1 Chronicles 28-29
David Commissions Solomon to Build the Temple
28 David assembled in Jerusalem all the officials of Israel, including the commanders of the tribes, the commanders of the army divisions that served the king, the commanders of units of a thousand and a hundred, the officials who were in charge of all the property and livestock of the king and his sons, the eunuchs, and the warriors, including the most skilled of them.
2 King David rose to his feet and said: “Listen to me, my brothers and my people. I wanted to build a temple where the ark of the Lord’s covenant could be placed as a footstool for our God.[a] I have made the preparations for building it. 3 But God said to me, ‘You must not build a temple to honor me,[b] for you are a warrior and have spilled blood.’ 4 The Lord God of Israel chose me out of my father’s entire family to become king over Israel and have a permanent dynasty.[c] Indeed,[d] he chose Judah as leader, and my father’s family within Judah, and then he picked me out from among my father’s sons and made me king over all Israel.[e] 5 From all the many sons the Lord has given me, he chose Solomon my son to rule on his behalf over Israel.[f] 6 He said to me, ‘Solomon your son is the one who will build my temple and my courts, for I have chosen him to become my son and I will become his father. 7 I will establish his kingdom permanently, if he remains committed to obeying my commands and regulations, as you are doing this day.’[g] 8 So now, in the sight of all Israel, the Lord’s assembly, and in the hearing of our God, I say this:[h] Carefully observe[i] all the commands of the Lord your God, so that you may possess this good land and may leave it as a permanent inheritance for your children after you.
9 “And you, Solomon my son, obey[j] the God of your father and serve him with a submissive attitude and a willing spirit,[k] for the Lord examines all minds and understands every motive of one’s thoughts. If you seek him, he will let you find him,[l] but if you abandon him, he will reject you permanently. 10 Realize[m] now that the Lord has chosen you to build a temple as his sanctuary. Be strong and do it!”
11 David gave to his son Solomon the blueprints for the temple porch,[n] its buildings, its treasuries,[o] its upper areas, its inner rooms, and the room[p] for atonement. 12 He gave him[q] the blueprints of all he envisioned[r] for the courts of the Lord’s temple, all the surrounding rooms, the storehouses of God’s temple, and the storehouses for the holy items.
13 He gave him the regulations[s] for the divisions of priests and Levites, for all the assigned responsibilities within the Lord’s temple, and for all the items used in the service of the Lord’s temple.
14 He gave him[t] the prescribed weight for all the gold items to be used in various types of service in the Lord’s temple, for all the silver items to be used in various types of service,[u] 15 for the gold lampstands and their gold lamps, including the weight of each lampstand and its lamps, for the silver lampstands, including the weight of each lampstand and its lamps, according to the prescribed use of each lampstand, 16 for the gold used in the display tables, including the amount to be used in each table, for the silver to be used in the silver tables, 17 for the pure gold used for the meat forks, bowls, and jars, for the small gold bowls, including the weight for each bowl, for the small silver bowls, including the weight for each bowl, 18 and for the refined gold of the incense altar.
20 David said to his son Solomon: “Be strong and brave! Do it! Don’t be afraid and don’t panic![aa] For the Lord God, my God, is with you. He will not leave you or abandon you before all the work for the service of the Lord’s temple is finished. 21 Here are the divisions of the priests and Levites who will perform all the service of God’s temple. All the willing and skilled men are ready to assist you in all the work and perform their service.[ab] The officials and all the people are ready to follow your instructions.”[ac]
The People Contribute to the Project
29 King David said to the entire assembly: “My son Solomon, the one whom God has chosen, is just an inexperienced young man,[ad] and the task is great, for this palace is not for man, but for the Lord God. 2 So I have made every effort[ae] to provide what is needed for the temple of my God, including the gold, silver, bronze, iron, wood,[af] as well as a large amount of onyx, settings of antimony and other stones, all kinds of precious stones, and alabaster. 3 Now, to show my commitment to the temple of my God, I donate my personal treasure of gold and silver to the temple of my God, in addition to all that I have already supplied for this holy temple. 4 This includes 3,000 talents[ag] of gold from Ophir and 7,000 talents of refined silver for overlaying the walls of the buildings, 5 for gold and silver items, and for all the work of the craftsmen. Who else wants to contribute to the Lord today?”
