Greenstone has “The lust of a man is his shame” (Proverbs, 208). But the sentence is more likely positive in view of the more common uses of the words. “Man” could be a genitive of possession or subjective genitive—the man desires loyal love. It could also be an objective genitive, meaning “what is desired for a man.” The first would be the more natural in the proverb, which is showing that loyal love is better than wealth.
- Proverbs 19:22 tn Heb “[is] his loyal love”; NIV “unfailing love”; NRSV “loyalty.”
- Proverbs 19:22 sn The second half of the proverb presents the logical inference: The liar would be without “loyal love” entirely, and so poverty would be better than this. A poor person who wishes to do better is preferable to a person who makes promises and does not keep them.
- Proverbs 19:23 tn Heb “the fear of the Lord.” This expression features an objective genitive: “fearing the Lord.”
- Proverbs 19:23 tn The term “leads” does not appear in the Hebrew but is supplied in the translation for the sake of clarity and style.
- Proverbs 19:23 tn Here “life” is probably a metonymy of subject for “blessings and prosperity in life.” The plural form often covers a person’s “lifetime.”
- Proverbs 19:23 tn The subject of this verb is probably the one who fears the Lord and enjoys life. So the proverb uses synthetic parallelism; the second half tells what this life is like—it is an abiding contentment that is not threatened by calamity (cf. NCV “unbothered by trouble”).
- Proverbs 19:23 tn Heb “he will not be visited” (so KJV, ASV). The verb פָּקַד (paqad) is often translated “visit.” It describes intervention that will change the destiny. If God “visits” it means he intervenes to bless or to curse. To be “visited by trouble” means that calamity will interfere with the course of life and change the direction or the destiny. Therefore this is not referring to a minor trouble that one might briefly experience. A life in the Lord cannot be disrupted by such major catastrophes that would alter one’s destiny.