Consecration of the Priests
29 “This is what you shall do to consecrate Aaron and his sons so that they may serve Me as priests: take one young bull and two rams, without blemish, 2 and unleavened bread and unleavened cakes mixed with oil, and unleavened wafers spread with oil; you shall make them of fine wheat flour. 3 You shall put them in one basket, and present them in the basket along with the bull and the two rams. 4 Then bring Aaron and his sons to the doorway of the Tent of Meeting [out where the basin is] and wash them with water. 5 Then you shall take the garments, and put on Aaron the tunic and the robe of the ephod and the ephod and the breastpiece, and wrap him with the skillfully woven sash of the ephod; 6 and you shall put the turban on his head and put the holy crown on the turban. 7 Then you shall take the anointing oil and pour it on his head and anoint him. 8 You shall bring his sons and put tunics on them. 9 And you shall wrap them with sashes, Aaron and his sons, and put the [ornamental] caps on them; and the priest’s office shall be theirs by a perpetual statute. So you shall ordain Aaron and his sons.
10 “Then you shall bring the bull before the Tent of Meeting, and Aaron and his sons shall [a]lay their hands on the bull’s head. 11 Then you shall kill the bull before the Lord by the doorway of the Tent of Meeting. 12 And you shall take some of the blood of the bull and with your finger put it on the horns of the altar [of burnt offering], and you shall pour out the remainder of the blood at the base of the altar. 13 You shall take all the fat that covers the intestines and the lobe of the liver, and the two kidneys and the fat that is on them, and offer them up in smoke on the altar. 14 But the meat of the bull, its hide, and the contents of its intestines you shall burn in the fire outside the camp; it is a sin offering.(A)
15 “And you shall take one of the rams, and Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands on the head of the ram; 16 then you shall kill the ram and you shall take its blood and sprinkle it around the altar [of burnt offering]. 17 Then you shall cut the ram into pieces, and wash its intestines and legs, and place them with its pieces and its head, 18 and you shall burn the whole ram on the altar. It is a burnt offering to the Lord: it is a sweet and soothing aroma, an offering by fire to the Lord.
19 “Then you shall take the other ram, and Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands on the head of the ram. 20 Then you shall kill the ram, and take some of its blood and put it on the tip of the right ears of Aaron and his sons and on the thumbs of their right hands and on the big toes of their right feet, and sprinkle the [rest of the] blood around on the altar [of burnt offering]. 21 Then you shall take some of the blood that is on the altar and some of the anointing oil, and sprinkle it on Aaron and his garments and on his sons and their garments. Now Aaron and his garments and his sons and their garments shall be consecrated (dedicated, made holy, declared sacred for God’s purpose).
22 “You shall also take the fat of the ram, the fat tail, the fat that covers the intestines, the lobe of the liver, the two kidneys with the fat that is on them, and the right thigh; (for it is a ram of ordination), 23 and one loaf of bread and one cake of oiled bread and one wafer out of the basket of the unleavened bread that is before the Lord; 24 and you shall put all these in the hands of Aaron and his sons, and wave them as a [b]wave offering before the Lord. 25 Then you shall take them from their hands, add them to the burnt offering, and burn them on the altar for a sweet and soothing aroma before the Lord; it is an offering by fire to the Lord.
26 “Then you shall take the breast of the ram of Aaron’s ordination, and wave it as a wave offering before the Lord; and it shall be your (Moses) portion. 27 You shall consecrate the waved breast offering [of the ram] used in the ordination and the waved thigh offering of the priests’ portion, since it is [a contribution] for Aaron and for his sons. 28 It shall be for Aaron and his sons as their due portion from the Israelites forever, for it is a [c]heave offering. It shall be a heave offering to the Lord from the Israelites from the sacrifices of their peace offerings.
29 “The holy garments of Aaron shall be for his sons after him, to be anointed and ordained in them. 30 That son who is [high] priest in his place shall put them on [each day for] seven days when he comes into the Tent of Meeting to minister in the Holy Place.
Food of the Priests
31 “You shall take the ram of the ordination and boil its meat in a holy place. 32 Aaron and his sons shall eat the meat of the ram and the bread in the basket, at the doorway of the Tent of Meeting. 33 They shall eat those things by which atonement was made at their ordination and consecration; but a layman shall not eat them, because they are holy [that is, set apart to the worship of God]. 34 And if any of the meat of ordination or the bread remains until morning, you shall burn it in the fire; it shall not be eaten, because it is holy.