6 The leaders of the families, the leaders of the Israelite tribes, the commanders of units of a thousand and a hundred, and the supervisors of the king’s work contributed willingly. 7 They donated for the service of God’s temple 5,000 talents[ah] and 10,000 darics[ai] of gold, 10,000 talents of silver, 18,000 talents of bronze, and 100,000 talents of iron. 8 All who possessed precious[aj] stones donated them to the treasury of the Lord’s temple, which was under the supervision of Jehiel the Gershonite. 9 The people were delighted with their donations, for they contributed to the Lord with a willing attitude;[ak] King David was also very happy.[al]
David Praises the Lord
10 David praised the Lord before the entire assembly:[am]
“O Lord God of our father Israel, you deserve praise forevermore! 11 O Lord, you are great, mighty, majestic, magnificent, glorious, and sovereign[an] over all the sky and earth! You, Lord, have dominion and exalt yourself as the ruler[ao] of all. 12 You are the source of wealth and honor;[ap] you rule over all. You possess strength and might to magnify and give strength to all.[aq] 13 Now, our God, we give thanks to you and praise your majestic name!
14 “But who am I and who are my people, that we should be in a position to contribute this much?[ar] Indeed, everything comes from you, and we have simply given back to you what is yours.[as] 15 For we are resident foreigners and temporary settlers[at] in your presence, as all our ancestors were;[au] our days are like a shadow on the earth, without security.[av] 16 O Lord our God, all this wealth, which we have collected to build a temple for you to honor your holy name, comes from you; it all belongs to you. 17 I know, my God, that you examine thoughts[aw] and are pleased with integrity. With pure motives[ax] I contribute all this; and now I look with joy as your people who have gathered here contribute to you. 18 O Lord God of our ancestors Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, always maintain these motives of your people and keep them devoted to you.[ay] 19 Make my son Solomon willing to obey your commands, rules, and regulations, and to complete building the palace for which I have made preparations.”[az]
20 David told the entire assembly: “Praise the Lord your God!” So the entire assembly praised the Lord God of their ancestors; they bowed down and stretched out flat on the ground before the Lord and the king.
David Designates Solomon King
21 The next day they made sacrifices and offered burnt sacrifices to the Lord (1,000 bulls, 1,000 rams, 1,000 lambs), along with their accompanying drink offerings and many other sacrifices for all Israel. 22 They held a feast[ba] before the Lord that day and celebrated.[bb]
Then they designated Solomon, David’s son, as king a second time;[bc] before the Lord they anointed him as ruler and Zadok as priest. 23 Solomon sat on the Lord’s throne as king in place of his father David; he was successful and all Israel was loyal to him.[bd] 24 All the officers and warriors, as well as all of King David’s sons, pledged their allegiance to King Solomon.[be] 25 The Lord greatly magnified Solomon before all Israel and bestowed on him greater majesty than any king of Israel before him.[bf]
David’s Reign Comes to an End
26 David son of Jesse reigned over all Israel. 27 He reigned over Israel forty years; he reigned in Hebron seven years and in Jerusalem thirty-three years. 28 He died at a good old age, having enjoyed long life, wealth, and honor.[bg] His son Solomon succeeded him. 29 King David’s accomplishments, from start to finish, are recorded in the Annals of Samuel the prophet, the Annals of Nathan the prophet, and the Annals of Gad the prophet.[bh] 30 Recorded there are all the facts about his reign and accomplishments, and an account of the events that involved him, Israel, and all the neighboring kingdoms.[bi]
- 1 Chronicles 28:2 tn Heb “I, [it was] with my heart to build a house of rest for the ark of the covenant of the Lord and for a stool of the feet of our God.”
- 1 Chronicles 28:3 tn Heb “for my name.”
- 1 Chronicles 28:4 tn Heb “out of all the house of my father to become king over all Israel permanently.”
- 1 Chronicles 28:4 tn Or “for.”
- 1 Chronicles 28:4 tn Heb “and among the sons of my father he desired to make me king over all Israel.”
- 1 Chronicles 28:5 tn Heb “from all my sons, for many sons the Lord has given to me, he chose Solomon my son to sit on the throne of the kingdom of the Lord over Israel.”
- 1 Chronicles 28:7 tn Heb “if he is strong to do my commands and my regulations like this day.”
- 1 Chronicles 28:8 tn The words “I say this” are not in the Hebrew text, but are supplied in the translation for clarity and for stylistic reasons.
- 1 Chronicles 28:8 tn Heb “Keep and seek”
- 1 Chronicles 28:9 tn Heb “know.”
- 1 Chronicles 28:9 tn Heb “with a complete heart and a willing being.”
- 1 Chronicles 28:9 tn Heb “he will allow himself to be found by you.”
- 1 Chronicles 28:10 tn Heb “see.”
- 1 Chronicles 28:11 tn Heb “for the porch.” The word “temple” was supplied in the translation for clarity.
- 1 Chronicles 28:11 tn Or “storerooms.”
- 1 Chronicles 28:11 tn Heb “house.”
- 1 Chronicles 28:12 tn The words “he gave him” are supplied in the translation for clarity and for stylistic reasons.
- 1 Chronicles 28:12 tn Heb “the pattern of all which was in the spirit with him.”
- 1 Chronicles 28:13 tn The words “he gave him the regulations” are supplied in the translation for clarity and for stylistic reasons.
- 1 Chronicles 28:14 tn The words “he gave him” are supplied in the translation for clarity and for stylistic reasons.
- 1 Chronicles 28:14 tn Heb “for the gold, by the weight, for the gold, for all the items of service and service, for all the items of silver by weight for all the items of service and service.”
- 1 Chronicles 28:18 tn The words “he gave him” are supplied in the translation for clarity and for stylistic reasons.
- 1 Chronicles 28:18 tc The Hebrew text reads מֶרְכָּבָה (merkavah, “chariot”), but the final he (ה) is probably dittographic—note the prefixed he (ה) on the immediately following word. It is preferable to read מֶרְכָּב (merkav, “seat”).
- 1 Chronicles 28:18 tc The Hebrew text does not have “their wings,” but the word כְּנָפַיִם (kenafayim, “wings”) has probably been accidentally omitted by homoioteleuton. Note that the immediately preceding לְפֹרְשִׂים (leforsim) also ends in mem (ם).
- 1 Chronicles 28:19 tn The words “David said” are supplied in the translation for clarification and for stylistic reasons.
- 1 Chronicles 28:19 tn Heb “the whole in writing from the hand of the Lord upon me, he gave insight [for] all the workings of the plan.”
- 1 Chronicles 28:20 tn Or perhaps, “don’t be discouraged.”
- 1 Chronicles 28:21 tn Heb “and with you in all work, for every willing [one] in skill for all service.”
- 1 Chronicles 28:21 tn Heb “and the officials and all the people to all your words.”
- 1 Chronicles 29:1 tn Heb “a young man and tender.”
- 1 Chronicles 29:2 tn Heb “and according to all my strength.”
- 1 Chronicles 29:2 tn Heb “the gold for the gold, and the silver for the silver, and the bronze for the bronze, the iron for the iron, and the wood for the wood.”
- 1 Chronicles 29:4 tn See the note on the word “talents” in 19:6. Using the “light” standard talent of 67.3 lbs. (30.6 kg) as the standard for calculation, David had supplied 101 tons (91,800 kg) of gold and 235.5 tons (214,200 kg) of silver.
- 1 Chronicles 29:7 tn See the note on the word “talents” in 19:6. Using the “light” standard talent of 67.3 lbs. (30.6 kg) as the standard for calculation, the people donated 168.3 tons (153,000 kg) of gold, 336.5 tons (306,000 kg) of silver, 605.7 tons (550,800 kg) of bronze, and 3,365 tons (3,060,000 kg) of iron.
- 1 Chronicles 29:7 tn On the “daric” as a unit of measure, see BDB 204 s.v. דַּרְכְּמוֹן. Some have regarded the daric as a minted coin, perhaps even referring to the Greek drachma, but this is less likely.sn The daric was a unit of weight perhaps equal to between 8 and 9 grams (just under one-third of an ounce), so 10,000 darics of gold would weigh between 80 and 90 kilograms (between 176 and 198 pounds).
- 1 Chronicles 29:8 tn The word “precious” is supplied in the translation for clarification.
- 1 Chronicles 29:9 tn Heb “with a complete heart.”
- 1 Chronicles 29:9 tn Heb “And also David the king rejoiced with great joy.”
- 1 Chronicles 29:10 tn Heb “assembly, and David said.” The words “and David said” are redundant according to contemporary English style and have not been included in the translation.
- 1 Chronicles 29:11 tn The words “and sovereign” are added in the translation for clarification and for stylistic reasons.
- 1 Chronicles 29:11 tn Heb “head.”
- 1 Chronicles 29:12 tn Heb “wealth and honor [are] from before you.”