35 “So you shall do to Aaron and to his sons in accordance with all I have commanded you; during seven days you are to ordain them. 36 You shall offer a bull every day as a sin offering for atonement. You shall cleanse the altar from sin when you make atonement for it, and you shall anoint it to consecrate it [for God’s sacred purpose]. 37 For seven days you shall make atonement for the altar [of burnt offering] and consecrate it; then the altar shall be most holy. Whatever touches the altar must be holy (set apart for God’s service).
38 “Now this is what you shall offer on the altar: two one year old lambs shall be offered each day, continuously. 39 One lamb you shall offer in the morning and the other lamb [d]at twilight; 40 and with the one lamb there shall be one-tenth of a measure of fine flour mixed with one-fourth of a hin of beaten [olive] oil, and one-fourth of a hin of wine for a drink offering [to be poured out]. 41 And the other lamb you shall offer at twilight, and do with it as with the grain offering of the morning and with the drink offering, for a sweet and soothing aroma [to appease God], an offering by fire to the Lord. 42 This will be a continual burnt offering throughout your generations at the doorway of the Tent of Meeting before the Lord, where I will meet with you, to speak to you there. 43 There I will meet with the Israelites, and the Tent of Meeting shall be [e]sanctified by My glory [the [f]Shekinah, God’s dwelling presence]. 44 I will sanctify the Tent of Meeting and the altar [of burnt offering]; also I will sanctify Aaron and his sons to serve as priests to Me. 45 I will dwell among the sons of Israel and be their God. 46 They shall know [from personal experience] and acknowledge that I am the Lord their God who brought them out of the land of Egypt so that I might dwell among them; I am the Lord their God.
The Altar of Incense
30 “You shall make an altar upon which to burn incense; you shall make it of acacia wood. 2 It shall be a cubit long and a cubit wide. It shall be square and it shall be two cubits high. Its horns of one piece with it. 3 You shall overlay it with pure gold, its top and its sides all around, and its horns; and you shall make a gold molding all around it. 4 You shall make two gold rings under its molding, make them on the two side walls—on opposite sides—they shall be holders for the poles with which to carry it. 5 You shall make the poles of acacia wood overlaid with gold. 6 You shall put the altar of incense [in the Holy Place] in front and outside of the veil that screens the ark of the [g]Testimony, before the mercy seat that is over the Testimony, where I will meet with you. 7 Aaron shall burn sweet and fragrant incense on it; he shall burn it every morning when he trims and tends the lamps.(B) 8 When Aaron sets up the lamps at twilight, he shall burn incense, a perpetual incense before the Lord throughout your generations. 9 You shall not offer any strange incense on this altar, or burnt offering or meal offering; you shall not pour out a drink offering on it. 10 Once a year Aaron shall make atonement [for sin] on its horns. He shall make atonement on it with the blood of the sin offering of atonement once a year throughout your generations. It is most holy to the Lord.”
- Exodus 29:10 By laying his hands on the head of the sacrifice the offerer identified himself with it and through its death it became an atonement or covering for his sin. Because the sacrifice “covered” his sin it placed the offerer in a right relationship with God, just as later under the new covenant the perfection and sacrifice of the Christ would cover (atone for) the imperfection and sin of those who identified with Him and accepted Him as Savior.
- Exodus 29:24 The wave (undulation, wavelike) offering and the heave (lifted up, raised) offering were named after their manner of presentation. These were either voluntary gifts or contributions required for a specific religious purpose such as the atonement offering. It was understood that God received these offerings and then designated them for a religious purpose such as the support of the priests and their families, or the preparation and maintenance of the tabernacle.
- Exodus 29:28 See note v 24.
- Exodus 29:39 See note 12:6.
- Exodus 29:43 Only God can sanctify (set apart) something for His divine purpose. Man can consecrate (dedicate) something as sacred, that is, declare it separated from secular use.
- Exodus 29:43 This Hebrew word is not found in the Bible, but was used by the rabbis to describe the presence of God. Its basic meaning is “royal residence.” Among other things, the rabbis said that the Shekinah is present where ten people pray together, or where three people are sitting as a court of judges.
- Exodus 30:6 This is a reference to the two stone tablets inscribed by God that will be given to Moses (31:18).