- 1 Chronicles 29:12 tn Heb “and in your hand [is] strength and might, and [it is] in your hand to magnify and to give strength to all.”
- 1 Chronicles 29:14 tn Heb “that we should retain strength to contribute like this.”
- 1 Chronicles 29:14 tn Heb “and from you we have given to you.”
- 1 Chronicles 29:15 tn The Hebrew terms ger (גֵּר; “resident foreigner”) and toshav (תּוֹשָׁב; “resident/dweller”) have similar meanings. They are not used here with the technical distinctions of most references in Mosaic Law. 1 Chron 29:15 takes up this language from Lev 25:23 where the terms emphasize that Israel would be a guest on God’s land. This is a privileged but dependent position; they did not own the land. Cf. also Ps 39:12 and Gen 23:4.
- 1 Chronicles 29:15 tn Heb “fathers” (also in vv. 18, 20).
- 1 Chronicles 29:15 tn Or perhaps “hope.”
- 1 Chronicles 29:17 tn Heb “a heart.”
- 1 Chronicles 29:17 tn Heb “with integrity of heart.”
- 1 Chronicles 29:18 tn Heb “keep this permanently with respect to the motive of the thoughts of the heart of your people, and make firm their heart to you.”
- 1 Chronicles 29:19 tn Heb “and to Solomon my son give a complete heart to keep your commands, your rules and your regulations, and to do everything, and to build the palace [for] which I have prepared.”
- 1 Chronicles 29:22 tn Heb “they ate and drank.”
- 1 Chronicles 29:22 tn Heb “with great joy.”
- 1 Chronicles 29:22 sn See 1 Chr 23:1, where David had previously designated Solomon as king over Israel.
- 1 Chronicles 29:23 tn Heb “listened to him.”
- 1 Chronicles 29:24 tn Heb “placed a hand under Solomon the king.”
- 1 Chronicles 29:25 tn Heb “and gave to him glory of kingship which there was not concerning every king before him over Israel.”
- 1 Chronicles 29:28 tn Heb “satisfied with days, wealth, and honor.”
- 1 Chronicles 29:29 tn Heb “and the events of David the king, the former and the latter, look they are written in the annals of Samuel the seer, and in the annals of Nathan the prophet, and in the annals of Gad the seer.”
- 1 Chronicles 29:30 tn Heb “with all his reign and his might, and the times which passed over him and over Israel and over all the kingdoms of the lands.”
6 For while we were still helpless, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly. 7 (For rarely will anyone die for a righteous person, though for a good person perhaps someone might possibly dare to die.)[a] 8 But God demonstrates his own love for us, in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us. 9 Much more then, because we have now been declared righteous[b] by his blood,[c] we will be saved through him from God’s wrath.[d] 10 For if while we were enemies we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son, how much more, since we have been reconciled, will we be saved by his life? 11 Not[e] only this, but we also rejoice[f] in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received this reconciliation.
The Amplification of Justification
12 So then, just as sin entered the world through one man and death through sin, and so death spread to all people[g] because[h] all sinned— 13 for before the law was given,[i] sin was in the world, but there is no accounting for sin[j] when there is no law. 14 Yet death reigned from Adam until Moses even over those who did not sin in the same way that Adam (who is a type[k] of the coming one) transgressed.[l] 15 But the gracious gift is not like the transgression.[m] For if the many died through the transgression of the one man,[n] how much more did the grace of God and the gift by the grace of the one man Jesus Christ multiply to the many! 16 And the gift is not like the one who sinned.[o] For judgment, resulting from the one transgression,[p] led to condemnation, but[q] the gracious gift from the many failures[r] led to justification. 17 For if, by the transgression of the one man,[s] death reigned through the one, how much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one, Jesus Christ!
18 Consequently,[t] just as condemnation[u] for all people[v] came[w] through one transgression,[x] so too through the one righteous act[y] came righteousness leading to life[z] for all people. 19 For just as through the disobedience of the one man[aa] many[ab] were constituted sinners, so also through the obedience of one man[ac] many[ad] will be constituted righteous. 20 Now the law came in[ae] so that the transgression[af] may increase, but where sin increased, grace multiplied all the more, 21 so that just as sin reigned in death, so also grace will reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.
- Romans 5:7 sn Verse 7 forms something of a parenthetical comment in Paul’s argument.
- Romans 5:9 tn Grk “having now been declared righteous.” The participle δικαιωθέντες (dikaiōthentes) has been translated as a causal adverbial participle.
- Romans 5:9 tn Or, according to BDF §219.3, “at the price of his blood.”
- Romans 5:9 tn Grk “the wrath,” referring to God’s wrath as v. 10 shows.
- Romans 5:11 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Romans 5:11 tn Or “exult, boast.”
- Romans 5:12 tn Here ἀνθρώπους (anthrōpous) has been translated as a generic (“people”) since both men and women are clearly intended in this context.
- Romans 5:12 tn The translation of the phrase ἐφ᾿ ᾧ (eph hō) has been heavily debated. For a discussion of all the possibilities, see C. E. B. Cranfield, “On Some of the Problems in the Interpretation of Romans 5.12,” SJT 22 (1969): 324-41. Only a few of the major options can be mentioned here: (1) the phrase can be taken as a relative clause in which the pronoun refers to Adam, “death spread to all people in whom [Adam] all sinned.” (2) The phrase can be taken with consecutive (resultative) force, meaning “death spread to all people with the result that all sinned.” (3) Others take the phrase as causal in force: “death spread to all people because all sinned.”
- Romans 5:13 tn Grk “for before the law.”
- Romans 5:13 tn Or “sin is not reckoned.”
- Romans 5:14 tn Or “pattern.”
- Romans 5:14 tn Or “disobeyed”; Grk “in the likeness of Adam’s transgression.”
- Romans 5:15 tn Grk “but not as the transgression, so also [is] the gracious gift.”
- Romans 5:15 sn Here the one man refers to Adam (cf. 5:14).
- Romans 5:16 tn Grk “and not as through the one who sinned [is] the gift.”
- Romans 5:16 tn The word “transgression” is not in the Greek text at this point, but has been supplied for clarity.
- Romans 5:16 tn Greek emphasizes the contrast between these two clauses more than can be easily expressed in English.
- Romans 5:16 tn Or “falls, trespasses,” the same word used in vv. 15, 17, 18, 20.
- Romans 5:17 sn Here the one man refers to Adam (cf. 5:14).
- Romans 5:18 tn There is a double connective here that cannot be easily preserved in English: “consequently therefore,” emphasizing the conclusion of what he has been arguing.
- Romans 5:18 tn Grk “[it is] unto condemnation for all people.”
- Romans 5:18 tn Here ἀνθρώπους (anthrōpous) has been translated as a generic (“people”) since both men and women are clearly intended in this context.
- Romans 5:18 tn There are no verbs in the Greek text of v. 18, forcing translators to supply phrases like “came through one transgression,” “resulted from one transgression,” etc.
- Romans 5:18 sn One transgression refers to the sin of Adam in Gen 3:1-24.
- Romans 5:18 sn The one righteous act refers to Jesus’ death on the cross.
- Romans 5:18 tn Grk “righteousness of life.”
- Romans 5:19 sn Here the one man refers to Adam (cf. 5:14).
- Romans 5:19 tn Grk “the many.”
- Romans 5:19 sn One man refers here to Jesus Christ.
- Romans 5:19 tn Grk “the many.”
- Romans 5:20 tn Grk “slipped in.”
- Romans 5:20 tn Or “trespass.”
A psalm of David.
15 Lord, who may be a guest in your home?[b]
Who may live on your holy hill?[c]
2 Whoever lives a blameless life,[d]
does what is right,
and speaks honestly.[e]
3 He[f] does not slander,[g]
or do harm to others,[h]
or insult his neighbor.[i]
4 He despises a reprobate,[j]
but honors the Lord’s loyal followers.[k]
He makes firm commitments and does not renege on his promise.[l]
5 He does not charge interest when he lends his money.[m]
He does not take bribes to testify against the innocent.[n]
The one who lives like this[o] will never be shaken.
- Psalm 15:1 sn Psalm 15. This psalm describes the character qualities that one must possess to be allowed access to the divine presence.
- Psalm 15:1 tn Heb “Who may live as a resident foreigner in your tent?”
- Psalm 15:1 sn In this context the Lord’s holy hill probably refers to Zion/Jerusalem. See Isa 66:20; Joel 2:1; 3:17; Zech 8:3; Pss 2:6; 43:3; 48:1; 87:1; Dan 9:16.
- Psalm 15:2 tn Heb “one who walks blamelessly.”
- Psalm 15:2 tn Heb “one who speaks truth in his heart”; or “one who speaks truth [that is] in his heart.” This apparently refers to formulating a truthful statement in one’s mind and then honestly revealing that statement in one’s speech.