14 Then one of the twelve [disciples], who was called Judas Iscariot, went to the chief priests 15 and said, “What are you willing to give me if I hand Jesus over to you?” And they weighed out [a]thirty pieces of silver.(A) 16 And from that moment Judas began looking for an opportune time to betray Jesus.(B)
17 Now on the first day of [b]Unleavened Bread (Passover Week) the disciples came to Jesus and asked, “Where do You want us to prepare for You to eat the Passover?”(C) 18 He said, “Go into the city to [c]a certain man, and say to him, ‘The Teacher says, “My time [to suffer and atone for sin] is near; I am to keep the Passover at your house with My disciples.”’” 19 [Accordingly] the disciples did as Jesus had directed them, and they prepared the Passover.(D)
The Last Passover
20 When evening came, Jesus was reclining at the table with the twelve disciples.(E) 21 And as they were eating, He said, “I assure you and most solemnly say to you that one of you will betray Me.” 22 Being deeply grieved and extremely distressed, each one of them began to say to Him, “Surely not I, Lord?” 23 Jesus answered, “He who has dipped his hand in the bowl with Me [as a [d]pretense of friendship] will betray Me. 24 The Son of Man is to go [to the cross], just as it is written [in Scripture] of Him; but woe (judgment is coming) to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been good for that man if he had never been born.”(F) 25 And Judas, the betrayer, said, “Surely it is not I, Rabbi?” Jesus said to him, “[e]You have said it yourself.”
The Lord’s Supper Instituted
26 Now as they were eating Jesus took bread, and after [f]blessing it, He broke it and gave it to the disciples, and said, “Take, eat; this is My body.”(G) 27 And when He had taken a cup and [g]given thanks, He gave it to them, saying, “Drink from it, all of you; 28 for this is My blood of the [new and better] covenant, which [ratifies the agreement and] is being poured out for many [as a [h]substitutionary atonement] for the forgiveness of sins.(H) 29 But I say to you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you in My Father’s kingdom.”
30 After singing a [i]hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.
31 Then Jesus said to them, “You will all fall away because of Me this night [disillusioned about Me, confused, and some even ashamed of Me], for it is written [in the Scriptures], ‘I will strike the Shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be scattered.’(I) 32 But after I am raised [to life], I will go ahead of you [leading the way] to Galilee.” 33 Peter replied to Him, “Though they all fall away because of You [and doubt and disown You], I will never fall away!”(J) 34 Jesus said to him, “I assure you and most solemnly say to you, this night, before a rooster crows, you will [completely] deny Me three times.” 35 Peter said to Jesus, “Even if I have to die with You, I will not deny You!” And all the disciples said the same thing.
The Garden of Gethsemane
36 Then Jesus came with them to a place called [j]Gethsemane (olive-press), and He told His disciples, “Sit here while I go over there and pray.”(K) 37 And taking with Him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee [James and John], He began to be grieved and greatly distressed. 38 Then He said to them, “My soul is deeply grieved, so that I am almost dying of sorrow. Stay here and stay awake and keep watch with Me.”
39 And after going a little farther, He fell face down and prayed, saying, “My Father, if it is possible [that is, consistent with Your will], let this cup [k]pass from Me; yet not as I will, but as You will.” 40 And He came to the disciples and found them sleeping, and said to Peter, “So, you men could not stay awake and keep watch with Me for one hour? 41 Keep actively watching and praying that you may not come into temptation; the spirit is willing, but the [l]body is weak.”
42 He went away a second time and prayed, saying, “My Father, if this cannot pass away unless I drink it, Your will be done.” 43 Again He came and found them sleeping, for their eyes were heavy. 44 So, leaving them again, He went away and prayed for the third time, saying the same words once more. 45 Then He returned to the disciples and said to them, “Are you still sleeping and resting? Listen, [m]the hour [of My sacrifice] is at hand and the Son of Man is being betrayed into the hands of sinners [whose way and nature is to oppose God]. 46 Get up, let us go. Look, My betrayer is near!”
- Matthew 26:15 Probably about a month’s wages for a laborer.
- Matthew 26:17 This remembrance lasted eight days. The Passover lambs were selected on the tenth of Nisan (March/April) and sacrificed on the fourteenth of Nisan (the first day of the feast). The Passover meal was eaten that same night (15 Nisan). This was immediately followed by the Feast of Unleavened Bread (15-21 Nisan). The terms “Passover” and “The Feast of Unleavened Bread” were used interchangeably.
- Matthew 26:18 Tradition identifies this man as Mark’s father.
- Matthew 26:23 In the ancient culture sharing a meal in this way was a confirmation of friendship and goodwill.
- Matthew 26:25 “You” is emphatic in the Greek text.
- Matthew 26:26 The customary blessing spoken over the bread in the Passover meal was, “Blessed are you, O Lord our God, King of the universe, who brings forth bread from the earth.”
- Matthew 26:27 Giving thanks consisted of two benedictions, one over the wine (“Blessed are You, Lord our God, who has created the fruit of the vine!”) and one for the return of the Feast Day with all it implied, as well as being allowed once more to witness it.
- Matthew 26:28 By laying his hands on the head of the sacrifice the one offering the sacrifice identified himself with it and through its death it became an atonement or covering for his sin. Because the unblemished sacrifice “covered” his sin, it placed the one offering the sacrifice in a right relationship with God, just as later under the new covenant the perfection and sacrifice of Christ would cover (atone for) the imperfection and sin of those who identified with Him and accepted Him as Savior.
- Matthew 26:30 The Hallel psalms (113-118) were sung at Passover.
- Matthew 26:36 This beautiful garden filled with now ancient olive trees still exists.
- Matthew 26:39 Jesus’ request was heard (Heb 5:7), and it is unlikely that He asked to avoid the cross. The object of His request cannot be known with certainty, but some think that He was asking for resurrection following His death. In that case, the “cup” would represent His body’s remaining in the grave, which would be contrary to the plan of salvation and prophecy regarding His resurrection (Ps 16:10; cf Acts 2:24-27). Others think that the request related to the time of separation from the Father, which He would have to endure in death (see 27:46). However, the sense of Heb 5:7 could be that the Father listened to Him intently and comforted Him, while not sparing His Son the suffering which He had destined for Him.
- Matthew 26:41 Lit flesh.
- Matthew 26:45 The time had come for Jesus’ atoning sacrificial death which would provide the way of salvation for believers.
- Matthew 26:15 : Ex 21:32; Zech 11:12
- Matthew 26:16 : Mark 14:10, 11; Luke 22:3-6; John 6:71
- Matthew 26:17 : Mark 14:12-16; Luke 22:7-13
- Matthew 26:19 : Deut 16:5-8
- Matthew 26:20 : Mark 14:17-21
- Matthew 26:24 : Ps 41:9
- Matthew 26:26 : Mark 14:22-25; Luke 22:17-20; 1 Cor 11:23-25
- Matthew 26:28 : Ex 24:6-8
- Matthew 26:31 : Zech 13:7
- Matthew 26:33 : Mark 14:29-31; Luke 22:33, 34; John 13:37, 38
- Matthew 26:36 : Mark 14:32-42; Luke 22:40-46
How great is Your goodness,
Which You have stored up for those who [reverently] fear You,
Which You have prepared for those who take refuge in You,
[a]Before the sons of man!
In the secret place of Your presence You hide them from the plots and conspiracies of man;
You keep them secretly in a shelter (pavilion) from the strife of tongues.
Blessed be the Lord,
For He has shown His marvelous favor and lovingkindness to me [when I was assailed] in a besieged city.
As for me, I said in my alarm,
“I am cut off from Your eyes.”
Nevertheless You heard the voice of my supplications (specific requests)
When I cried to You [for help].
O love the Lord, all you His godly ones!
The Lord preserves the faithful [those with moral and spiritual integrity]
And fully repays the [self-righteousness of the] arrogant.
Be strong and let your hearts take courage,
All you who wait for and confidently expect the Lord.
- Psalm 31:19 I.e. human beings.
“Counsel is mine and sound wisdom;
I am understanding, power and strength are mine.
“By me kings reign
And rulers decide and decree justice.(A)
“By me princes rule, and nobles,
All who judge and govern rightly.
“I love those who love me;
And those who seek me early and diligently will find me.(B)
“Riches and honor are with me,
Enduring wealth and righteousness (right standing with God).(C)
“My fruit is better than gold, even pure gold,
And my yield is better than choicest silver.
“I, [Wisdom, continuously] walk in the way of righteousness,
In the midst of the paths of justice,
That I may cause those who love me to inherit wealth and true riches,
And that I may fill their treasuries.
“The Lord created and possessed me at the beginning of His way,
Before His works of old [were accomplished].
“From everlasting I was established and ordained,
From the beginning, before the earth existed, [I, godly wisdom, existed].(D)
“When there were no ocean depths I was born,
When there were no fountains and springs overflowing with water.
“Before the mountains were settled,
Before the hills, I was born;(E)
While He had not yet made the earth and the fields,
Or the first of the dust of the earth.