- Psalm 15:3 sn Hebrew literature often assumes and reflects the male-oriented perspective of ancient Israelite society. The principle of the psalm is certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender or age.
- Psalm 15:3 tn Heb “he does not slander upon his tongue.” For another example of רָגַל (ragal, “slander”) see 2 Sam 19:28.
- Psalm 15:3 tn Or “his fellow.”
- Psalm 15:3 tn Heb “and he does not lift up an insult against one who is near to him.”
- Psalm 15:4 tn Heb “despised in his eyes [is] a rejected [one].” The Hebrew term נִמְאָס (nimʾas, “rejected [one]”) apparently refers here to one who has been rejected by God because of his godless behavior. It stands in contrast to “those who fear God” in the following line.
- Psalm 15:4 tn Heb “those who fear the Lord.” The one who fears the Lord respects his sovereignty and obeys his commandments. See Ps 128:1; Prov 14:2.
- Psalm 15:4 tn Heb “he takes an oath to do harm and does not change.” The phrase “to do harm” cannot mean “do harm to others,” for the preceding verse clearly characterizes this individual as one who does not harm others. In this context the phrase must refer to an oath to which a self-imprecation is attached. The godly individual takes his commitments to others so seriously he is willing to “swear to his own hurt.” For an example of such an oath, see Ruth 1:16-17.
- Psalm 15:5 sn He does not charge interest. Such an individual is truly generous, and not simply concerned with making a profit.
- Psalm 15:5 tn Heb “a bribe against the innocent he does not take.” For other texts condemning the practice of a judge or witness taking a bribe, see Exod 23:8; Deut 16:19; 27:25; 1 Sam 8:3; Ezek 22:12; Prov 17:23.
- Psalm 15:5 tn Heb “does these things.”
18 Discipline your child, for[a] there is hope,
but do not set your heart on causing his death.[b]
19 A person with great anger bears the penalty,[c]
but if you deliver him from it once, you will have to do it again.[d]
- Proverbs 19:18 tn The translation understands כִּי (ki) as causal. Some prefer to take כִּי as temporal and translate, “while there is hope” (so KJV, NASB, NCV, NRSV, NLT), meaning that discipline should be administered when the child is young and easily guided. In the causal reading of כִּי, the idea seems to be that children should be disciplined because change is possible due to their youth and the fact that they are not set in their ways.
- Proverbs 19:18 tc The word הֲמִיתוֹ (hamito) is the Hiphil infinitive construct of מוּת (mut, “to die”) plus third masculine singular suffix, “to cause/allow his death.” The LXX gives “do not lift up your soul to excess,” perhaps having read חֵמוֹת (khemot, “anger, rage”) with a ח (het) instead of a ה (he) and without the suffix. The KJV rendered as “let not thy soul spare for his crying.” Perhaps they read as if from the similar sounding root מוּט (mut, “to shudder,” as in “at making him shudder”) or from the verb הָמָה (hamah, “to murmur, be in commotion”), whose Qal infinitive construct with suffix would be הֲמוֹתוֹ (hamoto). It is not clear that either of these latter roots should be associated with crying.tn The expression “lift up your soul” is unclear. It may mean “to set your heart on something” as in determining to do it, perhaps even determining a course of action that leads to unintended results. Or it may mean “to remove your soul from something,” as in withdrawing from a course of action. Several possibilities arise for understanding this verse. The two most likely are to “not set your heart on causing (i.e., contributing to) his death” or to “not withdraw your soul [from disciplining as you should] resulting in causing his death.” These have the same effect of warning against failing to discipline to the ruin of the undisciplined child. T. Longman calls this the most natural reading, consistent with Prov 23:13-14 (Proverbs 370). Less likely, it may warn against being extreme in punishment (any capital punishment should go before the elders, see Deut 21:18-21).
- Proverbs 19:19 sn The Hebrew word means “indemnity, fine”; this suggests that the trouble could be legal, and the angry person has to pay for it.
- Proverbs 19:19 tn The second colon of the verse is very difficult, and there have been many proposals as to its meaning: (1) “If you save [your enemy], you will add [good to yourself]”; (2) “If you save [your son by chastening], you may continue [chastisement and so educate him]”; (3) “If you deliver [him by paying the fine for him once], you will have to do it again”; (4) “If you save [him this time], you will have to increase [the punishment later on].” All interpretations have to supply a considerable amount of material (indicated by brackets). Many English versions are similar to (3).